Easter (Patti Smith Group album)
Easter is the third studio album by the Patti Smith Group, released in March 1978 on Arista Records. Produced by Jimmy Iovine, it is regarded as the group's commercial breakthrough, owing to the success of the single, "Because the Night", which reached #13 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #5 in the UK; the first album released since Smith had suffered a neck injury while touring for Radio Ethiopia, Easter has been called the most commercially accessible of the Patti Smith Group's catalogue. Unlike its two predecessors, Easter incorporated a diversity of musical styles, though still including classic rock and roll, spoken word and pop music. Easter is the only 1970s album of Smith's that does not feature Richard Sohl as part of the Patti Smith Group. Bruce Brody is credited as the keyboard player, Richard Sohl makes a guest appearance contributing keyboards to "Space Monkey", along with Blue Öyster Cult keyboardist Allen Lanier; the cover photograph is by Lynn Goldsmith and liner notes photography by Cindy Black and Robert Mapplethorpe.
In addition to the religious allusion of its title, the album is replete with biblical and Christian imagery. "Privilege" is taken from the British fame- and authoritarianism-satirizing film Privilege. The LP insert reproduces a First Communion portrait of Frederic and Arthur Rimbaud, Smith's notes for the song "Easter" invoke Catholic imagery of baptism and the blood of Christ. A solitary hand-drawn cross is placed below the group member credits on the sleeve insert, the last sentence of the liner notes is a quote from Second Epistle to Timothy 4:7 -- "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course..." Easter was acclaimed upon its release. Writing in Rolling Stone, Dave Marsh called the album "transcendent and fulfilled." In Creem, Nick Tosches described it as "an album of Christian obsessions those of death and resurrection", called it Smith's "best work." Robert Christgau of The Village Voice wrote that "the miracle is that most of these songs are rousing in the way they're meant to be."
Lester Bangs, on the other hand, began his review of the album, "Dear Patti, start the revolution without me", contended that while Horses had changed his life, Easter "is just a good album." Easter ranked at number 14 in The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics' poll of the best albums of 1978, while NME magazine ranked the album 46th best of the year. Patti Smith Group Patti Smith – vocals, guitar Lenny Kaye – guitar, bass guitar, vocals Jay Dee Daugherty – drums, percussion Ivan Kral – bass guitar, guitar Bruce Brody – keyboards, synthesizerAdditional personnel Jimmy Iovine – producer Richard Sohl – keyboards on "Space Monkey" Allen Lanier – keyboards on "Space Monkey" John Paul Fetta – bass on "Till Victory" & "Privilege" Andi Ostrowe – percussion on "Ghost Dance" Jim Maxwell – bagpipes on "Easter" Tom Verlaine – arrangement on "We Three" Todd Smith – head of crewTechnical Jimmy Iovine – production, mixing Shelly Yakus – mixing Greg Calbi – mastering Thom Panunzio – engineering Gray Russell – engineering Charlie Conrad – engineering Joe Intile – engineeringDesign Lynn Goldsmith – cover photography Robert Mapplethorpe – insert photography Cindy Black – insert photography John Roberts – insert photography Maude Gilman – insert design In the insert with the original LP release, Smith's self-penned liner notes refer, among other things, to: Arthur Rimbaud – 19th century French poet, sometime companion of Paul Verlaine.
Lived in Ethiopia for the last 11 years of his life. Frédéric Rimbaud – Arthur's brother. 42nd Street and Ninth Avenue, New York – 1970s crime-ridden zone. Privilege – 1967 British movie. Ladies and Gentlemen: The Rolling Stones – A concert movie released in 1974. Alain Delon – French actor. Pier Paolo Pasolini – 1960s Italian poet and film director. Bernardo Bertolucci – 1960s Italian writer and film director. Jean-Luc Godard – 1960s Franco-Swiss filmmaker. August 16, 1977 – date of Elvis Presley's death. Ghost Dance – 19th century religious movement among some Native American tribes. R.e.f.m. – Radio Ethiopia Field Marshal. Jean Shrimpton – 1960s British model and actress. Paul Jones – 1960s British musician and actor. Charles Baudelaire – 19th century French poet. CBGB – New York music club. Little Richard – 20th century American singer-songwriter. New Jersey; the UN's declaration of 1979 as International Year of the Child. Easter at AllMusic
Lenny Kaye is an American guitarist and writer, best known as a member of the Patti Smith Group. Kaye was born to Jewish parents in the Washington Heights area of upper Manhattan, New York, along the Hudson River. Growing up in Queens and Brooklyn, Kaye began playing the accordion, but by the end of the 1950s, had dropped the instrument in favor of collecting records, his family moved to North Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1960 where Lenny attended high school, college, graduating from Rutgers University in 1967, majoring in American history. He became a fan of science fiction and gained experience in writing, publishing his own fanzine, Obelisk, at the age of 15. Though he majored in American history, his true vocation was musical, it was there that he first began playing in bands, on a college mixer and fraternity circuit, his first gig, with the Vandals, was at Alpha Sigma Phi on November 7, 1964. As musician and record producer, Kaye was intimately involved with an array of artists and bands.
He was a guitarist for poet/rocker Patti Smith from her band's inception in 1974, co-authored Waylon, The Life Story of Waylon Jennings. He worked in the studio with such artists as R. E. M. James, Suzanne Vega, Jim Carroll, Soul Asylum, Kristin Hersh, Allen Ginsberg, his seminal anthology of sixties' garage-rock, Nuggets, is regarded as defining the genre. You Call It Madness: The Sensuous Song of the Croon, an impressionistic study of the romantic singers of the 1930s, was published by Villard/Random House in 2004, his uncle, songwriter Larry Kusik took note of his lengthening hair and musical commitment, asked him to sing on a song he'd penned with Ritchie Adams, once of the Fireflies. Kaye soon found himself in Associated Recording Studios on Times Square, recording "Crazy Like A Fox", along with its flip side, "Shock Me"; the resultant 45, issued under the name of Link Cromwell, was leased to Hollywood Records, a division of Starday Records located in Nashville and released in March 1966. It was issued in England as well as Australia.
Though hardly a smash, it gave Kaye a sense of self as a musician, inspired him to continue performing and playing. His group at the time, The Zoo, worked a college circuit ranging from New York to Pennsylvania. Moving back to the city, Kaye began writing reviews for Pop magazine, he became the music editor of Cavalier, a men's magazine, would write a monthly column for them until 1975. As a freelance writer, he wrote for a wide range of periodicals, including Melody Maker and Creem, edited such publications as Rock Scene and Hit Parader throughout the 1970s. While working at the record store Village Oldies on Bleecker Street in New York, Kaye met poet-singer Patti Smith. On February 10, 1971, he backed her at a reading at St. Mark's Church on East 10th Street; when they resumed performance in November 1973, their artistic efforts bore fruit as one of the major rock bands of the 1970s. Kaye produced Patti's debut single, performed as part of her Group throughout the decade, as reflected in four Arista albums: Horses, Radio Ethiopia and Wave.
Following the Patti Smith Group's final performance in September 1979, Kaye joined the Jim Carroll Band, as well as fronting his own Lenny Kaye Connection. He co-produced Suzanne Vega's first two albums, including her 1987 hit single, "Luka", nominated for a Grammy as Record of the Year, he has been nominated three times for Grammy awards in the liner notes category for boxed sets on the sixties folk revival, white blues, progressive rock. In 1995, he reunited with Patti Smith and has been a part of her band since, creating five studio albums, a retrospective, celebrating the thirtieth anniversary release of their landmark debut album, Horses. In 2010, Kaye contributed a solo recording for Daddy Rockin' Strong: A Tribute to Nolan Strong and the Diablos. Kaye recorded a version of "I Wanna Know," a 1950s R&B ballad, he wrote one song for The Fleshtones 2011 album Brooklyn Sound Solution. He appeared on "Alligator Aviator Autopilot Antimatter" and "Blue" on R. E. M.'s 2011 album Collapse into Now, an album that Patti Smith contributed to on "Blue" and another song, "Discoverer".
In mid-February 2018, Kaye took over the night shift on Little Steven's Underground Garage, replacing Richard Manitoba, let go mid-January 2018. As Link Cromwell "Crazy Like A Fox" b/w "Shock Me" 1977 I've Got a Right Daddy Rockin Strong: A Tribute to Nolan Strong & The Diablos track: "I Wanna Know" "Child Bride" b/w "The Tracks of My Tears" List of guitarists Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 Official website Lenny Kaye at AllMusic Lenny Kaye on IMDb Lenny Kaye
Because the Night
"Because the Night" is a song written by Bruce Springsteen and Patti Smith, first released in 1978 as a single from the Patti Smith Group album Easter. This version rose to number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, as well as number 5 in the United Kingdom, helped propel sales of Easter to mainstream success — as Smith was deciding to retire from a life of constant touring; the song has subsequently been covered by numerous other artists, at least two of these cover versions have been substantial chart hits. A 1992 version of the song by Co. Ro was a hit in several countries in Europe and South America, reached number 1 in Spain; the following year, a live acoustic version was recorded by 10,000 Maniacs for MTV Unplugged. This recording reached number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100, making it the highest charting version of the song in the US. In 1987, the song was ranked number 116 on NME magazine's list of "The Top 150 Singles of All Time", it remains the best-known song of Smith's catalog. The song was recorded by Bruce Springsteen during sessions for his Darkness on the Edge of Town album.
He was not satisfied with the song and declared he knew he wasn't going to finish it since it was "a love song". Iovine gave Smith a tape of the song, she recast it, it was included on Easter, becoming the first single released from that album. Though it was never released on any of Springsteen's studio albums, in concert beginning with his Darkness Tour Springsteen would perform the song with his own lyrics; the song was first performed live at a Patti Smith concert at the CBGB's Theater in New York City on December 30, 1977 with Springsteen joining on vocals and guitar. The only two commercially released recordings of a Springsteen version of the song were in the 1986 box set Live/1975–85, where Smith was listed as co-writer. In 1992, the Italian dance act Co. Ro released a version, it samples the Depeche Mode song "Master and Servant". It was a hit in Europe, reaching number one in Spain. In Brazil, it was huge a success, became a big opening of a Eurodance explosion in the 1990s. Track listing CD single – Europe"Because the Night" – 4:32 "Because the Night" – 5:20 "It's a Love" – 3:40 "Because the Night" – 5:20Chart performance A well-known acoustic version was recorded by 10,000 Maniacs in 1993 for MTV Unplugged, with a few lyrical alterations.
The recording gained considerable radio airplay and reached number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100. A live version with lead vocalist Mary Ramsey was included on their 2016 album Playing Favorites. Track listing CD single – US"Because the Night" – 3:28 "Stockton Gala Days" – 5:25Chart performance In 2008, Cascada recorded a version which appears on their second album Perfect Day; the music video for the single premiered on YouTube on May 28, 2008. The single was released on July 18, 2008 in Germany, July 21, 2008 in France and August 4, 2008 in the UK. CD single – Germany"Because the Night" – 3:26 "Because the Night" – 5:32 "Because the Night" – 5:58 "Because the Night" – 5:45 "Because the Night" – 5:49 "Because the Night" – 5:04 "Because the Night" – 6:19 In early 2013, Garbage and Screaming Females recorded a cover of "Because the Night" for an exclusive vinyl release on that year's Record Store Day. Garbage had released two singles to mark the 2012 event, were keen to release "something special" for the following year.
The band decided to record "Because the Night" with Screaming Females following some well-received duets of the track at live dates during their North American tour. Marissa Paternoster of Screaming Females suggested covering "Because the Night" live. "We thought it'd be the perfect opportunity to solidify a recording and do something special for the fans and for all the independent record stores," Garbage frontwoman Shirley Manson told Billboard. Screaming Females flew from their base in New Jersey to Los Angeles to record the track with Garbage, who had set up two complete sets of instruments in EastWest Studios for the session. Garbage drummer Butch Vig told NME: "We did it old-school style, they came out to Hollywood and we went into a big tracking room and recorded Phil Spector style... We cut it live and did few overdubs, did everything in a day and it came out pretty great. Marissa plays, I think, a 48-bar guitar solo at the end, that girl can shred like Eddie Van Halen, no kidding."Garbage used social media to raise awareness of the release, to Record Store Day in general.
The band shot a video where they professed their love for independent stores, stated their earliest memories of shopping in them, while Manson wrote a statement about the importance of the continued existence of these stores, of vinyl records: "In a world like ours, where we live isolated lives behind the lonely glow of our computer screens, Record Store Day reminds us all that an independent record store is worth protecting and fighting for. They are a haven and a harbour for all curious and wandering souls." Manson tipped her hat to Patti Smith in the run-up to RSD 2013: "She is without a doubt, one of my greatest inspirations. When I think I can't do things, I
Glitter in Their Eyes
"Glitter in Their Eyes" is a rock song written by Patti Smith and Oliver Ray, released as a promo single from Patti Smith 2000 album Gung Ho. In 2001 the song was nominated for Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance. Published Liner notes with the Gung Ho CD state the album was recorded at Sear Sound recording studio in New York City, mixed by Gil Norton and Danton Supple at The Church Studios in London, Mastered by Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan. However, the Glitter in Their Eyes single was mixed at Eden Studios in London, Mastered by Ted Jensen and Paul Angeli at Sterling Sound in NYC. Additional musicians for the single include: backing vocals of Michael Stipe and Wade Raley. Lyrics at official website
Prince Rogers Nelson was an American singer, musician, record producer and filmmaker. With a career spanning four decades, Prince was known for his eclectic work, flamboyant stage presence, extravagant fashion sense and use of makeup, wide vocal range. A multi-instrumentalist, he was considered a guitar virtuoso and was skilled at playing the drums, bass and synthesizer. Prince pioneered the Minneapolis sound, a subgenre of funk rock with elements of synth-pop and new wave, in the late 1970s. Prince was born and raised in Minneapolis and developed an interest in music as a young child, he signed a recording contract with Warner Bros. Records at the age of 17, released his debut album For You in 1978, his 1979 album Prince went platinum, his next three albums—Dirty Mind, 1999 —continued his success, showcasing his prominently explicit lyrics and blending of funk and rock music. In 1984, he began referring to his backup band as the Revolution and released Purple Rain, the soundtrack album to his film debut.
It became his most critically and commercially successful release, spending 24 consecutive weeks atop the Billboard 200 and selling over 20 million copies worldwide. After releasing the albums Around the World in a Day and Parade, The Revolution disbanded, Prince released the double album Sign o' the Times as a solo artist, he released three more solo albums before debuting The New Power Generation band in 1991. In 1993, while in a contractual dispute with Warner Bros. he changed his stage name to an unpronounceable symbol known as the "Love Symbol," and began releasing new albums at a faster rate to remove himself from contractual obligations. He released five records between 1994 and 1996 before signing with Arista Records in 1998. In 2000, he began referring to himself as "Prince" again, he released 16 albums including the platinum-selling Musicology. His final album, Hit n Run Phase Two, was first released on the Tidal streaming service on December 2015. Four months at the age of 57, Prince died of an accidental fentanyl overdose at his Paisley Park recording studio and home in Chanhassen, Minnesota.
Prince's innovative music integrated a wide variety of styles, including funk, rock, R&B, new wave, soul and pop. He has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time, he won seven Grammy Awards, six American Music Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award for the 1984 film Purple Rain. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone ranked Prince at number 27 on their list of 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Prince Rogers Nelson was born on June 7, 1958, in Minneapolis, the son of jazz singer Mattie Della and pianist and songwriter John Lewis Nelson, his ancestry is centered with all four of his grandparents hailing from that state. Prince was given his father's stage name, Prince Rogers, which his father used while performing with his mother in a jazz group called the Prince Rogers Trio. In 1991, Prince's father told A Current Affair that he named his son Prince because he wanted Prince "to do everything I wanted to do".
Prince was not fond of his name and wanted people to instead call him Skipper, a name which stuck throughout his childhood. Prince has said, he stated, "My mother told me one day I walked in to her and said,'Mom, I'm not going to be sick anymore,' and she said,'Why?' and I said,'Because an angel told me so.'"Prince's younger sister, was born on May 18, 1960. Both siblings developed a keen interest in music, encouraged by their father. Prince wrote his first song, "Funk Machine", on his father's piano. Prince's parents divorced when he was 10, his mother remarried to Hayward Baker, with whom she had a son named Omarr. Baker took Prince to see James Brown in concert, Prince credited Baker with improving the family's finances. After a brief period of living with his father, who bought him his first guitar, Prince moved into the basement of the Anderson family, his neighbors, after his father kicked him out, he befriended the Andersons' son, who collaborated with Prince and became known as André Cymone.
Prince attended Minneapolis' Bryant Junior High and Central High School, where he played football and baseball. He was a student at the Minnesota Dance Theatre through the Urban Arts Program of Minneapolis Public Schools, he played on Central's junior varsity basketball team, continued to play basketball recreationally as an adult. Prince met Jimmy Jam in 1973 in junior high, impressed Jimmy with his musical talent, early mastery of a wide range of instruments, work ethic. In 1975, Pepe Willie, the husband of Prince's cousin Shauntel, formed the band 94 East with Marcy Ingvoldstad and Kristie Lazenberry, hiring André Cymone and Prince to record tracks. Willie wrote the songs, Prince contributed guitar tracks, Prince and Willie co-wrote the 94 East song, "Just Another Sucker"; the band recorded tracks which became the album Minneapolis Genius – The Historic 1977 Recordings. In 1976, Prince created a demo tape in Moon's Minneapolis studio. Unable to secure a recording contract, Moon brought the tape to Owen Husney, a Minneapolis businessman, who signed Prince, age 19, to a management contract, helped hi
Robert Thomas Christgau is an American essayist and music journalist. One of the earliest professional rock critics, he spent 37 years as the chief music critic and senior editor for The Village Voice, during which time he created and oversaw the annual Pazz & Jop poll, he has covered popular music for Esquire, Newsday, Rolling Stone, Billboard, NPR, MSN Music, was a visiting arts teacher at New York University. Christgau is known for his terse, letter-graded capsule album reviews, first published in his "Consumer Guide" columns during his tenure at The Village Voice from 1969 to 2006, he has authored three books based on those columns, including Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies and Christgau's Record Guide: The'80s, along with two collections of essays. He continued writing reviews in this format for MSN Music and Noisey—Vice's music section—where they are published in his "Expert Witness" column. Christgau was born in Greenwich Village and grew up in Queens, the son of a fireman.
He has said he became a rock and roll fan when disc jockey Alan Freed moved to the city in 1954. After attending a public school in New York City, he left New York for four years to attend Dartmouth College, graduating in 1962 with a B. A. in English. While at college his musical interests turned to jazz, but he returned to rock after moving back to New York. Christgau has said that Miles Davis' 1960 album Sketches of Spain initiated in him "one phase of the disillusionment with jazz that resulted in my return to rock and roll", he was influenced by New Journalism writers such as Gay Talese and Tom Wolfe. "My ambitions when I went into journalism were always, to an extent, literary", Christgau said. Christgau wrote short stories, before giving up fiction in 1964 to become a sportswriter, a police reporter for the Newark Star-Ledger, he became a freelance writer after a story he wrote about the death of a woman in New Jersey was published by New York magazine. Christgau was among the first dedicated rock critics.
He was asked to take over the dormant music column at Esquire, which he began writing in June 1967. After Esquire discontinued the column, Christgau moved to The Village Voice in 1969, he worked as a college professor. From early on in his emergence as a critic, Christgau was conscious of his lack of formal knowledge of music. In a 1968 piece he commented: I don't know anything about music, which ought to be a damaging admission but isn't... The fact is that pop writers in general shy away from such arcana as key signature and beats to the measure... I used to confide my worries about this to friends in the record industry, they didn't know anything about music either. The technical stuff didn't matter, I was told. You just gotta dig it. In early 1972, he accepted a full-time job as music critic for Newsday. Christgau returned to the Village Voice in 1974 as music editor, he remained there until August 2006, when he was fired shortly after the paper's acquisition by New Times Media. Two months Christgau became a contributing editor at Rolling Stone.
Late in 2007, Christgau was fired by Rolling Stone, although he continued to work for the magazine for another three months. Starting with the March 2008 issue, he joined Blender, where he was listed as "senior critic" for three issues and "contributing editor". Christgau had been a regular contributor to Blender, he continued to write for Blender until the magazine ceased publication in March 2009. In 1987, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in the field of "Folklore and Popular Culture" to study the history of popular music. Christgau has written for Playboy and Creem, he appears about the Replacements. He taught during the formative years of the California Institute of the Arts; as of 2007, he was an adjunct professor in the Clive Davis Department of Recorded Music at New York University. In August 2013, Christgau revealed in an article written for Barnes & Noble's website that he is writing a memoir. On July 15, 2014, Christgau debuted a monthly column on Billboard's website. Christgau is best known for his "Consumer Guide" columns, which have been published more-or-less monthly since July 10, 1969, in the Village Voice, as well as a brief period in Creem.
In its original format, the "Consumer Guide" consisted of 18 to 20 single-paragraph album reviews, each of, given a letter grade ranging from A+ to E−. These reviews were collected and extensively revised in a three-volume book series, the first of, published in 1981 as Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. In his original grading system from 1969 to 1990, albums were given a grade ranging from A+ to E-. Under this system, Christgau considered a B+ or higher to be a personal recommendation, he noted. In 1990, Christgau changed the format of the "Consumer Guide" to focus more on the albums. B+ records that Christgau deemed "unworthy of a full review" were given brief comments and star marks ranging from three down to one, denoting an honorable mention", records which Christgau believed may be of interest to their own target audience. Lesser albums were filed under categories such as "Neither" and "Duds" (which indicated bad records and were listed without fur
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh