The spritsail is a four-sided, fore-and-aft sail, supported at its highest points by the mast and a diagonally running spar known as the sprit. The foot of the sail can be held loose-footed just by its sheets. A spritsail has four corners: the throat, peak and tack; the Spritsail can be used to describe a rig that uses a spritsail. Spritsails were the first fore-and-aft rigs, appearing in Greco-Roman navigation in the 2nd century BC; the luff of the sail is bound to the mast, but unlike the gaff rig where the head is bound to a spar, this rig supports the leech of the sail by means of a diagonal spar or spars named a sprit. The forward end of the sprit spar is attached to the mast, with the after end of the sprit spar attached to the peak; the sprit is steadied and controlled from the deck by a pair of wire vangs attached to the peak of the sail. It is said to be the ancestor of the common gaff rig; the foot of the sail may be loose-footed and just controlled by its sheets. The spritsail was best known from its use in the Thames sailing barge, which employs two sized spars to form the framework for the sail area.
In a barge, the mast is stepped vertically in a mast case or tabernacle, whilst the sprit is suspended by chain stanliffs from the hounds at the mast head at an angle of about 30° from vertical, with sprit to the starboard side of the mast. The heel of the sprit is secured to the mast, by the muzzle, which allows the sprit is free to move laterally, nearly as far to each side as the shrouds; this enables the vessel to run. The instability caused by allowing such a weighty spar to extend too far away from the vessel's centreline, had to be borne in mind when designing hull and rigging; the peak of the sail is permanently attached to the head of the sprit, steadied by two sets of vangs. The spritsail rig was used without a boom; such loose-footed sails can be found on gaff-rigged Norfolk wherrys and the bawley class of vessel. The spritsail was a feature of the Cromster where the ability to furl the foot of the sail and raise the sheets, made gunnery much more possible; the sail could still be controlled using the vangs.
In a commercial vessel, the rig has the advantage of allowing a high stack of deck cargo and freeing the cargo hatch of obstructions when loading and unloading. The entire sail can be brailed to the mast; the overriding advantage is safety in open water. Barges will heel excessively and must be pulled to wind; the sheet will be eased and the aft end of a boom could drag in the water making the rudder ineffective and a capsize inevitable. The sheet of loose footed boomless barge is just released and control is regained; the boom does not project outboard so that the vessel can pass through a narrow gap between moored vessels. Loose footed sails suffer from sail twist which reduces their aerodynamic efficiency when sailing off the wind, not a commercial issue, it can be an advantage in light air. The vangs control the head of the sail which can be set so as to make use of the air above the wind-shadow of moored ships, warehouses and so on; this fine control of the sail without need for the crew to leave the deck, is achieved by brailing up.
Rather than lowering the mainsail, it is gathered up against its own luff and head by means of lines called brails. This technique is an effective way of stowing the mainsail and gives fine control over the power obtained from the sail. In narrow channels, in the lee of tall buildings the mailsail and mizzen are brailed and the bowsprit topped up, she sails on topsail and foresail alone. A gaff rig was far more suitable for heavy weather and long sea passages, but when a daff rigged boomie takes in the mainsail, she cannot set the topsail. However, it means, it means that the sail cannot be covered when it is stowed, thus protected from the elements. But in any case, the crews of working vessels did not trouble with such dainty ways. In keeping with the general philosophy of working boats, all sails would therefore be traditionally treated with red oxide and other substances; the problem of the inaccessibility of gear was met in the Thames barge by stepping the mast in a tabernacle and using a windlass on the foredeck to strike the whole lot, sprit and rigging.
The crew could sail under a low bridge such as at Aylesford or Rochester the without losing steerage way. The windlass is below the tack of the tackle at the foot of the forestay. In striking the gear, the foresail tack tackle had to be cast off, the bridge cleared, the skipper and an extra man used the windlass to raise the mast. Modern use of the spritsail has become more common through its use in the Optimist - this uses a boomed spritsail - in the case of which the sprit is tensioned by a snotter arrangement; this much simpler implementation sees the sprit anchored higher on the mast than on barges. This is a sprit rig that uses a triangular sail, the luff is bent to the mast, the one spar, the sprit-boom attaches to the clew of the sail; the fore end of the boom is tensioned by use of a snotter chord. On a Bolger 59 rig, there is 13' 7" leech and 9' 0" foot; the spiritsail is commonly used in a fore-and-aft rig on local traditional wooden boats of the west coast of Norway, most notably the faering variant of the Oselvar.
Traditionally, up until the second half of the 1
An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end; the difference between oars and paddles are that oars only have one blade, are used for rowing, whereas paddles can have either one or two blade and are not rowed. Oars for rowing are connected to the vessel by means of rowlocks or tholes which transmit the applied force to the boat. In this system the water is the fulcrum. By contrast, like those used by canoeists, are held in both hands by the paddler, are not attached to the vessel. Rowers face the stern of the vessel, reach towards the stern, insert the blade of their oar in the water; as they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars sweeps the water towards the stern, providing forward thrust – see lever. For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or the mechanical work of rowers, or paddlers; some ancient vessels were propelled by either oars or sail, depending on the speed and direction of the wind.
Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China. In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Oars have traditionally been made of wood; the form is a long shaft with a flat blade on the end. Where the oar connects to the boat there is a "collar" which stops the oar slipping past the rowlock. Oars have a handle about 150mm long, which may be a material sleeve or alternatively an ovoid shape carved to fit the hands; this is a normal wooden oar to which weight has been added at the inboard end so that the blade end is noticeably lighter and easier for a rower to operate without fatigue. The two methods of adding weight are to either have a much larger section in the oar next to the handle for a distance of about 450 millimetres or to drill an 18-millimetre hole inside the handle for a distance of about 150 millimetres and add about 12 oz of lead secured by epoxy resin glue.
For a 7-foot oar the balance point is about 12 inches outboard of the rowlock. Surplus wood is removed from the blade's width and thickness and at the neck between the blade and the shaft to further reduce outboard weight; this type of oar is much better for long-range rowing. The oars used for transport come in a variety of sizes; the oars used in small dinghies or rafts can be less than 2 metres long. In classical times warships were propelled by long oars that might have several oarsmen per oar; these oars could be more than a dozen metres long. The oars used in competitive rowing are long poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade; the part of the oar the oarsman holds. While rowing, the oars are supported by metal frames attached to the side of the boat called outriggers. Classic oars were made of wood, but modern oars are made from synthetic material, the most common being carbon fibre; the sport of competitive rowing has developed a tradition of using an oar as a memento of significant race wins.
A'trophy oar' is not presented at the end of the race as a more familiar precious metal cup might be, but rather given by the club, school or university that the winning crew or rower represented. A trophy oar is a competition oar, painted in the club colours and has had the details of the race signwritten on the face of the blade; the most common format would have the coat of arms or crest of the club or school positioned in the centre, with the crew names and the race details arranged around this. Many older universities and their colleges have long histories of using the trophy oar and many examples are on display in club houses around the world; the Norwegian municipalities of Fedje and Herøy both have oars in their coat-of-arms. Oars have been used to describe various animals with characteristics that resemble the said rowing implement; the members of the Family Regalecidae, elongated deep-sea fishes, are called oarfish because their body shape is similar to that of an oar. The hawksbill turtle's genus of Eretmochelys is derived from the Greek root eretmo, which translates to oar.
The turtle was so-named because of the oar-like shape of its front flippers. Oar Sculling Steering oar Paddle Oar positions, 1775 – 1783 British Navy
Ipswich is a large historical town in Suffolk, located in East Anglia about 66 miles north east of London. It is the county town of Suffolk; the town has been continuously occupied since the Saxon period, its port has been one of England's most important for the whole of its history. Ipswich is a non-metropolitan district; the urban development of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries with 75% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2011 Census, when it was the fourth-largest urban area in the United Kingdom's East of England region, the 42nd-largest urban area in England and Wales. In 2011, the town of Ipswich was found to have a population of 133,384, while the Ipswich built-up area is estimated to have a population of 180,000 in 2011; the modern name is derived from the medieval name Gippeswic taken either from an Old Saxon personal name or from an earlier name of the Orwell estuary. It has been known as Gyppewicus and Yppswyche. Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns, if not the oldest.
At its core Ipswich was and is the oldest still continuing town to have been established and developed by the English. It has an unbroken history of community as a town since early Anglo-Saxon times. Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell and Gipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coastal defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe, the largest Roman villa in Suffolk stood at Castle Hill; the modern town took shape in Anglo-Saxon times around the Ipswich docks. As the coastal states of north-western Europe emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, essential North Sea trade and communication between eastern Britain and the continent passed through the former Roman ports of London and York. Gipeswic arose as the equivalent to these, serving the Kingdom of East Anglia, its early imported wares dating to the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English; the famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby is his grave.
The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Sutton Hoo treasures. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons and other artefacts; the seventh-century town was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times, their wares were traded far across England, the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of international importance. Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule; the earth ramparts circling the town centre were raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. They were unsuccessful; the town operated a mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215.
The abbreviation Gipes appears on the coins. King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the medieval foundations of its modern civil government. Thenceforth Ipswich maintained its jurisdiction over the so-called Liberty, a region extending over about 35 square kilometres centred on the town. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth. Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories, those of the Ipswich Greyfriars, Ipswich Whitefriars and Ipswich Blackfriars, stood in medieval Ipswich; the last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama. There were several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.
Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Wolsey, the future cardinal, was born in Ipswich in 1473 as the son of a wealthy landowner. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School, he remains one of the town's most famed figures. During the 14th to 17th centuries Ipswich was a kontor for the Hanseatic League, the port being used for imports and exports to the Baltic. In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England; this was encouraged by Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, where a promontory was named'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-wes
Felixstowe is a seaside town in Suffolk, England. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 23,689; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. The old Felixstowe hamlet was centred on a pub and church, having stood on the site since long before the Norman conquest of England; the early history of Felixstowe, including its Roman, Anglo-Saxon and medieval defences, is told under the name of Walton, because the name Felixstowe was given retrospectively, during the 13th century, to a place which had expanded to a form beyond the boundaries of Walton alone. In the Doomsday book, for instance, only Walton is shown, not Felixstowe, which at the time held little more than a few houses scattered over the cliff tops. Walton was a settlement on the River Orwell and in 1844 had a population of 907 compared to the small Felixstowe Parish holding only 502 people. Walton had always preceded Felixstowe as a settlement as seen by the presence of Walton Castle, built by the Romans in the 3rd century, but today Walton is considered part of Felixstowe due to modern expansion.
Felixstowe is situated at the tip of the Colneis peninsular, was in the ancient Colneis Hundred. The Felixstowe area as a whole provided a linchpin in England's defence, as proved in 1667 when Dutch soldiers landed near the Fludyers area and tried to capture Landguard Fort due to strategic location; the town only became related to a major port in 1886 when the port opened to trade, following the initial construction of the dock basin in 1882. In 1810 or 1811 seven Martello Towers were built along the shore. Q Tower was the HQ of the Harwich-Ipswich-Martlesham Heath anti-aircraft guns between 1941 and 1945. On 11 August 1919, the Felixstowe Fury sideslipped and crashed into the sea 500 yards offshore soon after takeoff while on a test flight, it was preparing for an 8,000-mile flight to South Africa. The wireless operator, Lt. MacLeod, was killed, the 6 passengers were rescued; the wreckage was towed ashore. At the turn of the century, tourism increased, a pier was constructed in 1905 of, functional to this day as an amusement arcade.
Indeed, during the late Victorian period it became a fashionable resort, a trend initiated by the opening of Felixstowe railway station, the pier, a visit by the German imperial family. It remained so until the late 1930s. Felixstowe played an important role in both world wars--in the first as Royal Naval Air Service and RAF seaplane base, in the second as the Coastal Forces MTB, MGB and ML base HMS Beehive, it was the first base from which 2nd World War German E-boats and coastal convoys were systematically attacked--by flotilla led by Lt-Commanders Howes, Dickens and Trelawney. Felixstowe was HQ of the Harwich Harbour coast and anti-aircraft defences, accommodated the RAF's 26th Marine Craft Unit. In 1944 the piers near the Dock were used to load troops and vehicles onto the British and American landing craft of "Force L", which reinforced the Normandy Invasion on its first and second days. In 1945 the German naval commanders in Occupied Holland arrived in E-boats at Felixstowe Dock to surrender their boats and charts to the Royal Navy.
Most of the south-western area of Felixstowe Urban District, between the Dock, Landguard Point, Manor Road, was occupied by the Navy, RAF and Army. With Landguard Fort and several ruined gun bunkers a reminder of that era. Between the wars the seaplane station housed the RAF experimental establishment which tested seaplanes and flying boats, its sheds and piers were incorporated in the MTB base and the container port. Sources-- J P Foynes: The Battle of the East Coast 1939-1945. In 1953, at least 48 people died in the town in the North Sea flood. Landguard Fort known as Langer Fort, is on the site of the last opposed invasion of England in 1667, the first land battle of the Duke of York and of Albany's Marines; the current fort was built in the 18th century, modified in the 19th century with substantial additional 19th/20th century outside batteries. The Fort hosts regular military re-enactments, including Darell's Day, a celebration of the last invasion, children's events and open-air theatre.
In the two world wars the Fort was variously the HQ of the Harwich Harbour coast and anti-aircraft defences, the signal/control station for the harbour entrance, a radio and radar station. Landguard Fort is in the care of English Heritage, is managed by the Landguard Fort Trust to make it accessible to the public. A museum telling the story of Felixstowe, with a reference library, historic maps, photo archive and 14 rooms of artefacts from Roman finds, the Martello towers, military social and domestic history through two world wars and into the new millennium is managed by volunteers from the Felixstowe History and Museum Society, it is located in the old submarine mining establishment building at the Landguard Peninsula, between the Fort and Port. The pier was opened in 1906, was was rebuilt in late 2017. During the Second World War the majority of the pier, at the time one of the longest in the country and complete with its own train, was purposely demolished by the Royal Engineers to prevent it from being used as an easy landing point for enemy troops.
After the war the damage was not repaired and the pier never regained its original length. The sole remaining railway station, calle
The coxswain is the person in charge of a boat its navigation and steering. The etymology of the word gives a literal meaning of "boat servant" since it comes from cock, a cockboat or other small vessel kept aboard a ship, swain, an Old English term derived from the Old Norse sveinn meaning boy or servant. In rowing, the coxswain sits in either the bow or the stern of the boat while verbally and physically controlling the boat's steering, speed and fluidity; the primary duty of a coxswain is to ensure the safety of those in the boat. In a race setting, the coxswain is tasked with motivating the crew as well as steering as straight a course as possible to minimize the distance to the finish line. Coxswains are responsible for knowing proper rowing technique and running drills to improve technique. A coxswain is the coach in the boat, in addition to following the orders of the team coach, the coxswain is connected to the way the boat feels, what's working, what needs to be changed, how. A successful coxswain must keep track of the drill, pace, words of the coach, feel of the boat, direction of the boat, safety.
During a race, a coxswain is responsible for steering, calling the moves, responding to the way the other boats are moving. Success depends on the physical and mental strength of the rowers, ability to respond to the environment, the way in which the coxswain motivates the rowers, not only as individuals but as members of the crew. In the Royal Navy in the days of sail, the coxswain was a petty officer or chief petty officer who commanded the barge of a captain or admiral; the coxswain was the senior chief petty officer aboard a smaller vessel such as a corvette or submarine, responsible for the steering and assumed the duties which would be performed by the chief boatswain's mate and master-at-arms aboard larger vessels. In World War II pilots of landing craft were referred to as coxswains. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the appointment of coxswain is given to the senior non-commissioned officer aboard a ship, the equivalent to a command master chief petty officer in the US Navy. For larger vessels such as a destroyer, frigate or the Harry DeWolf-class ships, a coxswain holds the rank of chief petty officer 1st class.
For submarines, a coxswain holds the rank of chief petty officer 2nd class. For Kingston-class coastal defence vessel, a coxswain holds the rank of petty officer 1st class or CPO2; the term was sometimes used aboard merchant ships for the senior petty officer in charge of the helm. The fictional Israel Hands, for example, was the coxswain of Hispaniola in Treasure Island. In Royal Navy Sections of the Combined Cadet Force, the rank of Cadet Coxswain is the highest that a cadet can achieve, except in the rare occurrence that they are promoted to the rank of Cadet Under Officer; the Rank of Coxswain equates to the rank of Cadet Warrant Officer in the Royal Air Force Sections, the rank of Cadet Regimental Sergeant Major in the Army Sections. In the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, the position of Coxswain is appointed to the cadet with the rank of Cadet Chief Petty Officer First Class; this would be the equivalent of the position of Regimental Sergeant Major in the Royal Canadian Army Cadets held by a Cadet Chief Warrant Officer.
In the United States Coast Guard and United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, the coxswain is the person in charge of a small boat. The coxswain has the authority to direct all boat and crew activities during the mission and modify planned missions to provide for the safety of the boat and the crew. Before a person can be assigned to be a coxswain, they have to go through a qualification procedure, be certified and maintain the certification to be a coxswain. Upon certification, they are awarded the Coxswain Badge; this qualification procedure requires a significant amount of practice in boat handling as well as previous experience as a boat crew member. Any Coast Guardsman may become a coxswain upon proper qualification. An advancement to boatswain's mate second class requires that the individual qualify as and maintain certification as a coxswain. A commanding officer or officer in charge of a land based unit with boats has to be certified and stay certified as a coxswain on all boats in the unit or be relieved of command.
A coxswain is assigned to a boat by the command authority and can only be relieved by the commanding officer/Officer in Charge, executive officer/Executive Petty Officer, or senior officer present. The coxswain’s authority is independent of rank and/or seniority in relation to any other person on board the boat. Unlike the commanding officer of a cutter or ship, a coxswain does not automatically have command authority. Helmsman Navy boat crew United States Coast Guard Regulations 1992, COMDTINST M5000.3, Section 5‐1‐8.) "Coxswain". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. 1911. Joseph McMillan. "Other Traditions of the United States Naval Services: Other Ceremonies and Customs: Boat Hails". Sea Flags. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 11 August 2015. Linked as "U. S. Navy Coxswain's responses to hails"
The River Orwell flows through the county of Suffolk in England. Its source river, above the tidal limit at Stoke Bridge, is known as the River Gipping, it broadens into an estuary at Ipswich where the Ipswich dock has operated since the 7th century and flows into the North Sea at Felixstowe the UK's largest container port after joining with the River Stour at Shotley forming Harwich harbour. The large Orwell Bridge carries the A14 trunk road over the estuary to the south of Ipswich. In the name Orwell, Or- comes from an ancient river-name — pre-Celtic. In A tour through England and Wales written in 1722, Daniel Defoe calls the river "Orwel", he mentions that "a traveller will hardly understand me a seaman, when I speak of the River Stour and the River Orwell at Harwich, for they know them by no other names than those of Maningtre-Water, Ipswich-Water". The writer Eric Blair chose the pen name under which he would become famous, "George Orwell", because of his love for the river. A few miles north of the Orwell is another Suffolk river the Ore and Orfordness, the village port of Orford with its historic castle.
The Orwell provides a popular venue for sailing. Interest centred on the hamlet of Pin Mill, home to the Pin Mill Sailing Club and its Hard. Ransome had kept his yacht Selina King at the Pin Mill anchorage in 1937–39. Since the 1970s marinas have opened at Levington, Fox's, two marinas in the old Ipswich Wet Dock. Woolverstone is home to the Royal Harwich Yacht Club, for many years host to the Swordfish 15-foot racing dinghy built by Fairey Marine, in addition to its 12-foot Firefly, a derivative of the National 12-foot dinghy, both designed by the sailor Uffa Fox, it now hosts a broad range of sailing events, such as the annual'Junior Race Week'. The 1957 film Yangtse Incident: The Story of HMS Amethyst was filmed on the river; the naval shore establishment at HMS Ganges featured in the film being used as a site for Chinese gun batteries