Dominion Land Survey
The Dominion Land Survey is the method used to divide most of Western Canada into one-square-mile sections for agricultural and other purposes. It is based on the layout of the Public Land Survey System used in the United States, but has several differences; the DLS is the dominant survey method in the Prairie provinces, it is used in British Columbia along the Railway Belt, in the Peace River Block in the northeast of the province. The survey was begun in 1871, shortly after Manitoba and the North-West Territories became part of Canada, following the purchase of Rupert's Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company. Covering about 800,000 square kilometres, the survey system and its terminology are ingrained in the rural culture of the Prairies; the DLS is the world's largest survey grid laid down in a single integrated system. The first formal survey done in western Canada was by Peter Fidler in 1813; the inspiration for the Dominion Land Survey System was the plan for Manitoba to be agricultural economies.
With a large amount of European settlers arriving, Manitoba was undergoing a large change so grasslands and parklands were surveyed and farmed. The Dominion Land Survey system was developed because the farm name and field position descriptions used in northern Europe were not organized or flexible enough, the township and concession system used in eastern Canada was not satisfactory; the first meridian was chosen at 97°27′28.4″ west longitude and was established in 1869. Another 6 meridians were established after. A number of places are excluded from the survey system: these include federal lands such as Indian reserves, federal parks, air weapon ranges; the surveys do not encroach on reserves. When the Hudson's Bay Company relinquished their title to the Dominion on July 15, 1870, via the deed of surrender it received Section 8 and all of Section 26 excluding the northeast quarter; these lands were sold by the company and in 1984 they donated the remaining 5,100 acres to the Saskatchewan Wildlife Association.
The surveying of western Canada was divided into five basic surveys. Each survey's layout was different from the others; the first survey began in 1871 and ended in 1879 and covers some of southern Manitoba and a little of Saskatchewan. The second and smallest survey, in 1880, was used in only small areas of Saskatchewan; this system differs from the first survey because rather than running section lines parallel to the eastern boundary they run true north-south. The largest and most important of these surveys was the third which covers more land than all the others surveys put together; this survey began in 1881. That method of surveying is still used in Manitoba; the fourth and fifth surveys were used only in some townships in British Columbia. The reason that the Canadian government was pushing to subdivide Manitoba and Alberta was to affirm Canadian sovereignty over these lands; the United States was undergoing rapid expansion in the 1860s, the Canadian government was afraid that the Americans would expand into Canadian territory.
Canada's introduction of a railway and surveying was a means to discourage American encroachment. Sir John A. Macdonald remarked in 1870 that the Americans "are resolved to do all they can short of war, to get possession of our western territory, we must take immediate and vigorous steps to counteract them."The beginning of the Dominion Land Survey marked a new era for western Canada. Railways were making their way to the West and the population of western regions began to increase; the introduction of the survey system marked the end of the nomadic ways for the First Nations and Metis. This was a catalyst to the events of the Red River Rebellion. Being a surveyor was not easy; the hours were long, the time away from civilization was longer, the elements were unforgiving. A survey party consisted of up to 20 members, which would include a party chief, chain men, a cook, people to saw trees, a recorder, people to turn angles. All travel was either by foot. To begin surveying a party chief would have to buy $400 worth of instruments.
These instruments included an alidade, dumpy level, Gunter's chain, a solar compass or a vernier compass. The Dominion Land Survey system was proposed in 1869 by John Stoughton Dennis; the initial plan, though based on the square townships of the American Public Lands Survey System, involved 9 mile townships divided into sixty-four 800 acre sections consisting of four 200 acre lots each. Work to establish the first meridian and few township outlines began and ended in 1869 when a party of Metis symbolically stepped on a survey chain, beginning the Red River Resistance. Work resumed in 1871; the Dominion Land Survey System still differed from the Public Land System because it contained road allowances. The Dominion Land Survey was enormous. Around 178,0
The term township means the district or area associated with a town. However, in some systems, no town needs to be involved; the specific use of the term to describe political subdivisions has varied by country to describe a local rural or semi-rural government within the country itself. In eastern Canada a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, it is called a canton; the a historic colony of Nova Scotia used the term township as a subdivision of counties. In Prince Edward Island's case, the colonial survey of 1764 established 67 townships, known as lots, 3 royalties, which were grouped into parishes, hence into counties. In New Brunswick, parishes have taken over as the present-day subdivision of counties, whereas present-day Nova Scotia uses districts where appropriate. In Ontario, there are both geographic townships and township municipalities. Geographic townships are the original historical administrative subdivisions surveyed and established in the 1800s.
These are used for geographic purposes, such as land surveying, natural resource exploration and tracking of phenomena such as forest fires or tornados. Township municipalities called "political townships", are areas that have been incorporated and are a lower-tier municipality or single-tier municipality. A township municipality may consist of a portion of one or more geographic townships united as a single entity with a single municipal administration, they consist of one or more communities that are not incorporated for various reasons. Rural counties are subdivided into townships. In some places if the township is in a county rather than in a regional municipality, the head of a political township is called a reeve, not a mayor. However, this distinction is changing as many rural townships are replacing the title Reeve with the mayor to reduce confusion. A few townships keep both titles and designate mayor as the head of the municipal council and use the title Reeve to denote the representative to the upper tier council.
The term "geographic township" is used in reference to former political townships which were abolished or superseded as part of municipal government restructuring. In Quebec, townships are called cantons in French and can be political and geographic, similar to Ontario, although the geographic use is now limited or not used at all, they were introduced after the British conquest as a surveying unit. They were designated and cover most of the unattributed territory in Eastern Quebec and what is now known as the Eastern Townships, used in surveying the Outaouais and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean regions. Townships served as the territorial basis for new municipalities, but township municipalities are no different from other types such as parish or village municipalities. In the Prairie provinces and parts of British Columbia, a township is a division of the Dominion Land Survey. Townships are 6-by-6-mile squares – about 36 square miles in area; these townships are not political units, but exist only to define parcels of land in a simple way.
Townships are divided into 36 equal 1-by-1-mile square parcels known as sections. In Saskatchewan, a political unit called a rural municipality in general is 3 townships by 3 townships in size, or 18 miles squared – about 324 square miles. Three municipalities in British Columbia, Langley and Spallumcheen, have "township" in their official names, but hold the status of district municipalities. List of townships in Ontario List of townships in Prince Edward Island List of townships in Quebec
A deed is any legal instrument in writing which passes, affirms or confirms an interest, right, or property and, signed, delivered, in some jurisdictions, sealed. It is associated with transferring title to property; the deed has a greater presumption of validity and is less rebuttable than an instrument signed by the party to the deed. A deed can be bilateral. Deeds include conveyances, licenses, patents and conditionally powers of attorney if executed as deeds; the deed is the modern descendant of the medieval charter, delivery is thought to symbolically replace the ancient ceremony of livery of seisin. The traditional phrase signed and delivered refers to the practice of seals. Agreements under seal are called contracts by deed or specialty. In some jurisdictions, specialties have a liability limitation period of double that of a simple contract and allow for a third party beneficiary to enforce an undertaking in the deed, thereby overcoming the doctrine of privity. Specialties, as a form of contract, are bilateral and can therefore be distinguished from covenants, being under seal, are unilateral promises.
At common law, to be valid and enforceable, a deed must meet several requirements: It must state on its face that it is a deed, using wording like "This Deed..." or "executed as a deed". It must indicate that the instrument itself conveys some thing to someone; the grantor must have the legal ability to grant the thing or privilege, the grantee must have the legal capacity to receive it. It must be executed by the grantor in presence of the prescribed number of witnesses, known as instrumentary witnesses. In some jurisdictions, a seal must be affixed to it. Affixing seals made persons parties to the deed and signatures optional, but seals are now outdated in most jurisdictions, so the signatures of the grantor and witnesses are primary, it must be delivered to and, in some jurisdictions, accepted by the grantee. Conditions attached to the acceptance of a deed are known as covenants. A deed indented or indenture is one executed in two or more parts according to the number of parties, which were separated by cutting in a curved or indented line known as the chirograph.
A deed poll is one executed in one part, by one party, having the edge polled or cut and includes simple grants and appointments. In the transfer of real estate, a deed conveys ownership from the old owner to the new owner, can include various warranties; the precise name and nature of these warranties differ by jurisdiction. However, the basic differences between them is the degree to which the grantor warrants the title; the grantor may give a general warranty of title against any claims, or the warranty may be limited to only claims which occurred after the grantor obtained the real estate. The latter type of deed is known as a special warranty deed. While a general warranty deed was used for residential real estate sales and transfers, special warranty deeds are becoming more common and are more used in commercial transactions. A third type of deed, known as a bargain and sale deed, implies that the grantor has the right to convey title but makes no warranties against encumbrances; this type of deed is most used by court officials or fiduciaries that hold the property by force of law rather than title, such as properties seized for unpaid taxes and sold at sheriff's sale, or an executor.
A so-called quitclaim deed is not a deed at all—it is an estoppel disclaiming rights of the person signing it to property. In some jurisdictions, a deed of trust is used as an alternative to a mortgage. A deed of trust is not used to transfer property directly, it is used in some states — California, for example — to transfer title to land to a “trustee” a trust or title company, which holds the title as security for a loan. When the loan is paid off, title is transferred to the borrower by recording a release of the obligation, the trustee's contingent ownership is extinguished. Otherwise, upon default, the trustee will liquidate the property with a new deed and offset the lender's loss with the proceeds. Deed of arrangement – document setting out an arrangement for a debtor to pay part or all outstanding debts, as an alternative to bankruptcy. Deed of assignment – document in which a debtor appoints a trustee to take charge of property to pay debts or wholly, as an alternative to bankruptcy.
Sanad spelt as sunnud, was a deed granted to the rulers of native princely states in British India confirming them in their ruling position in return for their allegiance to the British Raj. Since the extinction of the royal bloodline would be a ground for annexation of a principality by the British, some rulers were granted sanads of adoption. Devised as a reward for loyalty to British rule in India after the Indian rebellion of 1857, such deeds gave a ruler the right to adopt chosen heirs from local noble families in case of lack of direct issue. Among the rulers that were given sanads of adoption, Takht Singh, Jaswant Singh of Bharatpur, as well as the rulers of Nagod State, Samthar State and the Chaube Jagirs are worth mentioning; the main clauses of a deed of conveyance are: Premises Parties clause – sets out the names and descriptions of parties Recitals – narrates in chronol
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres, nearly 10 percent of, fresh water, composed of rivers and the province's 100,000 lakes. Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. As of late 2018, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,165,903. Residents live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, North Battleford and the border city Lloydminster. Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters; as a result, its climate is continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U. S. border are tied for the highest recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C are possible in the south during extreme cold snaps. Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774, it became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; the province's economy is based on agriculture and energy. Saskatchewan's current lieutenant governor is the current premier is Scott Moe. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan; the First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands.
Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River; the river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy in the Cree language. As Saskatchewan's borders follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program. Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south, they are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres; the Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands, are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation. The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres, is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta.
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province; the province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills. Drought can affect agricultural areas during no precipitation at all; the northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate with a shorter summer season. Summers can get hot, sometimes above 38 °C during the day, with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of
A meridian is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude, as measured in angular degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian. The position of a point along the meridian is given by that longitude and its latitude, measured in angular degrees north or south of the Equator; each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km. The first prime meridian was set by Eratosthenes in 200 BCE; this prime meridian was used to provide measurement of the earth, but had many problems because of the lack of latitude measurement. Many years around the 19th century there was still concerns of the prime meridian; the idea of having one prime meridian came from William Parker Snow, because he realized the confusion of having multiple prime meridian locations. Many of theses geographical locations were traced back to the ancient Greeks, others were created by several nations.
Multiple locations for the geographical meridian meant that there was inconsistency, because each country had their own guidelines for where the prime meridian was located. The term meridian comes from the spanish meridies, meaning "midday"; the Sun crosses the celestial meridian at the same time. The same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a.m. and p.m. used to disambiguate hours of the day when utilizing the 12-hour clock. Toward the ending of the 12th century there were two main locations that were acknowledged as the geographic location of the meridian and Britain; these two locations conflicted and a settlement was reached only after there was an International Meridian Conference held, in which Greenwich was recognized as the 0° location. The meridian through Greenwich, called the Prime Meridian, was set at zero degrees of longitude, while other meridians were defined by the angle at the center of the earth between where it and the prime meridian cross the equator; as there are 360 degrees in a circle, the meridian on the opposite side of the earth from Greenwich, the antimeridian, forms the other half of a circle with the one through Greenwich, is at 180° longitude near the International Date Line.
The meridians from West of Greenwich to the antimeridian define the Western Hemisphere and the meridians from East of Greenwich to the antimeridian define the Eastern Hemisphere. Most maps show the lines of longitude; the position of the prime meridian has changed a few times throughout history due to the transit observatory being built next door to the previous one. Such changes had no significant practical effect; the average error in the determination of longitude was much larger than the change in position. The adoption of WGS84 as the positioning system has moved the geodetic prime meridian 102.478 metres east of its last astronomic position. The position of the current geodetic prime meridian is not identified at all by any kind of sign or marking in Greenwich, but can be located using a GPS receiver, it was in the best interests of the nations to agree to one standard meridian to benefit their fast growing economy and production. The disorganized system they had before was not sufficient for their increasing mobility.
The coach services in England had erratic timing before the GWT. U. S. and Canada were improving their railroad system and needed a standard time as well. With a standard meridian, stage coach and trains were able to be more efficient; the argument of which meridian is more scientific was set aside in order to find the most convenient for practical reasons. They were able to agree that the universal day was going to be the mean solar day, they agreed that the days would begin at midnight and the universal day would not impact the use of local time. In the "Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada a report was submitted, dated 10 May 1894. Therefore, a compass needle will be parallel to the magnetic meridian. However, a compass needle will not be steady in the magnetic meridian, because of the longitude from east to west being complete geodesic; the angle between the magnetic and the true meridian is the magnetic declination, relevant for navigating with a compass. Navigators were able to use the azimuth of the rising and setting Sun to measure the magnetic variation.
The true meridian is the plane that passes through true north poles and true south poles at the spot of the observer. The difference between true meridian and magnetic meridian is that the true meridian is fixed while the magnetic meridian is formed through the movement of the needle. True bearing is the horizontal angle between a line. Henry D. Thoreau classified this true meridian
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land, the property of some person and all structures integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, machinery, dams, mines and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, continues to be, all property, not real property. In countries with personal ownership of real property, civil law protects the status of real property in real-estate markets, where estate agents work in the market of buying and selling real estate. Scottish civil law calls real property "heritable property", in French-based law, it is called immobilier; the word "real" derives from Latin res, used in Middle English to mean "relating to things real property". In common law, real property was property that could be protected by some form of real action, in contrast to personal property, where a plaintiff would have to resort to another form of action.
As a result of this formalist approach, some things the common law deems to be land would not be classified as such by most modern legal systems, for example an advowson was real property. By contrast the rights of a leaseholder originate in personal actions and so the common law treated a leasehold as part of personal property; the law now broadly distinguishes between real personal property. The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, movable property, which a person would retain title to. In modern legal systems derived from English common law, classification of property as real or personal may vary somewhat according to jurisdiction or within jurisdictions, according to purpose, as in defining whether and how the property may be taxed. Bethell contains much historical information on the historical evolution of real property and property rights. To be of any value a claim to any property must be accompanied by a verifiable and legal property description.
Such a description makes use of natural or manmade boundaries such as seacoasts, streams, the crests of ridges, highways and railroad tracks or purpose-built markers such as cairns, surveyor's posts, official government surveying marks, so forth. In many cases, a description refers to one or more lots on a plat, a map of property boundaries kept in public records; the law recognizes different sorts of interests, called estates, in real property. The type of estate is determined by the language of the deed, bill of sale, land grant, etc. through which the estate was acquired. Estates are distinguished by the varying property rights that vest in each, that determine the duration and transferability of the various estates. A party enjoying an estate is called a "tenant"; some important types of estates in land include: Fee simple: An estate of indefinite duration, that can be transferred. The most common and most absolute type of estate, under which the tenant enjoys the greatest discretion over the disposal of the property.
Conditional Fee simple: An estate lasting forever as long as one or more conditions stipulated by the deed's grantor does not occur. If such a condition does occur, the property reverts to the grantor, or a remainder interest is passed on to a third party. Fee tail: An estate which, upon the death of the tenant, is transferred to his or her heirs. Life estate: An estate lasting for the natural life of the grantee, called a "life tenant". If a life estate can be sold, a sale does not change its duration, limited by the natural life of the original grantee. A life estate pur; such an estate may arise if the original life tenant sells her life estate to another, or if the life estate is granted pur autre vie. Leasehold: An estate of limited term, as set out in a contract, called a lease, between the party granted the leasehold, called the lessee, another party, called the lessor, having a longer estate in the property. For example, an apartment-dweller with a one-year lease has a leasehold estate in her apartment.
Lessees agree to pay a stated rent to the lessor. Though a leasehold relates to real property, the leasehold interest is classified as personal property. A tenant enjoying an undivided estate in some property after the termination of some estate of limited term, is said to have a "future interest". Two important types of future interests are: Reversion: A reversion arises when a tenant grants an estate of lesser maximum term than his own. Ownership of the land returns to the original tenant; the original tenant's future interest is a reversion. Remainder: A remainder arises when a tenant with a fee simple grants someone a life estate or conditional fee simple, specifies a third party to whom the land goes when the life estate ends or the condition occurs; the third party is said to have a remainder. The third party may have a legal right to limit the life tenant's use of the land. Estates may be held jointly as joint tenants as tenants in common; the difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is the inheritability of the estate and the shares of interest that each tenant owns.
In a joint tenancy with rights of survivorshi