The four-in-hand knot is a method of tying a necktie. It is known as a simple knot or schoolboy knot, due to its simplicity and style; some reports state that carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot, while others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most etymology is that members of the Four-in-Hand Club in London began to wear the neckwear, making it fashionable. The knot produced by this method is on the narrow side, notably asymmetric, appropriate for most, but not all occasions. For United States Army uniforms, United States Navy uniforms that include a necktie, the four-in-hand knot is one of three prescribed options for tying the necktie, the other two being the half-Windsor and Windsor; the four-in-hand knot is tied by placing the tie around the neck and crossing the broad end of the tie in front of the narrow end. The broad end is folded behind the narrow end and brought forward on the opposite side, passed across the front horizontally, folded behind the narrow end again, brought over the top of the knot from behind, tucked behind the horizontal pass, the knot pulled snug.
The knot is slid up the narrow end of the tie until snug against the collar. Using the notation of The 85 Ways to Tie a Tie, by Thomas Fink and Yong Mao, the four-in-hand knot is tied Li Ro Li Co T. In more utilitarian settings, the four-in-hand knot is known as the buntline hitch, it was used by sailors throughout the age of sail for the rigging of ships and remains a useful working knot today. Although topologically identical, when the knot is made in the manner used to fasten a flat necktie, it appears somewhat different from when tied in cylindrical cordage for load-bearing purposes. A variant of the four-in-hand, with the long end of the tie passed back around and above the just-tied knot, was employed by Aristotle Onassis, who caused it to become fashionable in some circles. Fink and Mao record this variant as Knot 2on. Small knot – a lesser known but somewhat simpler necktie knot Half-Windsor knot – a more symmetric and broader knot Windsor knot – a more symmetric and bulkier knot List of knots Neckties at Curlie
DuckTales is an American animated television series, produced by Walt Disney Television Animation and distributed by Buena Vista Television. The cartoon series premiered on September 18, 1987, ran for a total of 100 episodes over four seasons, with its final episode airing on November 28, 1990. Based upon Uncle Scrooge and other Duck universe comic books created by Carl Barks, the show follows Scrooge McDuck, his three grandnephews Huey and Louie, close friends of the group, on various adventures, most of which either involve seeking out treasure or thwarting the efforts of villains seeking to steal Scrooge's fortune or his Number One Dime. DuckTales has received a franchise of merchandise, including video games and comic books, along with an animated theatrical spin-off film entitled DuckTales the Movie: Treasure of the Lost Lamp, released to theaters across the United States on August 3, 1990; the series is notable for being the first Disney cartoon to be produced for weekday syndication, with its success paving the way for future Disney cartoons, such as Chip'n Dale: Rescue Rangers and TaleSpin.
The show's popular theme song was written by Mark Mueller. In addition, Launchpad McQuack returned to appear in another Disney animated series, becoming a main character in Darkwing Duck. In February 2015, Disney XD announced the revival of the show, with the intention of rebooting the series; the rebooted series premiered on August 12, 2017. When Donald Duck decides to join the US Navy, he enlists his uncle Scrooge McDuck to look after his nephews, Huey and Louie. Although reluctant to do so due to their hyperactivity, along with his continual pursuit of increasing his wealth and maintaining harsh business ethics, he warms up to them upon seeing how smart and resourceful they are, takes them into his manor as well as a number of adventures. In addition to them, the show features frequent appearances by Gyro Gearloose, an established comic book character, as well as guest appearances by Donald in the first season – this was either a full appearance, or in a cameo scene when Scrooge and his nephews read letters he sends to them, a few minor appearances by Scrooge's old flame, Glittering Goldie, whose character was adapted from the comic books.
The show introduced new characters to the Duck universe. The second season introduced three new additional characters as part of the show's stories: "caveduck" Bubba Duck and his pet triceratops Tootsie. Most of the stories used in the show revolve around one of three common themes – the first focuses on the group's efforts to thwart attempts by various villains to steal Scrooge's fortune or his Number One Dime. Although some stories are original or based on Barks' comic book series, others are pastiches on classical stories or legends, including characters based on either fictional or historical persons. DuckTales is well noted for its many references to popular culture, including Shakespeare, Jack the Ripper, Greek mythology, James Bond, Indiana Jones, Sherlock Holmes. After its first season, the show moved away from globe-trotting stories, with adventures focused within Duckberg; the show's primary villains consist of those from the comics: Flintheart Glomgold, who seeks to replace Scrooge as the "Richest duck in the world".
A few changes were made to these villains – unlike the comics, Flintheart is of Scottish descent and wears a couple of pieces of Scottish attire, including a kilt. The animated series featured a list of minor villains, most of whom sought to either claim Scrooge's wealth or beat him to treasure. Alan Young as Scrooge McDuck Russi Taylor as Huey and Louie Duck and Webby Vanderquack Chuck McCann as Duckworth the Butler, Burger Beagle, Bouncer Beagle Terry McGovern as Launchpad McQuack and Babyface Beagle Frank Welker as Bigtime Beagle, Baggy Beagle and Bubba Hal Smith as Gyro Gearloose and Flintheart Glomgold Joan Gerber as Mrs. Beakley and Glittering Goldie Hamilton Camp as Fenton Crackshell/Gizmoduck. Additional voices in season 1 June Foray as Ma Beagle and Magica De Spell Peter Cullen as Bankjob Beagle and Admiral Grimitz Brian Cummings as Doofus Drake and Bugle Beagle. Additional voices in season 3 Tony Anselmo as Donald Duck The show featured a range of additional voice actors who voiced several minor characters, most including the following: Walt Disney Television Animation began production on DuckTales in 1986, with the intention of having it ready for a premiere in 1987, its episodes airing within a 4-6 p.m. placement, at a time when more children would be watching television, rather than within a morning timeslot.
Seeking to create a cartoon with high quality animation, in comparison with other 1980s cartoons which had muc
Donald Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Productions. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill and feet, he wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous and temperamental personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002, he has appeared in more films than any other Disney character, is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre. Donald Duck rose to fame with his comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donald's first appearance was in 1934 in The Wise Little Hen, but it was his second appearance in Orphan's Benefit which introduced him as a temperamental comic foil to Mickey Mouse. Throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards.
In the 1930s, he appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series in 1937 starting with Don Donald. These films introduced Donald's love interest Daisy Duck and included his three nephews Huey and Louie. After the 1956 film Chips Ahoy, Donald appeared in educational films before returning to theatrical animation in Mickey's Christmas Carol, his most recent appearance in a theatrical film was 1999's Fantasia 2000. Donald has appeared in direct-to-video features such as Mickey, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, video games such as QuackShot. Beyond animation, Donald is known for his appearances in comics. Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for expanding the "Donald Duck universe", the world in which Donald lives, creating many additional characters such as Donald's rich uncle Scrooge McDuck. Donald has been a popular character in Europe in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co was the most popular comics publication from the 1950s to 2009.
Donald is very popular in Italy, where he is major character in many comics in which his juvenile version Paperino Paperotto and his superhero alter-ego Paperinik were created. The origins of Donald Duck's name may have been inspired by Australian cricket legend Donald Bradman. In 1932 Bradman and the Australian team were touring North America and he made the news after being dismissed for a duck against New York West Indians. Walt Disney was in the process of creating a friend for Mickey Mouse when he read about Bradman's dismissal in the papers and decided to name the new character "Donald Duck". Voice performer Clarence Nash auditioned for Walt Disney Studios when he learned that Disney was looking for people to create animal sounds for his cartoons. Disney was impressed with Nash's duck imitation and chose him to voice the new character. Besides, during that period Mickey Mouse had lost some of his edge since becoming a role model towards children, so Disney wanted to create a character to portray some of the more negative character traits that could no longer be bestowed on Mickey.
Disney came up with Donald's iconic attributes including his sailor suit. While Dick Huemer and Art Babbit were first to animate Donald, Dick Lundy is credited for developing him as a character; the character is noted for his distinctive, only intelligible voice, developed by Donald's original performer, Clarence Nash. The voice actor produces sounds by forcing air through the mouth using the muscles of the cheek, rather than from the lungs as in typical speech. Nash reputedly developed the voice as that of a "nervous baby goat" before Walt Disney interpreted it as sounding like a duck. Donald's two dominant personality traits are his fiery-temper and his upbeat attitude to life. Many Donald shorts start with Donald in a happy mood, without a care in the world until something comes along and spoils his day, his rage is a great cause of suffering in his life. On multiple occasions, it has caused him to lose competitions. There are times when he fights to keep his temper in check, he sometimes succeeds in doing so temporarily, but he always returns to his normal angry self in the end.
Donald's vicious nature has its advantages, however. While at times it is a hindrance, a handicap, it has helped him in times of need; when faced with a threat of some kind, for example, Pete's attempts to intimidate him, he is scared, but his fear is replaced by anger. As a result, instead of running away, he fights—with ghosts, mountain goats, giant kites, the forces of nature. More than not, when he fights, he comes out on top. Donald is something of a prankster, as a result, he can sometimes come across as a bit of a bully in the way he sometimes treats Chip n' Dale and Huey and Louie, his nephews; as the animator Fred Spencer has put it: The Duck gets a big kick out of imposing on other people or annoying them, but he loses his temper when the tables are turned. In other words, he can dish it out. However, with a few exceptions, there is any harm in Donald's pranks, he never intends to hurt anyone, whenever his pranks go too far, he is always apologetic. In Truant Officer Donald, for example, when he is tricked into believing he has accidentally killed Huey and Louie, he shows great regret, blaming himself.
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
Scrooge McDuck is a fictional character created in 1947 by Carl Barks as a work-for-hire for The Walt Disney Company. Scrooge is an elderly Scottish anthropomorphic Pekin duck with a yellow-orange bill and feet, he wears a red or blue frock coat, top hat, pince-nez glasses, spats. He is portrayed in animations as speaking with a Scottish accent. Named after Ebenezer Scrooge from the 1843 novel A Christmas Carol, Scrooge is an wealthy business magnate and self-proclaimed "adventure-capitalist" whose dominant character trait is his thrift, he is brother to Matilda McDuck and Hortense McDuck, the maternal uncle of Della and Donald Duck, the grand-uncle of Huey and Louie, a usual financial backer of Gyro Gearloose. Within the context of the fictional Duck universe, he is the world's richest person, he is an oil tycoon, owner of the largest mining concerns, many factories to operate different activities. His "Money Bin"—and indeed Scrooge himself—are used as a humorous metonyms for great wealth in popular culture around the world.
McDuck was characterized as a greedy miser and antihero, but in appearances he has been portrayed as a charitable and thrifty hero and explorer. He was created by Barks as an antagonist for Donald Duck, first appearing in the 1947 Four Color story Christmas on Bear Mountain. However, McDuck's popularity grew so large. In 1952 he was given his own comic book series, called Uncle Scrooge, which still runs today. Scrooge was most famously drawn by his creator Carl Barks, by Don Rosa. Like other Disney franchise characters, Scrooge McDuck's international popularity has resulted in literature, translated into other languages. Comics have remained Scrooge's primary medium, although he has appeared in animated cartoons, most extensively in the television series DuckTales and its reboot as the main protagonist of both series. Scrooge McDuck, maternal uncle of established character Donald Duck, made his first named appearance in the story Christmas on Bear Mountain, published in Dell's Four Color Comics #178, December 1947, written and drawn by artist Carl Barks.
His appearance may have been based on a similar-looking, Scottish "thrifty saver" Donald Duck character from the 1943 propaganda short The Spirit of'43. In Christmas on Bear Mountain, Scrooge was a bearded, reasonably wealthy old duck, visibly leaning on his cane, living in isolation in a "huge mansion". Scrooge's misanthropic thoughts in this first story are quite pronounced: "Here I sit in this big lonely dump, waiting for Christmas to pass! Bah! That silly season when everybody loves everybody else! A curse on it! Me—I'm different! Everybody hates me, I hate everybody!"Barks reflected, "Scrooge in'Christmas on Bear Mountain' was only my first idea of a rich, old uncle. I had made him too weak. I discovered on that I had to make him more active. I could not make an old guy like that do the things I wanted him to do." Barks would claim that he only intended to use Scrooge as a one-shot character, but decided Scrooge could prove useful for motivating further stories. Barks continued to experiment with Scrooge's personality over the next four years.
Scrooge's second appearance, in The Old Castle's Secret, had Scrooge recruiting his nephews to search for a family treasure hidden in Dismal Downs, the McDuck family's ancestral castle, built in the middle of Rannoch Moor in Scotland. Foxy Relations was the first story where Scrooge is called by his title and catchphrase "The Richest Duck in the World"; the story, Voodoo Hoodoo, first published in Dell's Four Color Comics #238, August 1949, was the first story to hint at Scrooge's past with the introduction of two figures from it. The first was Foola Zoola, an old African sorcerer and chief of the Voodoo tribe who had cursed Scrooge, seeking revenge for the destruction of his village and the taking of his tribe's lands by Scrooge decades ago. Scrooge admitted to his nephews that he had used an army of "cutthroats" to get the tribe to abandon their lands, in order to establish a rubber plantation; the event was placed by Carl Barks in 1879 during the story, but it would be retconned by Don Rosa to 1909 to fit with Scrooge's later-established personal history.
The second figure was the organ of the sorcerer's curse and revenge. He had sought Scrooge for decades before reaching Duckburg, mistaking Donald for Scrooge. Barks, with a note of skepticism found in his stories, explained the zombie as a living person who has never died, but has somehow gotten under the influence of a sorcerer. Although some scenes of the story were intended as a parody of Bela Lugosi's White Zombie, the story is the first to not only focus on Scrooge's past but touch on the darkest aspects of his personality. Trail of the Unicorn, first published in February 1950, introduced Scrooge's private zoo. One of his pilots had managed to photograph the last living unicorn, which lived in the Indian part of the Himalayas. Scrooge offered a reward to competing cousins Donald Duck and Gladstone Gander, which would go to the one who captured the unicorn for Scrooge's collection of animals; this was the story that introduced Scrooge's private airplane. Barks would establish Scrooge as an experienced aviator.
Donald had been shown as a skilled aviator, as was Flintheart Glomgold in stories. In comparison, Huey and Louie were depicted as only having taken flying lessons in the story Frozen Gold
Carl Barks was an American cartoonist and painter. He is best known as the creator of Scrooge McDuck, he worked anonymously until late in his career. In 1987, Barks was one of the three inaugural inductees of the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame. Barks worked for the Disney Studio and Western Publishing where he created Duckburg and many of its inhabitants, such as Scrooge McDuck, Gladstone Gander, the Beagle Boys, The Junior Woodchucks, Gyro Gearloose, Cornelius Coot, Flintheart Glomgold, John D. Rockerduck and Magica De Spell. Will Eisner called him "the Hans Christian Andersen of comic books." Barks was born in Oregon, to William Barks and his wife Arminta Johnson. He had an older brother named Clyde, his paternal grandparents were his wife Ruth Shrum. His maternal grandparents were Carl Johnson and his wife Suzanna Massey, but little else is known about his ancestors. Barks was the descendant of Jacob Barks who came to Missouri from North Carolina around 1800, they lived in Marble Hill in Bollinger County.
Jacob Barks' son Isaac was the father of the David Barks noted above. According to Barks' description of his childhood, he was a rather lonely child, his parents owned one square mile of land. The nearest neighbor lived half a mile away, but he was more an acquaintance to Barks' parents than a friend; the closest school was about two miles away and Barks had to walk that distance every day. The rural area had few children and Barks remembered that his school had only about eight or ten students including him, he had high praise for the quality of the education he received in that small school. "Schools were good in those days," he used to say. The lessons lasted from nine o'clock in the morning to four o'clock in the afternoon and he had to return to the farm. There he remembered not having anybody to talk to, as his parents were busy and he had little in common with his brother. In 1908, William Barks moved with his family to Midland, some miles north of Merrill, to be closer to the new railway lines.
He sold his produce to the local slaughterhouses. Nine-year-old Clyde and seven-year-old Carl worked long hours there, but Carl remembered that the crowd which gathered at Midland's market place made a strong impression on him. This was expected. According to Barks, his attention was drawn to the cowboys that frequented the market with their revolvers, strange nicknames for each other and sense of humor. By 1911, they had been successful enough to move to California. There they set up some orchards; the profits were not as high as William expected and they started having financial difficulties. William's anxiety over them was what caused his first nervous breakdown; as soon as William recovered, he made the decision to move back to Merrill. The year was 1913, Barks was 12 years old, he resumed his education at this point and managed to graduate in 1916. 1916 served as a turning point in Barks' life for various reasons. First, his mother, died in this year. Second, his hearing problems, which had appeared earlier, had at the time become severe enough for him to have difficulties listening to his teachers talking.
His hearing would continue to get worse but at that point he had not yet acquired a hearing aid. In life, he couldn't do without one. Third, the closest high school to their farm was five miles away and if he did enroll in it, his bad hearing was to contribute to his learning problems, he had to decide to stop his school education, much to his disappointment. Barks started taking various jobs but had little success in such occupations as a farmer, turner, mule driver and printer. From his jobs he learned, he averred, how eccentric and unpredictable men and machines can be. At the same time he interacted with colleagues, fellow breadwinners who had satirical disposition towards their worst troubles. Barks declared that he was sure that if not for a little humor in their troubled lives, they would go insane, it was an attitude towards life. He would say it was natural for him to satirize the secret yearnings and desires, the pompous style and the disappointments of his characters. According to Barks, this period of his life would influence his best known fictional characters: Walt Disney's Donald Duck and his own Scrooge McDuck.
Donald's drifting from job to job was inspired by Barks' own experiences. So was his usual lack of success, and in those that he was successful this would be temporary, just until a mistake or chance event caused another failure, another disappointment for the frustrated duck. Barks reported that this was another thing he was familiar with. Scrooge's main difference to Donald, according to Barks, was that he too had faced the same difficulties in his past but through intelligence and hard work, he was able to overcome them. Or, as Scrooge himself would say to Huey and Louie: by being "tougher than the toughies and smarter than the smarties." In Barks's stories Scrooge would work to solve his many problems though the stories would point out that his constant efforts seemed futile at the end. In addition, Scrooge was quite similar to his cr