Campezo is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. This municipality lies on the western side of the Codés mountain range. Antoñana Bujanda Orbiso Oteo Santa Cruz de Campezo/Santikurutze Kanpezu, capital of the Cuadrilla de Campezo-Montaña Alavesa comarca and main town of the municipality CAMPEZO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Laguardia is a town and municipality located in the southern province of Álava, in the north of Spain. It has a population of 1500; the place lies over a hill and it is surrounded by a wall that the King Sancho the Strong ordered to build. There are still preserved five different entries to access the city, their names are: Santa Engracia. Additionally, the streets and surroundings of Laguardia still keep a medieval atmosphere that give the city an ancient touch. Regarding the economy, its main strength is the wine industry. Indeed, the wine is processed in numerous wineries. During the Middle Ages, it appeared with names such as Leguarda, Guard, Guoardia and Laguoardia until the current name was fixed. Indeed, the full and complete name with which the town is known is La Guardia de Navarra Sonsierra. There has been some controversy about the Basque name of the town. In the late nineteenth century, the belief that before granting the "letter of villazgo" in 1164, the population of Laguardia was called Biasteri had spread.
Many people saw "Biasteri" as a name of Basque origin and folk etymologies such as "bi haitz herri" became popular. As a consequence, the term Biasteri was used as the Basque name of the town until recently. In the late twentieth century and historians reached the conclusion after some research that Biasteri was the ancient name given to the nearby town of Viñaspre, not of Laguardia. Therefore, the association made until that date was not correct, the Basque Language Academy, ruled that the Basque standard name of the town is Guardia. Laguardia has three separate neighborhoods: The Campillar, it is 7.5 km from the city center, near the Ebro River and it has 28 inhabitants. Laserna: It is 11 km from the city center and it is separated from the rest of the municipality by a meander of the river Ebro, it has 43 inhabitants. Páganos: It is 3.5 km away and it has 87 inhabitants. Laguardia possesses a rich historical past. At a place called La Hoya, there is an important archaeological site, it is a pre-Roman settlement of Celtiberian of Berona ethnic and it covers an extensive period of more than a thousand years or so since the twelfth century BC to the second century BC.
Additionally, the town received certain privileges regarding jurisdiction during the reign of the king of Navarre Sancho VI "El Sabio" in 1164. The initial demarcation covered areas from "Las Conchas de Haro" to "Soto Inigo Galindez", in the current term of Viana, it was the beginning of the community of "Villa y Tierra". New villas were created in the surroundings changing the focus of attention to other territories such as San Vicente and Viana. In any case, it was the main square of the Sonsierra of Navarra during most part of the medieval period; as mentioned above, the core of the economy in Laguardia focuses on the world of viticulture. Laguardia is the capital of one of the most famous wine regions of Rioja Alavesa. Additionally, both in Laguardia and its surroundings, a wine known as the Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja, useful to distinguish particular vines produces in some specific regions; the Wall: the high walls surrounding the town are about two meters high, They are made of stone.
It has five doors. The Church of Santa Maria de los Reyes, which in the past was a Templar monastery. Next to it, there is a tower called the Tower of Santa Torre abbey; the tower has a remarkable Gothic façade with a portico, conserved intact, the carving was finished in the fourteenth century and it was polychromed in the seventeenth. It is one of the few preserved polychrome portals in Spain; the sizes of the archivolts represent the porch tells the story of the Holy Virgin. The Church of San Juan, built in Romanesque style and completed in the Gothic style, it has an attached chapel of the eighteenth century, dedicated to the Virgin of Pilar. Its bell tower belonged to a castle; the Hermitage of Santa María de Berberana. It is Romanesque and the only church in the whole Rioja Alavesa. Plaza Mayor: It is in the center of the town. Tourists can find there both the old townhall; the latter shows on its facade the shield of the villa and a chiming clock with automata that at 12, 14, 17 and 20 hours dance to the rhythm of a typical parade of the celebrations of the town.
Renaissance Old Town Hall: It has an imperial shield of Charles V. The Capuchin convent. Prehistoric remains of a Celtic village in the town of La Hoya. Furthermore, there is a Celtic pond; the Birthplace of the fabulist Félix María de Samaniego. It is a seventeenth-century palace. Blanche of Navarre, Queen of Castile. Felix Maria Samaniego, a writer of fables, his birthplace is a house of the seventeenth century, still preserved and dedicated to wine museum. Óscar de Marcos, professional footballer. The town of Laguardia has always been known for having among its inhabitants talented musicians in all its aspects. Thus, several generations of bagpipers have led to the Day of the Piper, one of the most important festivals, held in honor of illustrious pipers of this town and its surroundings, they are an important part of the musical history of the people and their municipal band, active for 130 years. Several rock
A fronton is a two-walled or single-walled court used as a playing area for Basque pelota. The front wall of the first frontons in villages was the wall of a church; because the games being played close by, several priests would play pelota along with the villagers and got to be well-known players and served as referees in provincial or town competitions but were out of the picture when it turned into a commercialized sport. Because of the increasing popularity of the game, many churches put up signs forbidding pelota games on their porches; the games were played in town halls, but when the game turned into a popular entertainment in the region, towns started to build special frontons in open-air or closed courts. A fronton is made up of three vertical walls, named frontis; that wall has a line at a determined height named Bajo Chapa. Perpendicular to the front wall is attached another longer wall, with marks for the distance to the main wall; the number of marks depends on the type of fronton used.
Perpendicular to the side wall is the back wall. The height of the three walls must be the same for professional courts. In common rural open-air courts, the place where the back wall should be is delimited by a line on the floor. A free wall sideline is delimited to make watching the game easier for other players. In every kind of fronton, the sidelines are 4.5 m apart. This kind of court is 30 m long and is used professionally only for frontenis and paleta-rubber variants; this 36 m court is used professionally for paleta-leather and short bat variants. This 54 m court is used professionally for long bat and basket variants; this 28.5 m court has a somewhat different shape than the others: with an inclined roof all along the left wall. It allows the variants of paleta-rubber, paleta-leather and xare, it is used exclusively in the Northern Basque Country, but in some places of León and Castilla. This 100 m open-air court is used for playing Grand Chistera in France and has no side walls, the limit for play is at 80 m from the fronton.
This court is not recognised by the International Federation of Basque Pelota and cannot be used for international competitions. The marks on the fronton must create a notable contrast with the color of the field. To make the difference visible, the marks are painted; the sideline line is parallel to the side wall. This line marks the limit between the exterior; the lower zone line is 15 cm wide and the height depends on the size of the fronton. The upper zone is marked at 10 m high on the wall and the line is 15 cm wide; the squares are the lines painted on the side wall and the ground, used to mark the places of service and pasa. From square to square the distance is 3 m; the falta line is located in the fourth square. In the Olympic version, the falta is in the pasa on the fifth square; the service line is located in the fifth square in racquet, cesta punta, paleta-rubber, or in the fourth square in hand categories. Pelota mano Pelota vasca Pilota valenciana Frontenis Cesta-punta Remonte- Xare Pala corta Paleta Paleta goma Paleta cuero Paleta goma maciza Valencian frontó Basque pelota
Saint Acisclus was a martyr of Córdoba, in Hispania. His life is mentioned by Eulogius of Cordoba, he suffered martyrdom during the persecutions of Diocletian along with his sister Victoria. Their feast day is 17 November. There is doubt about the historical veracity of Victoria's existence, but both martyrs were honored in Mozarabic liturgical rites. After they were arrested and Victoria were tortured. According to tradition, Victoria was killed by arrows and Acisclus was beheaded. One 10th century passio relates that the Roman prefect of Córdoba, Dion, an "iniquitous persecutor of Christians," had Acisclus and Victoria cast into a fiery furnace. However, when he heard Acisclus and Victoria sing songs of joy from within the furnace, Dion had them bound to stones and cast into the Guadalquivir, they were soon floating unharmed on the river's surface. He suspended them over a fire; the fire, raged out of control and killed hundreds of pagans. The two saints submitted to martyrdom, having proved their point and demonstrated their faith.
Their home was turned into a church. During the ninth century, some of the Martyrs of Córdoba were associated with this church, including Perfectus, a priest there. Acisclus, along with his sister Victoria, are patron saints of Córdoba, their cult was venerated throughout Hispania and southern France in Provence. There was a minor church dedicated to Saint Acisclus on the slopes of Montserrat. Acisclus and Victoria are represented in art as a young woman crowned with roses. Saint of the Day: Acisclus Martyrdom without Miracles, Christian Martyrs in Muslim Hispania "Patronage and Piety: Montserrat and the Royal House of Medieval Catalonia-Aragon" Detailed history of the abbey "Passio SS. Martyrum Aciscli & Victoriae", in Enrique Florez, España Sagrada, X, 485-491. "Acislus and Victoria" at the Christian Iconography website CatholicSaints Vatican.va
Arratzua-Ubarrundia is a valley and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. It is located just a few kilometers north of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Zurbano ARRAZUA-UBARRUNDIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Kingdom of Navarre
The Kingdom of Navarre the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France. The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista; the kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula. The city of Pamplona, had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or declared ruler of the area around Pamplona in opposition to Frankish expansion into the region as vassal to the Córdoba Emirate; this polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century.
A series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its territory and to periods of rule by the kings of Aragon and France. In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king of Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the southern part of the kingdom by the Crown of Castile in 1512, it would become part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France; the monarchs of this unified state took the title "King of France and Navarre" until its fall in the French Revolution, again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830. Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre comprise the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja. There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of Latin navarros appears in Eginhard's chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great.
Other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name of Navarra/Nafarroa/Naparroa: Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolor", which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba/Castilian nava + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba as not Basque in origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The kingdom originated in the southern side of the western Pyrenees, in the flatlands around the city of Pamplona. According to Roman geographers such as Pliny the Elder and Livy, these regions were inhabited by the Vascones and other related Vasconic-Aquitanian tribes, a pre-Indo-European group of peoples who inhabited the southern slopes of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay; these tribes spoke an archaic version of the Basque language known by linguistics as Proto-Basque, as well as some other related languages, such as the Aquitanian language. The Romans took full control of the area by 74 BC, but unlike their northern neighbors, the Aquitanians, other tribes from the Iberian Peninsula, the Vascones negotiated their status within the Roman Empire.
The region first was part of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior of the Hispania Tarraconensis. It would be under the jurisdiction of the conventus iuridicus of Caesaraugusta; the Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, infrastructure and industry. During the Sertorian War, Pompey would command the foundation of a city in Vasconic territory, giving origin to Pompaelo, modern-day Pamplona, founded on a existent Vasconic town. Romanization of the Vascones led to their eventual adoption of forms of Latin that would evolve into the Navarro-Aragonese language, though the Basque language would remain spoken in rural and mountainous areas. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Vascones were slow to be incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom, in a civil war that provided the opportunity for the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the Basque leadership joined in the appeal that, in the hope of stability, brought the Muslim conquerors. By 718, Pamplona had formed a pact that allowed a wide degree of autonomy in exchange for military and political subjugation, along with the payment of tribute to Córdoba.
Burial ornamentation shows strong contacts with the Merovingian France and the Gascons of Aquitaine, but items with Islamic inscriptions, while a Muslim cemetery in Pamplona, the use of which spanned several generations, suggests the presence of a Muslim garrison in the decades following the Arab invasion. The origin and foundation of the Kingdom of Pamplona is intrinsically related to the southern expansion of the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingians and their successors, the Carolingians. About 601, the Duchy of Vasconia was established by the Merovingians, based around Roman Novempopulania and extending from the southern branch of the river Garonne to the northern side of the Pyrenees; the first documented Duke of Vasconia was Genial, who would hold that position until 627. The Duchy of Vasconia became a frontier territory with varying levels of autonomy granted by the Merovingian monarchs; the suppression of the Duchy of Vasconia as wel
Iruña de Oca/Iruña Oka
Iruña de Oca is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Is compounded by five towns called "concejos" which names are: Nanclares de la Oca/Langraiz Oka Montevite/Mandaita Ollávarre/Olabarri Víllodas/Billoda Trespuentes/TraspondeIt was formed in 1976 by the merger of the municipalities of Iruña and Nanclares de la Oca. Iruña de Oca is the most populated municipality of the Cuadrilla de Añana. More than the 35% of the people of Añana live there, it is located in the central part of the Álava province, just 14 km far from Vitoria, the capital city of the Basque Country. IRUÑA DE OCA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia