HMS Empire Spearhead
HMS Empire Spearhead was a Type C1-S-AY-1 Infantry Landing Ship chartered by the British Ministry of War Transport during World War II. She was built by Consolidated Steel Corporation, Wilmington and she was launched as Cape Girardeau and completed as Empire Spearhead. In 1945, she was transferred to the Royal Navy and was renamed HMS Ormonde, that year she was transferred back to the MoWT and renamed Empire Spearhead. In 1947, she was transferred to the United States Maritime Commission, the ship was laid up in 1950 and renamed Empire Spearhead. The ship was built in 1944 as yard number 354 by Consolidated Steel Corporation Wilmington and she was launched on 7 November 1944, and completed in January 1944. The ship was 396 feet 5 inches long, with a beam of 60 feet 1 inch and she had a depth of 35 feet 0 inches. The ship had a GRT of 7,177 and a NRT of 4,823, the ship was propelled by two steam turbines, double reduction geared, driving a single screw propellor. The turbines were built by Westinghouse Electric Company, Pennsylvania, Cape Girardeau was launched in January 1944, and completed that month as Empire Spearhead.
She was built for the War Shipping Administration and chartered by the MoWT, the Code Letters MYMR and United Kingdom Official Number 169773 were allocated. She took part in Operation Overlord, a photographer from the Daily Sketch was on board to record the invasion flotilla. The ship carried members of the 231st Infantry Brigade, 1st Battalion, the troops were landed on Gold Beach. At the end of June 1944, Empire Spearhead was transferred to the Royal Navy as HMS Empire Spearhead, following Overlord, Empire Spearhead was part of Force X. This was a convoy consisting seven ships, HMS Lothian, SS Clan Lamont, SS Empire Arquebus, HMS Empire Battleaxe, SS Empire Mace, HMS Empire Spearhead, the convoy sailed from Greenock on 3 August as part of Convoy UC31. Force X sailed via New York and the Panama Canal, arriving at Suva, Fiji, in November 1944, Empire Spearhead took part in Exercise Octopus at Unity Beach, Queensland. The exercise trained troops for amphibious landings, in March 1945, Empire Spearhead took part in Operation Iceberg.
She departed Manus Island, Papua New Guinea on 19 March and arrived at the Leyte Gulf and she was briefly renamed HMS Ormonde during her last months in the Royal Navy. In 1946, she was transferred back to the MoWT as Empire Spearhead, in 1950, she was laid up on the James River and renamed Empire Spearhead. She was sold for scrap on 17 March 1965 to The Boston Metals Co, Empire Spearhead was withdrawn from the Reserve Fleet on 3 May
HMCS Prince David (F89)
For three years, they were the largest ships in the RCN. As the needs of the RCN changed, so were the Prince ships able to adapt to new roles and their flexibility offered the RCN greater scope and balance in its operations. They did not function as did the bulk of the Canadian fleet, no rushing back and forth across the ocean and damp, Prince David and her sisters, each with two separate employments, roamed most of the navigable world forming a little navy apart. The specifications for all three ships had been identical, three decks, three funnels, cruiser sterns and accommodation for 300 passengers. Each had cost $2,000,000 at completion and with a speed of 22 knots, Prince David arrived on the West Coast in the summer of 1930 and was put on the Vancouver - Victoria - Seattle daily service. However, the decline in trade due to the Depression had made it impractical for all three ships to operate in British Columbia waters, in 1932, Prince David and Prince Henry were sent back east to join the Canada - West Indies service.
While on a south, Prince David ran aground on the North-East Breaker at Bermuda on 13 March 1932. Prince David was laid up at Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1937, during the protracted negotiations for the CN ships, all three vessels had been inspected by the Naval Service and specifications drawn up. It was recognized that the task of converting the fast liners would not be an easy one and their hulls and engines were basically sound. Prince Robert, which had had no accidents and had been maintained, was to present no problems. Her sister ships, on the hand, were a different story. Prince David was suffering neglect, with a badly fouled hull, rotten deck planks. Holes in the plating, crystallized valves and decrepit auxiliary engines augured an expensive refit as well as conversion. The Naval Service lost no time in making arrangements for the conversion of the Princes, the British Admiralty had been depositing defensive equipment in Canada between the wars in order to arm fast liners as AMCs in the event of hostilities.
Twelve 6-inch guns were available to the RCN to start the AMC program. The 6-inch guns were manufactured as early as 1896 and fitted in the casemates of King Edward VII-class battleships launched between 1903 and 1905. They had no range-finding or fire-control equipment and had designed to train over a small arc. Some 3-inch guns designed for light cruisers and of a newer vintage were made available, on 9 February 1940, work commenced on Prince David at Halifax Shipyards from plans prepared by Messrs
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
QF 12-pounder 12 cwt naval gun
The QF12 pounder 12 cwt gun was a common, versatile 3-inch calibre naval gun introduced in 1894 and used until the middle of the 20th century. It was produced by Armstrong Whitworth and used on Royal Navy warships, as the Type 41 3-inch /40 it was used on most early battleships and cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy, though it was commonly referred to by its UK designation as a “12-pounder” gun. They were fitted as deck guns on D and E-class submarines and it was estimated that out of the 4,737 Mk I and Mk II guns produced there were still 3,494 on hand for the RN in 1939. The gun was primarily a high-velocity naval gun, with its heavy recoil suiting it to static mountings, an exception was made when the British Army were outgunned by the Boer artillery in South Africa and the Royal Navy was called on for help. Their 10, 000-yard range provided valuable fire support for the army throughout the war. They were known as long twelves to distinguish them from the BL 12-pounder 6 cwt and QF 12-pounder 8 cwt which had shorter barrels.
He reported switching to percussion tubes for firing and recommended percussion for future field operations, perhaps uniquely, the guns were donated directly to Lord Roberts, the British commander in South Africa and became his personal property. They were known as the Elswick Battery and were manned by men from Elswick, the Elswick guns served throughout the war. There were 103 of these employed in coast defence around the UK as at April 1918. Many of these were still in service in World War II although they had by been superseded by more modern types such as twin QF6 pounder 10 cwt mounts. In World War I a number of coast defence guns were modified and mounted on special wheeled traveling carriages to create an effective mobile anti-aircraft gun. UK shells weighed 12.5 lb filled and fuzed, the cordite propellant charge was normally ignited by an electrically-activated primer, with power provided by a battery. The electric primer in the cartridge could be replaced by an adaptor which allowed the use of electric or percussion tube to be inserted to provide ignition, the Japanese Type 41 3-inch naval gun was a direct copy of the QF12 pounder.
The first guns were bought from the UK firms as Elswick Pattern N, thereafter production was in Japan under licence. It was the secondary or tertiary armament on most Japanese warships built between 1890 and 1920, and was still in service as late as the Pacific War. The gun was designated as “Type 41” from the 41st year of the reign of Emperor Meiji on 25 December 1908. It was further re-designated in centimeters on 5 October 1917 as part of the process for the Imperial Japanese Navy to the metric system. Although finally classified as an 8cm gun the bore was unchanged at 7.62 cm, the Type 41 3-inch naval gun fired a 12. 5-pound high-explosive shell
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Landing Craft Mechanized
The landing craft mechanized landing craft mechanical is a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles. They came to prominence during the Second World War when they were used to land troops or tanks during Allied amphibious assaults. There was no design of LCM used, unlike the landing craft, personnel or landing craft assault landing craft made by the US. There were several different designs built by the UK and US, the British motor landing craft was conceived and tested in the 1920s and was used from 1924 in exercises. It was the first purpose built landing craft. It was the progenitor of all subsequent LCM designs, the landing craft, mechanised Mark I was an early British model. It was able to be slung under the davits of a liner or on a cargo ship boom with the result that it was limited to a 16-ton tank, the LCM Mark I was used during the Allied landings in Norway, and at Dieppe and some 600 were built. Displacement,35 tonnes Length,13.6 m Width,4.27 m Draught,1.22 m Machinery, approximately 150 were built by American Car & Foundry and Higgins Industries.
A Higgins LCM-3 is on display at the Battleship Cove maritime museum in Fall River, the LCM was almost completely identical to a late model LCM - the difference lay inside the pontoon. Here special bilge pumps and special ballast tanks allowed the LCM to alter trim to increase stability when partially loaded, British model of LCM An LCM extended by 6 feet amidships. Many were adapted as armoured troop carriers for the Mobile Riverine Force in the Vietnam War, power plant,2 Detroit 6-71 diesel engines,348 hp sustained, twin shaft, or 2 Detroit 8V-71 diesel engines,460 hp sustained, twin shaft Length,56
Landing craft are boats and seagoing vessels used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. Most renowned are those used to storm the beaches of Normandy, the Mediterranean and this was the high point of the landing craft, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States. Because of the need to run up onto a beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed. This made them difficult to control and very uncomfortable in rough seas, the control point was normally at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by a derived from the official name rather than by the full title. In the days of sail, the boats were used as landing craft. They transported 1,200 men in the first landing and took on board 600 men in less than 2 hours for the second landing, during World War I, the mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons quickly rendered such boats obsolete.
Initial landings during the Gallipoli campaign took place in unmodified rowing boats that were vulnerable to attack from the Turkish shore defenses. In February 1915, orders were placed for the design of purpose built landing craft, a design was created in four days resulting in an order for 200 X Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow to take shelving beaches and a drop down frontal ramp. The first use took place after they had been towed to the Aegean and performed successfully in the 6 August landing at Suvla Bay of IX Corps, commanded by Commander Edward Unwin. X Lighters, known to the soldiers as Beetles, carried about 500 men, displaced 135 tons and were based on London barges being 105 feet 6 inches long,21 feet wide, the engines mainly ran on heavy oil and ran at a speed of approximately 5 knots. The sides of the ships were bulletproof, and was designed with a ramp on the bow for disembarkation, a plan was devised to land British heavy tanks from pontoons in support of the Third Battle of Ypres, but this was abandoned.
Despite this outlook, the British produced the Motor Landing Craft in 1920, the craft could put a medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924, it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings, a prototype motor landing craft, designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was built and first sailed in 1926. It weighed 16 tons and had an appearance, having a square bow. To prevent fouling of the propellers in a craft destined to spend time in surf and possibly be beached, a crude waterjet propulsion system was devised by Whites designers. A Hotchkiss petrol engine drove a pump which produced a jet of water, pushing the craft ahead or astern. Speed was 5-6 knots and its capacity was good
The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean and one of the most isolated in the world. They are located in Southeast Asia,150 km north of Aceh on Sumatra, located 1,300 km southeast of the Indian subcontinent, across the Bay of Bengal, they form part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. UNESCO has declared the Great Nicobar Island as one of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, the Nicobar Islands cover a land area of 1,648.13 km2 and had a population of 36,844 at the 2011 Census. The Nicobar Islands are part of an island arc created by the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Eurasia. The climate is warm and tropical, with temperatures ranging from 22 to 30 °C, rainfall is heavy due to annual monsoons and measures around 3000 to 3800 mm each year. The vegetation of the Nicobars is typically divided into the mangrove forests. Additionally, several islands contain extensive inland grasslands, though these are thought to result from human intervention, the Nicobar Islands are recognised as a distinct terrestrial ecoregion, the Nicobar Islands rain forests, with many endemic species.
The Nicobar Islands are believed to have inhabited for thousands of years. An indigenous tribe living at the tip of Great Nicobar, called the Shompen. The modern name is derived from the Chola dynasty name for the islands. Marco Polo referred to this island as Necuverann, the history of organised European colonisation on the islands began with the Danish East India Company in 1754/56. Between 1778 and 1783, William Bolts attempted to establish an Austrian colony on the islands on the assumption that Denmark–Norway had abandoned its claims to the islands. Italy made an attempt at buying the Nicobar Islands from Denmark between 1864 and 1868, the Italian Minister of Agriculture and Commerce Luigi Torelli started a negotiation that looked promising, but failed due to the unexpected end of his Office and the first La Marmora Cabinet. The negotiations were interrupted and never brought up again, denmarks presence in the islands ended formally on 16 October 1868 when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain, which in 1869 made them part of British India.
During World War II, the islands were occupied by Japan between 1942 and 1945, India occupied the Island after that, as its Territory. Together with the Andaman Islands, they became a territory of India in 1950. On 26 December 2004, the coast of the Nicobar Islands was devastated by a 10–15 m high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. At least 6,000 people were killed on the Andaman, several islands were heavily damaged with initial reports of islands broken in two or three pieces and coral reefs moved above water
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange