Dax is a commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, sub-prefecture of the Landes department. It is known as a spa, it is a market town, former bishopric and busy local centre for the Chalosse area. It was first established by the Romans, its reputation is supposed to date from a visit by Julia, the daughter of the first Emperor Octavian Augustus, its Roman name was Civitas Aquensium. In the Middle Ages, it was administered by viscounts until 1177. With the acquisition of Aquitaine by Henry II Plantagenet King of England, Dax remained under English rule until 1451, when it was conquered by French troops before the end of the Hundred Years' War, it withstood a Spanish siege in 1521-1522. Roman archaeological crypt, including the foundations of a Roman temple from the second century AD.97 Remains of the Gallic-Roman walls Cathedral of Notre-Dame Ste-Marie97 Church of Saint-Vincent-de-Xaintes.97 Fontaine Chaude.97 Logroño, Spain Maurice Boyau, ace of the First World War who spent most of his life in Dax Jean-Charles de Borda, mathematician Vincent de Paul, theologian born in a village near Dax Victor Denain and politician Roger Ducos, politician born in Dax Patrick Edlinger, rock climber Brigitte Lovisa Fouché, painter Laurent Fressinet, chess player Raphaël Ibañez, rugby player Christophe Lamaison, rugby player Émile Magne, art historian and literary critic Diocese of Dax Guiraude de Dax US Dax, a French rugby union club based in Dax.
Dacquoise INSEE statistics Official website Dax Cathedral Dax Cathedral
A heath is a shrubland habitat found on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and damper climate. Heaths are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe, they form extensive and diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands. More diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to these extensive heath areas, the vegetation type is found in scattered locations across all continents, except Antarctica. Heathland is favoured where climatic conditions are hard and dry in summer, soils acidic, of low fertility, sandy and free-draining. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs, 20 centimetres to 2 metres tall.
Heath vegetation can be plant-species rich, heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species. The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species. In marked contrast, the tiny pockets of heathland in Europe are depauperate with a flora consisting of heather and gorse; the bird fauna of heathlands are cosmopolitan species of the region. In the depauperate heathlands of Europe, bird species tend to be more characteristic of the community and include Montagu's harrier, the tree pipit. In Australia the heathland avian fauna is dominated by nectar-feeding birds such as honey-eaters and lorikeets although numerous other birds from emus to eagles are common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathlands are home to the world's only nectar-feeding terrestrial mammal: the honey possum; the bird fauna of the South African fynbos includes sunbirds and siskins.
Heathlands are an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths and wasps with many species being restricted to it. One such example of an organism restricted to heathland is the silver-studded blue butterfly, Plebejus argus. Anthropogenic heath habitats are a cultural landscape that can be found worldwide in locations as diverse as northern and western Europe, the Americas, New Zealand and New Guinea; these heaths were created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of the natural forest and woodland vegetation, by grazing and burning. In some cases this clearance went so far that parts of the heathland have given way to open spots of pure sand and sand dunes, with a local climate that in Europe, can experience temperatures of 50 °C in summer, drying the sand spot bordering the heathland and further raising its vulnerability for wildfires. Referring to heathland in England, Oliver Rackham says, "Heaths are the product of human activities and need to be managed as heathland. In recent years the conservation value of these man-made heaths has become much more appreciated, most heathlands are protected.
However they are threatened by tree incursion because of the discontinuation of traditional management techniques such as grazing and burning that mediated the landscapes. Some are threatened by urban sprawl. Anthropogenic heathlands are maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning, or mowing; the re-colonising tree species will depend on what is available as the local seed source, thus it may not reflect the natural vegetation before the heathland became established. Bolster heath Chalk heath Garrigue Maquis shrubland Matorral Scrubland The Countryside Agency information on types of open land Origin of the word'heath'
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
François Charles Mauriac was a French novelist, critic and journalist, a member of the Académie française, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958, he was a lifelong Catholic. François Charles Mauriac was born in France, he studied literature at the University of Bordeaux, graduating in 1905, after which he moved to Paris to prepare for postgraduate study at the École des Chartes. On 1 June 1933 he was elected a member of the Académie française. A former Action Francaise supporter, he turned to the left during the Spanish Civil War, criticizing the Catholic Church for its support of Franco, he supported Petain after France's fall, but joined the resistance as early as December 1941. He was the only member of the Academie Francaise to publish a resistance text with the Editions de Minuit. Mauriac had a bitter dispute with Albert Camus following the liberation of France in World War II. At that time, Camus edited the resistance paper Combat.
Camus said newly liberated France should purge all Nazi collaborator elements, but Mauriac warned that such disputes should be set aside in the interests of national reconciliation. Mauriac doubted that justice would be impartial or dispassionate given the emotional turmoil of liberation. Despite having been viciously criticised by Robert Brasillach he campaigned against his execution. Mauriac had a bitter public dispute with Roger Peyrefitte, who criticised the Vatican in books such as Les Clés de saint Pierre. Mauriac threatened to resign from the paper he was working with at the time if they did not stop carrying advertisements for Peyrefitte's books; the quarrel was exacerbated by the release of the film adaptation of Peyrefitte's Les Amitiés Particulières and culminated in a virulent open letter by Peyrefitte in which he accused Mauriac of homosexual tendencies and called him a "Tartuffe". Mauriac was opposed to French rule in Vietnam, condemned the use of torture by the French army in Algeria.
In 1952 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life". He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958, he published a biography of Charles de Gaulle. Mauriac's complete works were published in twelve volumes between 1950 and 1956, he encouraged Elie Wiesel to write about his experiences as a Jew during the Holocaust, wrote the foreword to Elie Wiesel's book Night. He was the father of writer Claude Mauriac and grandfather of Anne Wiazemsky, a French actress and author who worked with and married French director Jean-Luc Godard. François Mauriac died in Paris on 1 September 1970 and was interred in the Cimetière de Vemars, Val d'Oise, France. 1926 — Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française 1933 — Member of the Académie française 1952 — Nobel Prize in Literature 1958 — Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur 1913 – L'Enfant chargé de chaînes 1914 – La Robe prétexte 1920 – La Chair et le Sang 1921 – Préséances 1922 – Le Baiser au lépreux 1923 – Le Fleuve de feu 1923 – Génitrix 1923 – Le Mal 1925 – Le Désert de l'amour 1927 – Thérèse Desqueyroux 1928 – Destins 1929 – Trois Récits A volume of three stories: Coups de couteau, 1926.
1939 – Les Chemins de la mer 1941 – La Pharisienne 1951 – Le Sagouin 1952 – Galigaï 1954 – L'Agneau 1969 – Un adolescent d'autrefois 1972 – Maltaverne 1938 – Asmodée 1945 – Les Mal Aimés 1948 – Passage du malin 1951 – Le Feu sur terre 1909 – Les Mains jointes 1911 – L'Adieu à l'Adolescence 1925 – Orages 1940 – Le Sang d'Atys 1931 – Holy Thursday: an Intimate Remembrance 1960 – Memoires Interieurs 1962 – Ce Que Je Crois 1964 – Soiree Tu Danse 1937 – Life of Jesus 1919 – Petits Essais de Psychologie Religieuse: De quelques coeurs inquiets. Paris: Societe litteraire de France. 1919. 1936 - “God and Mammon” in ‘Essays in Order: New Series, No. 1’. Edited by Christopher Dawson and Bernard Wall. Published in London by Sheed & Ward 1961 – Second Thoughts: Reflections on literature and on Life (tr. by Adrienne Foul
Lionel Causse is a French politician representing La République En Marche! He was elected to the French National Assembly on 18 June 2017, representing the department of Landes. Causse holds a position in the Bureau of the National Assembly of the 15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic as a secretary. French legislative election, 2017
Soorts-Hossegor is a commune in the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, 20 km north of Biarritz. It is a well known seaside resort, considered to have some of the best surfing in the world; the city's economy is centered around surfing. Its inhabitants are called Hossegoriens. In 1913, the town associates with its name of Soorts the toponym of Hossegor, came from the name of its marine lake; the root of Soorts is closer to that of « Sorde », the verb gascon sórder or sordar, meaning "where there are sources". We compare with Sor and Sort-en-Chalosse from the same Gascon etymon; the origin of Hossegor is more obscure: it may be an Aquitain or Basque name to be attached to the hydronyms « osse », the adjective «gorri »,meaning "dry water". Hossegor became seaside resort in the early twentieth century, it is located between the cities of Arcachon. It attracted wealthy visitors from large cities like Paris; some noteworthy visitors to Soorts-Hossegor include the J.-H. Rosny in 1903 and Paul Margueritte in 1909.
Other personalities will join them, like Charles Derennes in 1913 Maxime Leroy, Gaston Chérau, Pierre Benoit, Tristan Dereme or Leon Blum in 1920. After the Second World War, the town attracted a wider selection of visitors, including industrialists and doctors. From the 1920s, real estate programs increased the arrival of tourists in the resort; some architects of the time embarked on many architectural projects. For example In the early 1930s, the Gomez brothers built the « Place des Landais », it was the first development of the waterfront in the town; this seafront was original for the time. Indeed, the two architects with a néo basque architectural style build aligned villas called "en bande". Many hotels were built at that time, such as « Les Hortensias du Lac », a four-star luxury hotel with an extraordinary view on the marine lake, « the Mercedes », a three-star hotel near the city center overlooking the canal; the Sporting Casino was built in those years, it attracted an wealthy clientele.
Today, it hosts various events. It has become an influential sports complex with its swimming pool, tennis courts and a miniature golf. Since the late 1990s, ultra-modern villas have been built in the resort. Privileged individuals build huge villas near the golf in the same architectural style. Municipal Stadium Soorts-Hossegor; every year, at the end of September, the greatest surfers of the world meet on the beaches of Hossegor to compete in a race counting for the pro world championships: the Quiksilver Pro France. The French Surf Federation has its headquarters in Hossegor. Surfing is a big attraction for visitors and a important tourist activity for Hossegor, it has long been one of the premier surfing locations in Europe, with a series of world-class beach breaks such as Gravière and La Nord, with nearby beach breaks in Capbreton and Seignosse such as La Piste and Bourdaines. In Hossegor there is a large lake where many water activities can be enjoyed; the Landes forest is popular with nature cyclists.
Each summer takes place the « Grand Prix des Landes golf » on Hossegor golf. The Hossegor Golf Club is in the national league for women's golfers. Golf is a popular activity in the Soorts-Hossegor region. Other sports available in the town are diving, horse riding and Basque pelote. Another event of the station takes place during the pascal weekend, the sale of clothes "spirit surf"; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the census of the population carried since 1793. From 2006, this investigation are published annually. In 2015, the town had 3 823 inhabitants, an increase of 2.69% compared to 2010 Communes of the Landes department INSEE statistics Sébastien Barrère, Petite histoire d'Hossegor, Éditions Cairn, 2015, 156 p. Official website Website about Hossegor Practical information Practical information about surf conditions and surfing in Hossegor
Château de Gaujacq
Château de Gaujacq is a château in Landes, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France. It dates to 1686 and was built in the Italian renaissance style