Hebron is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters above sea level; the largest city in the West Bank, the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of 215,452 Palestinians, between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. Jews and Muslims all venerate the city of Hebron for its association with Abraham – it includes the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs, within the Cave of the Patriarchs. Judaism ranks Hebron as the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while some Muslims regard it as one of the four holy cities; the Hebron Protocol of 1997 divided the city into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 20% of the city, administered by Israel. All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via military administration of the West Bank.
The Jewish settlers have their own governing municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating a third of the area's gross domestic product due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area, it has a local reputation for its grapes, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, is the location of the major dairy-product manufacturer, al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, old bazaars; the city is home to the Palestine Polytechnic University. Hebron is attached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders. Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate, with a population of 600,364 as of 2010; the name "Hebron" traces back to two Semitic roots, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite and denoting a range of meanings from "colleague", "unite" or "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.
The Arabic term derives from the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God". Arabic Al-Khalil thus translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber. Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24–30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida; the city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age. This older Hebron was a Canaanite royal city. Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites, it has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba, although the Hebron hills were devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age. The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic, may reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city, Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.
In the narrative of the Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control and ruled by the three sons of Anak, or may reflect some Kenite and Kenizzite migration from the Negev to Hebron, since terms related to the Kenizzites appear to be close to Hurrian, which suggests that behind the Anakim legend lies some early Hurrian population. In Biblical lore they are represented as descendants of the Nephilim; the Book of Genesis mentions that it was called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four" referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters, four hills, or a confederated settlement of four families. The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land in that it signified the first "real estate" of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua. In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.
The Hebron of the Bible was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre. It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, "destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded", or the tribe of Judah as a whole, or Caleb the Judahite; the town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb, who expels the three giants, Sheshai and Talmai, who ruled the city. The biblical narrative has King David called by God to relocate to Hebron and reign from there for some seven years, it is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel. It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and raises a revolt against his father David.
It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge. As is shown by the discovery at Lachish, the second most important Judean city after Jerusalem, of seals with the inscription lmlk Hebron, Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given i
Jacob given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant, he is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives and Rachel, by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Levi, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin, his only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel"; as a result of a severe drought in Canaan and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob died, the length of Jacob's life was 147 years. Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Isaac and Jacob's first wife, Leah. Jacob is mentioned in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Quran and the Book of Mormon.
According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Yaʿaqob יעקב is derived from aqeb עָקֵב "heel". The historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaʿqob-'el is notably recorded as a placename in a list by Thutmose III; the same name is recorded earlier still, in cuneiform inscriptions. The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright; the Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob. The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel is etymologized as composition of אֵל el "god" and the root שָׂרָה śarah "to rule, have power, prevail over": שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים; the biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob and his twin brother, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering.
She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives after they became two separate nations. The prophecy said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: Esau; the second son they named יעקב, Jacob. The boys displayed different natures as they matured. ... and Esau was a man of the field. Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them differed: "And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob." Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright; as Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested. Isaac requested that Esau make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau.
Rebecca overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger. Rebecca blessed Jacob and she ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned, he feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself insisted that Jacob obey her. Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebekah made the savory meat that Isaac loved. Before she sent Jacob to his father, she dressed him in Esau's garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin. Disguised as Esau, Jacob entered Isaac's room. Surprised that Esau was back so soon, Isaac asked. Jacob responded, "Because the LORD your God brought it to me."
Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac's suspicions were aroused more, because Esau never used the personal name of God. Isaac demanded that Jacob come close so he could feel him, but the
Biblical Egypt is Ancient Egypt as it appears within the narrative of the Hebrew Bible the Torah. Egypt plays a central role in the narrative of the Torah from Abraham to the Exodus; the Books of Genesis and Exodus describe a period of Hebrew servitude in Egypt, from their settlement in the Land of Goshen until their escape and the journey through the wilderness to Sinai. Based on the internal chronology of the Hebrew Bible, this would correspond to the New Kingdom of Egypt during the Late Bronze Age; the Hebrew Bible records that a number of Jews took refuge in Egypt after the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah in 597 BC, the subsequent assassination of the Jewish governor, Gedaliah. On hearing of the appointment, the Jewish population fled to Moab, Edom and in other countries returned to Judah. In Egypt, they settled in Migdol, Tahpanhes and Pathros. Jews in Egypt Joseph Merneptah Stele Moses Pharaohs in the Bible Plagues of Egypt The Exodus C. A. Redmount in Coogan, The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press, 2001, 58–89.
Joseph Modrzejewski, The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian, Jewish Publication Society, 1995 Franz V. Greifenhagen, Egypt on the Pentateuch's Ideological Map: Constructing Biblical Israel's Identity, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003 S. C. Russell, Images of Egypt in Early Biblical Literature: Cisjordan-Israelite, Transjordan-Israelite, Judahite Portrayals, New York University. Hebrew and Judaic Studies, ProQuest, 2008
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC. The dynasty's reign is called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt; this dynasty traced its origins to the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Psamtik I was a descendant of Bakenranef, following the Neo-Assyrian Empire's invasions during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, he was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. While the Neo-Assyrian Empire was preoccupied with revolts and civil war over control of the throne, Psamtik threw off his ties to the Assyrians circa 655 BC, formed alliances with King Gyges of Lydia, recruited mercenaries from Caria and ancient Greece to resist Assyrian attacks. With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East, but were driven back by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar II.
With the help of Greek mercenaries, Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer Egypt, only for the Persians to do so. Their king, Cambyses II, captured and executed Psamtik III; the 26th Dynasty may be related to the 24th Dynasty. Manetho begins the dynasty with: Ammeris the Nubian, 12 years Stephinates, 7 years Nechepsos, 6 years Necho, 8 years; when the Nubian King Shabaka defeated Bakenranef, son of Tefnakht, he installed a Nubian commander as governor at Sais. This may be the man named Ammeris. Stephinates may be a descendant of Bakenrenef, he is sometimes referred to as Tefnakht II in the literature. Nechepsos has been identified with a local king named Nekauba. Manetho's Necho is King Necho I. Necho was killed during a conflict with the Nubian king Tantamani. Psamtik I fled to Nineveh – capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire – and returned to Egypt when Ashurbanipal defeated Tantamani and drove him back south. Scholars now start the 26th Dynasty with the reign of Psamtik I. Sextus Julius Africanus states in his accurate version of Manetho's Epitome that the dynasty numbered 9 pharaohs, beginning with a "Stephinates" and ending with Psamtik III.
Africanus notes that Psamtik I and Necho I ruled for 54 and 8 years respectively. History of ancient Egypt Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt family tree Late Period of ancient Egypt Saite Oracle Papyrus Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton; the Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London, 2004. Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100–650 B. C. Aris & Phillips. 1986 ISBN 978-0-85668-298-8. Karl Jansen-Winkeln, Bild und Charakter der ägyptischen 26. Dynastie, Altorientalische Forschungen, 28, 165–182
The Bedouin or Bedu are a grouping of nomadic Arab people who have inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East, they are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, share a common culture of herding camels and goats. The vast majority of Bedouin adhere to Islam. Bedouins have been referred to by various names throughout history, including Qedarites in the Old Testament and Arabaa by the Assyrians, they are referred to as the ʾAʿrāb in the Quran. While many Bedouins have abandoned their nomadic and tribal traditions for a modern urban lifestyle, many retain traditional Bedouin culture such as retaining the traditional ʿašāʾir clan structure, traditional music, poetry and many other cultural practices and concepts.
Urbanised Bedouins organise cultural festivals held several times a year, in which they gather with other Bedouins to partake in and learn about various Bedouin traditions—from poetry recitation and traditional sword dances to playing traditional instruments and classes teaching traditional tent knitting. Traditions like camel riding and camping in the deserts are still popular leisure activities for urbanised Bedouins who live within close proximity to deserts or other wilderness areas; the English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. The word bādiyah means visible land, in the sense of "plain" or "desert"; the term "Bedouin" therefore means "those in bādiyah" or "those in the desert". In English usage, the form "Bedouin" is used for the singular term, the plural being "Bedouins", as indicated by the Oxford English Dictionary, second edition; the term "Bedouin" uses the same root word as the Arabic noun for "the beginning".
Most Arabs believe the Bedouins to be the predecessors to settled Arabs, including the Nabataeans Arabs of the more westerly Levant region. According to a hadith, Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab said of the Bedouin, "hey are the origin of the Arabs and the substance of Islam." and the word for the ethnicity itself may be influenced by that. A quoted Bedouin apothegm is "I am against my brother, my brother and I are against my cousin, my cousin and I are against the stranger" sometimes quoted as "I and my brother are against my cousin, I and my cousin are against the stranger." This saying signifies a hierarchy of loyalties based on the proximity of male kinship, beginning with the nuclear family through the lineage and the paternal tribe, and, in principle at least, to an entire genetic or linguistic group. Disputes are settled, interests are pursued, justice and order are dispensed and maintained by means of this framework, organized according to an ethic of self-help and collective responsibility.
The individual family unit consisted traditionally of three or four adults and any number of children. When resources were plentiful, several tents would travel together as a goum. While these groups were sometimes linked by patriarchal lineage, others were just as linked by marriage alliances. Sometimes, the association was based on acquaintance and familiarity, or no defined relation except for simple shared membership within a tribe; the next scale of interaction within groups was the ibn ʿamm or descent group of three to five generations. These were linked to goums, but where a goum would consist of people all with the same herd type, descent groups were split up over several economic activities, thus allowing a degree of'risk management'. Whilst the phrase "descent group" suggests purely a lineage-based arrangement, in reality these groups were fluid and adapted their genealogies to take in new members; the largest scale of tribal interactions is the tribe as a whole, led by a Sheikh, though the title refers to leaders in varying contexts.
The tribe claims descent from one common ancestor—as mentioned above. The tribal level is the level that mediated between the Bedouin and the outside governments and organizations. Distinct structure of the Bedouin society leads to long lasting rivalries between different clans. Bedouin traditionally had strong honor codes, traditional systems of justice dispensation in Bedouin society revolved around such codes; the bisha'a, or ordeal by fire, is a well-known Bedouin practice of lie detection. See also: Honor codes of the Bedouin, Bedouin systems of justice. Urbanized Bedouin are less to continue such traditions, instead opting for the codes of behavior that govern the wider settled community to which they belong. Livestock and herding, principally of goats and dromedary camels comprised the traditional livelihoods of Bedouins; these two animals were used for meat, dairy products, wool. Most of the staple foods that made up th
Wadi Tumilat is the 50-kilometre-long dry river valley to the east of the Nile delta. In prehistoric times, it was a distributary of the Nile, it continues from there to the west. In ancient times, this was a major communication artery for caravan trade between Egypt and points to the east; the Canal of the Pharaohs was built there. A little water still flows along the wadi; the Arabic name'Wadi Tumilat' is believed to reflect the existence in the area, in ancient times, of an important temple of the god Atum. Wadi Tumilat has the ruins of several ancient settlements; the earliest site excavated is that of Kafr Hassan Dawood, which dates from the Predynastic to the Early Dynastic Period. Late in the New Kingdom period, there was a well fortified site at Tell el-Retabah, but in the Saite Dynasty period, the major settlement and fort were moved east to Tell el-Maskhuta, only 12 km to the east. Necho II initiated—but may have never completed—the ambitious project of cutting a navigable canal from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the Red Sea.
Necho's Canal was the earliest precursor of the Suez Canal, it went through Wadi Tumilat. It was in connection with a new activity that Necho founded a new city of Per-Temu Tjeku which translates as'The House of Atum of Tjeku' at Tell el-Maskhuta. Around 1820, Mohammad Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, brought 500 Syrians to the Wadi and equipped them with animals and labor to construct 1,000 sakias for the cultivation of mulberry trees for silk production; the irrigation system was repaired by cleaning and deepening of existing canals. Labor was provided by forcing peasants to work. Tell Shaqafiya in the Wadi is associated with the Canal and its operation; the site of Tell el Gebel is of the Roman period. In 1930, a team from the German Institute in Cairo conducted a survey of Wadi Tumilat. On, some Hyksos tombs were discovered in the area at Tell es-Sahaba. Modern excavations at Tell el-Maskhuta were carried out by the University of Toronto'Wadi Tumilat Project' under the direction of John Holladay.
They worked over five seasons between 1978 and 1985. As many as 35 sites of archaeological significance have been identified in the Wadi; the three large tells in the Wadi are Tell el-Maskhuta, Tell er-Retabah, Tell Shaqafiya. Tell er-Retabah has been investigated by the archaeologist Hans Goedicke of Johns Hopkins University. There are several biblical references to the area of Wadi Tumilat. For example, the ancient Pithom is believed to be here; the western end of the Wadi Tumilat is identified as part of the Land of Goshen. Wadi Tumilat—an arable strip of land serving as the ancient transit route between Egypt and Canaan across the Sinai—is seen by scholars as the biblical'Way of Shur'. Biblical scholar Edouard Naville identified the area of Wadi Tumilat as Sukkot, the 8th Lower Egypt nome; this location is mentioned in the Bible. Carol A. Redmount, The Wadi Tumilat and the "Canal of the Pharaohs" Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 127–135 The University of Chicago Press Ellen-Fowles Morris: The architecture of imperialism - Military bases and the evolution of foreign policy in Egypt's New Kingdom.
Brill, Leiden 2005, ISBN 90-04-14036-0. Alan Gardiner: The Delta Residence of the Ramessides, IV In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Nr. 5, 1918, S. 242-271. Edouard Naville: The store-city of Pithom and The route of the Exodus. Trübner, London 1903. Herbert Donner: Geschichte des Volkes Israel und seiner Nachbarn in Grundzügen - Teil 1. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-51679-9, S. 102-103. Jacques-Marie Le Père: Mémoire sur la communication de la mer des Indes à la Méditerranée par la mer Rouge et l'Isthme de Sueys. In Description de l'Égypte, État moderne I. Imprimerie Impériale, Paris 1809, S. 21 - 186. Tell el-Retaba - Egyptian citadel in Wadi Toumilat Instytut Archeologii UW - Warsaw