Sutro Heights Park
Sutro Heights Park is an historic public park in the Outer Richmond District of western San Francisco, California. It is within the Sutro Historic District, it is located above the Cliff House in the Lands End area, with views of the Seal Rocks, Ocean Beach, the Pacific Ocean. The 18 acres park is on the site of the former "Sutro Heights" estate of Adolph Sutro, a Comstock Lode silver baron, a major land owner/developer in and mayor of San Francisco. In 1881, Adolf Sutro purchased 22 acres of undeveloped land south of Point Lobos and north of Ocean Beach at the western edge of the city, it included a promontory overlooking the Pacific, with scenic views of the Marin Headlands, Mount Tamalpais, the Golden Gate. Sutro built his mansion on a rocky ledge there, above the first Cliff House; the grounds consisted of a spacious turreted mansion, a carriage house, outbuildings set in expansive gardens. The estate dominated the Lands End area, with an elaborate entrance gate, he spent in excess of a million dollars to recreate an Italian style garden.
It was filled with fountains, planted urns, statues, Victorian flower beds, hedge mazes, forests of trees, a glass plant conservatory, other garden structures. Vista points included the "observation plaza" overlooking the Cliff House, the "Dolce far Niente Balcony," a long terrace-like structure along the cliff overlooking Ocean Beach. To provide garden decorations, he imported over 200 concrete replicas of Greek and Roman statuary from Belgium, to provide examples of European culture to visitors. By 1883 Sutro opened his estate's gardens, named Sutro Heights, to the public and allowed strolling the grounds for the donation of a dime; that small fee helped to pay the 17 gardeners and drivers he employed to maintain the grounds. Other features he developed on his land holdings in the Lands End area include: the Sutro Baths, the second and elaborate Victorian style Cliff House and an amusement park named Sutro Pleasure Grounds at Merrie Way. To provide inexpensive transportation for visitors to these he built a passenger steam train from downtown San Francisco to Lands End.
Adolph Sutro died in 1898, land rich but cash poor following his frustrating tenure as Mayor of San Francisco. His daughter Emma Sutro Merritt moved to the Sutro Heights estate then; as she aged she could not maintain the grounds, the house became deteriorated, though she lived there until her death in 1938. Throughout the 1920s, ‘30s, ‘40s, people took away many of the rose garden plantings and vandalized the statues; the Sutro family donated the estate to the City of San Francisco in 1938. In 1939 the Works Progress Administration demolished the residence. Remaining statuary was removed, with the exception of The Lions, copies of those in London's Trafalgar Square at the entrance gate, a statue of Diana the Huntress, a concrete copy of the Louvre's Diana, itself a Roman copy of a Greek statue; the 18 acres city park opened. Sutro Heights Park is no longer a city park, it is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it is maintained by a neighborhood group, Friends of the GGNRA, many of whom live on the surrounding streets.
Cliff House, San Francisco Lands End, San Francisco Sutro Baths 49-Mile Scenic Drive Golden Gate National Recreation Area NPS−Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Visiting Lands End NPS-GGNRA: Lands End History and Culture Vestiges of Lands End — digital guidebook
Fort Cronkhite is one of the components of California's Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Today part of the National Park Service, Fort Cronkhite is a former US Army post that served as part of the coastal artillery defenses of the San Francisco Bay Area during World War II; the soldiers at Cronkhite manned gun batteries, radar sites, other fortifications on the high ridges overlooking the fort. Named for former army general Adelbert Cronkhite, Fort Cronkhite was established in the late 1930s. With the rapid military buildup of the United States in the early 1940s, tens of thousands of temporary wooden structures had to be built by the army to house its growing ranks; the army's Quartermaster Corps and the Corps of Engineers were put in charge of the building projects around the country. Using standard plans, all types of buildings could be built in short time including barracks, mess halls, supply depots and recreation buildings. Many of these types of "temporary" wooden building can still be found at Fort Cronkhite today over 70 years later.
The first unit to move into the fort was Battery E of the 6th Coast Artillery in June 1941. The soldiers stationed at the fort manned local artillery emplacements as well as the three gun, 3 inch Antiaircraft Battery No. 1. Named for Major General Clarence P. Townsley, who had commanded the 30th Infantry Division in France in World War I, construction of Battery Townsley began in 1938 with the excavation for the large magazine and gun emplacement on the ridge overlooking what would become Fort Cronkhite; when it was completed in 1940 and transferred to the Coast Artillery Corps it was the second 16-inch battery on the West Coast, after Battery Davis at Fort Funston. The battery was manned at all times with the men on each shift living in the concrete walls of the battery high on the ridge. Battery Townsley is open to the public every first Sunday of the month, from 12 noon to 4 PM. During the Cold War Fort Cronkhite was used to house soldiers of the nearby SF-88 Nike Missile launch site. SF-88 operated throughout the 1960s and early 1970s until it was permanently closed in 1974.
Many of the older wooden buildings of the fort had started to be torn down by the army in the previous years and with the closure of SF-88 Fort Cronkhite was closed altogether soon after. Fort Cronkhite was discontinued as a United States Army installation effective 10 September, 1974 by General order Number 25. Fort Cronkhite is now part of the National Park Service's Marin Headlands section within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Along with nearby Fort Baker and Fort Barry, Fort Cronkhite is on the National Register of Historic Places. Visitors to Fort Cronkhite can take walking tours of the former army buildings and hike the many trails located in the area. Many of these buildings are occupied by private non-profit organizations and are not open to the public. Rodeo Beach, which separates Rodeo Lagoon from the Pacific Ocean is located near Fort Cronkhite and is open to the public. Rodeo Beach is a popular public surfing location, close to San Francisco. Camping is available at campgrounds in the Marin Headlands area.
Golden Gate National Recreation Area Marin Headlands San Francisco Bay Area Seacoast defense in the United States Fort Cronkhite National Park Service website
Seal Rocks (San Francisco, California)
Seal Rock is a group of small rock formation islands in the Lands End area of the Outer Richmond District in western San Francisco, California. They are located just offshore in the Pacific Ocean, at the north end of the Ocean Beach, near the Cliff House and Sutro Baths ruins; the name is derived from the population of Steller's sea lions and California sea lions, who haul out on the rock. Both species are colloquially called "seals"; the formations and wildlife are protected within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Near the end of the last ice age, this part of the coastline was thought to be between eight and twenty five miles westward of its current position - around five thousand years ago, with the melting of the ice, the sea level rose to its current level; the coastal features found here today were formed by the actions of waves and the movement of sand. The geology of this part of the coastline of San Francisco consists of steep rocky cliffs which are punctuated by narrow sandy pocket beaches found at the north end of the city and long sandy stretches at Ocean Beach and Fort Funston to the south.
The local features, indeed the entire San Francisco Peninsula, come from the northern aspect of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Before the urban development seen today, the area landward of Ocean Beach consisted of barren sand fields inland to Twin Peaks; the first known map of the area, dating from 1852, was made by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and describes the coastline here as being unaltered by humans; the geologic layers beneath Ocean Beach, starting from the top, are: Placed fill, from various construction activities over the last 100 years or so. The depth of this placed fill varies, but in 1985 it was estimated to be between 7 to 16 feet deep. Dune sands, estimated to be 13 to 26 feet deep. Colma Formation Merced Formation Bedrock; the depth to bedrock is estimated to be between 350 to 400 feet. The Colma and Merced Formations consist of poorly-sorted sandy deposits deposited during some earlier period of greater sea levels; the Colma Formation is found under the dune sands and extends inland.
Cliff House, San Francisco — adjacent + overlooking the rocks. Sutro Heights Park — overlooking Cliff House + the rocks. Sutro Historic District Lands End, San Francisco 49-Mile Scenic Drive List of islands of California U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Seal Rocks Martin, James A.. The Islands of San Francisco Bay. San Rafael, CA: Down Window Press. ISBN 0-9787241-0-0. NPS−Golden Gate National Recreation Area: Seal Rocks, vestiges of Lands End Cliffhouseproject.com: Seal Rocks images NPS-GGNRA: Visiting Lands End NPS-GGNRA: Lands End History and Culture Vestiges of Lands End — digital guidebook
Crissy Field, a former U. S. Army airfield, is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco, United States. Part of the Presidio of San Francisco, Crissy Field closed as an airfield after 1974. Under Army control, the site was affected by dumping of hazardous materials; the National Park Service took control of the area in 1994 and, together with the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, worked to restore the site until 2001, when the Crissy Field Center was opened to the public. While most buildings have been preserved as they were in the 1920s, some have been transformed into offices, retail space, residences; the land Crissy Field resides on is an ancient 130-acre salt estuary. Prior to European settlement, the Ohlone people used the area for harvesting fish, they lived in seasonal camps in the area, leaving behind shell middens in the archaeological record. The Spanish called the area El Presidio, they began to use the area for livestock agriculture. The 127-acre marsh site was filled in during the 1870s.
This alteration was finished in time for the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition. The U. S. Army took control of the Presidio in 1846, using the tidal wetland as a wasteland for dumping and draining. After filling in the marshlands, the Army created an aerodrome. During World War I the Army constructed numerous temporary buildings on the site of the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition at the Presidio of San Francisco and linked it to Fort Mason with a rail spur. In July 1918 Congress passed Public Law 189 to establish eight "air coast defense stations" and appropriated $1.5 million for the construction of one of them at the Presidio, to protect San Francisco Bay. In June 1919 the Army assigned Colonel Henry H. Arnold of the Air Service as Air Officer, Western Department, directed him to convene a board of four officers to select the site; the board chose the former exposition site as much for its sheltered beach to protect seaplane operations as the fact that the infield of its racetrack was in use as an aviation field.
Although the wartime appropriations were reduced by the end of the war, demolition of buildings posing a landing hazard began in the fall of 1919. The east-west clay and sand landing field was kidney-shaped with the outline of the racetrack still visible; the western end of the field featured workshops and a garage for the army. To the immediate east along the southern edge was the guardhouse in Classical/Mediterranean Revival Style architecture, the administrative building in American Craftsman/Mediterranean Revival, a two-story enlisted barracks in Mission Revival Style; the bluff overlooking the field had the row of officer's quarters. Arnold led the effort to name the facility "Crissy Field" in memory of Major Dana H. Crissy, the base commander of Mather Field, California. Crissy and his observer died on 8 October 1919 in the crash of their de Havilland DH-4B while attempting a landing at Salt Lake City, during a 61-airplane "transcontinental reliability and endurance test" conducted by the Air Service from the Presidio's field and Roosevelt Field, New York.
Construction proceeded throughout 1920, including a seaplane ramp adjacent to the Coast Guard Station on the grounds, the Army accepted the facility on June 24, 1921, as a sub-post of the Presidio. The first unit assigned to the field, the 91st Observation Squadron, arrived from Mather in August, the first commanding officer, Major George H. Brett, in October. In the early years, Crissy Field involved the viewing of artillery fire, aerial photography, liaison flights for headquarter personnel, special civilian missions such as publicity flights and search and rescues, a support field for U. S. Air Mail; the first Western aerial forest fire patrols took place from Crissy Field. The first successful dawn-to-dusk transcontinental flight across the United States ended at Crissy Field in June 1924; that same year, the army's first aerial circumnavigation of the world stopped at Crissy Field, Lowell H. Smith, stationed at the field, led the flyers upon their return. In 1925, two Navy flying boats led by Commander John Rodgers took off from Crissy Field, marking the first attempt to fly from the continental United States to Hawaii.
The flight was expected to take 26-hours, but it took twelve days when the PN-9 ran out of fuel short of land, crew and aircraft had to be rescued at sea. Two years Air Corps Lieutenants Lester Maitland and Albert Hegenberger flew non-stop to Hawaii in the Bird of Paradise, a specially modified transport plane, after staging at Crissy Field. Crissy Field was considered ideal for air operations; however and fog made for poor flying conditions, construction of the Golden Gate Bridge threatened to make local flights more difficult, the 3,000-foot runway was too short for more loaded aircraft. The Army considered Crissy Field vulnerable to possible enemy ship attacks due to its location on the water's edge of the San Francisco Bay. In 1936, Hamilton Field opened in Marin County, while Crissy Field ceased to be a first-line air base, air operations continued until the 1970s; when the air corps left, the administration building served as the headquarters for the 30th Infantry Regiment, the landing field was used as an assembly area for troop mobilization.
During World War II, temporary wooden barracks and classrooms were built on site for the army's Military Intelligence Service Language School. Nisei soldiers were trained as battlefield interpreters, as well. After World War II a paved runway replaced the grass landing field and the Sixth Army Flight Detachment used Crissy Field for light utility and passeng
California Coastal Trail
The California Coastal Trail, or CCT, is an environmental project by the California Coastal Conservancy, an organization developed to enhance coastal resources and promote access to the shore in 2001. The trail is designed to connect the entire coast of California by forming an extensive hiking trail; when complete, the trail will be 1,200 miles long—spanning from Oregon to Mexico. As of January 2017, the trail is about 30 percent complete with signage and expenses are predicted to reach $668m when finished. "The California Coastal Trail will not be one single pathway. It will consist of different, parallel trails that accommodate the needs of varying visitors; some portions of the trail will be for beach walkers, other sections will be for bicyclists and equestrians. The trail will have paths to detour around seasonal nesting grounds or other sensitive sites. Though the paths may not all be physically connected, whenever possible all trails will be “within sight, sound, or at least the scent of the sea."
A two-volume trail guide has been written about the California Coastal Trail entitled Hiking the California Coastal Trail. Exploration of the California coast by Europeans began in 1769; the Portola Expedition was the first European group to make the journey on land, the de Anza expeditions followed the Portola Expedition soon after. The paths the expeditions took are now commemorated in the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail; the Juan Bautista trail shares a portion of its route with the Coastal Trail. The Coastal Initiative stating that “A hiking and equestrian trails system shall be established along or near the coast” and that “ideally the trails system should be continuous and located near the shoreline” was passed in 1972 with 55% popular vote. Policy makers and coastal managers have envisioned a continuous coastal trail in California for generations. Governor Gray Davis and the White House Millennium Trail Council designated the California Coastal Trail as California’s Millennium Legacy Trail in 1999.
Due to its new recognition, federal agencies began to aid in the development of the trail. In 2001, state legislation approved the completion of the trail, which led to its designation as a state trail. In 2001, the State Coastal Conservancy was directed to provide the specifications needed to complete the coastal trail and their report came out in 2003. Activity on the project since 2003 is listed in the "What's New" section on the California Coastal Trail website; the California Coastal Conservancy has six goals for the California Coastal Trail, to: Provide a continuous trail as close to the ocean as possible Have full support of the state Better public knowledge of the good that comes with the California Coastal Trail Have all policies related to the trail respect the rights of private landowners Design the trail to create positive experiences for the public while protecting the environment Have the trail connect to other trail systems to provide ways to the coastal area from urban areasThe conservancy expects the trail to improve the economy.
The trail will attract tourists, create jobs, make selling surrounding real estate easier. They expect the trail to help protect the environment. People enjoying nature can do so without hurting sensitive areas. Another goal is to improve quality of life through recreation by encouraging people to use the trail for exercise; the conservancy wants people to think of trails as a means of transportation. To achieve these goals the trail must meet four requirements—it must: Always be within sight or sound of the ocean Serve as a starting point to reach various destinations Be separated from all motor traffic Respect the current environment and not disrupt the natural habitat Completing the California Coastal Trail requires resolving issues that include environmental protection and quasi-public ownership of lands along the shoreline, cooperation among many agencies and individuals; the coastal environment is fragile, the trail must not threaten natural habitat. The coast is home to endangered species such as the California least tern, has fragile tide pools, beaches visited by elephant seals to bear and raise their pups, areas of sensitive vegetation.
The trail aims to prevent people from entering sensitive sites, yet still bring visitors within view of other sights to educate them on the shoreline ecosystem. Trail developers believe that informing people spreads the idea of respecting and protecting the environment. Over the years, people have built many structures too close to the shoreline; as a result, they became threatened by the ocean’s force, owners built revetments as a defense. However, the armoring has narrowed some beaches. Public access to the beaches has been reduced in areas where development exists in an unbroken line contiguous to the beach. Properties act as barriers to the public by preventing entrance to the shore. Vertical access is restricted, stopping public roads leading to the shoreline. Coastal land ownership is divided among many individuals and organizations. To unify the trail, developers of the California Coastal Trail must ask all owners to cooperate. Several agencies—state and federal—along with quasi-public land-holders must communicate and discover ways to increase coastline access.
Fifteen projects are being worked on along the California coastline in the counties of Del Norte, Mendocino, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego. The conservancy is encouraging the state to implement five statewide policies; the first
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
The Ohlone, named Costanoan by early Spanish colonists, are a Native American people of the Northern California coast. When Spanish explorers and missionaries arrived in the late 18th century, the Ohlone inhabited the area along the coast from San Francisco Bay through Monterey Bay to the lower Salinas Valley. At that time they spoke a variety of related languages; the Ohlone languages belonged to the Costanoan sub-family of the Utian language family, which itself belongs to the proposed Penutian language phylum. The term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some tribal groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature. In pre-colonial times, the Ohlone lived in more than 50 distinct landholding groups, did not view themselves as a distinct group, they lived by hunting and gathering, in the typical ethnographic California pattern. The members of these various bands interacted with one another; the Ohlone people practiced the Kuksu religion. Prior to the Gold Rush, the northern California region was one of the most densely populated regions north of Mexico.
However, the arrival of Spanish colonizers to the area in 1769 vastly changed tribal life forever. The Spanish constructed Missions along the California coast with the objective of Christianizing the native people and culture. Between the years 1769 and 1834, the number of Indigenous Californians dropped from 300,000 to 250,000. After California entered into the Union in 1850, the state government perpetrated massacres against the Ohlones. Many of the leaders of these massacres were rewarded with positions in state and federal government; these massacres have been described as genocide. Many are now leading a push for cultural and historical recognition of their tribe and what they have gone through and had taken from them; the Ohlone living today belong to one or another of a number of geographically distinct groups, but not all, in their original home territory. The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe has members from around the San Francisco Bay Area, is composed of descendants of the Ohlones/Costanoans from the San Jose, Santa Clara, San Francisco missions.
The Ohlone/Costanoan Esselen Nation, consisting of descendants of intermarried Rumsen Costanoan and Esselen speakers of Mission San Carlos Borromeo, are centered at Monterey. The Amah-Mutsun Tribe are descendants of Mutsun Costanoan speakers of Mission San Juan Bautista, inland from Monterey Bay. Most members of another group of Rumsien language, descendants from Mission San Carlos, the Costanoan Rumsien Carmel Tribe of Pomona/Chino, now live in southern California; these groups, others with smaller memberships are separately petitioning the federal government for tribal recognition. The Ohlone inhabited fixed village locations, moving temporarily to gather seasonal foodstuffs like acorns and berries; the Ohlone people lived in Northern California from the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula down to northern region of Big Sur, from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Diablo Range in the east. Their vast region included the San Francisco Peninsula, Santa Clara Valley, Santa Cruz Mountains, Monterey Bay area, as well as present-day Alameda County, Contra Costa County and the Salinas Valley.
Prior to Spanish contact, the Ohlone formed a complex association of 50 different "nations or tribes" with about 50 to 500 members each, with an average of 200. Over 50 distinct Ohlone tribes and villages have been recorded; the Ohlone villages interacted through trade and ceremonial events, as well as some internecine conflict. Cultural arts included basket-weaving skills, seasonal ceremonial dancing events, female tattoos and nose piercings, other ornamentation; the Ohlone subsisted as hunter-gatherers and in some ways harvesters. "A rough husbandry of the land was practiced by annually setting of fires to burn-off the old growth in order to get a better yield of seeds—or so the Ohlone told early explorers in San Mateo County." Their staple diet consisted of crushed acorns, grass seeds, berries, although other vegetation and trapped game and seafood, were important to their diet. These food sources were abundant in earlier times and maintained by careful work, through active management of all the natural resources at hand.
Animals in their mild climate included the grizzly bear, elk and deer. The streams held salmon and stickleback. Birds included plentiful ducks, quail, great horned owls, red-shafted flickers, downy woodpeckers and yellow-billed magpies. Waterfowl were the most important birds in the people's diet, which were captured with nets and decoys; the Chochenyo traditional narratives refer to ducks as food, Juan Crespí observed in his journal that geese were stuffed and dried "to use as decoys in hunting others". Along the ocean shore and bays, there were otters, at one time thousands of sea lions. In fact, there were so many sea lions that according to Crespi it "looked like a pavement" to the incoming Spanish. In general, along the bayshore and valleys, the Ohlone constructed dome-shaped houses of woven or bundled mats of tules, 6 to 20 feet in diameter. In hills where redwood trees were accessible, they built conical houses from redwood bark attached to a frame of wood. Residents of Monterey recall Redwood houses.
One of the main village buildings, the sweat lodge was low into the ground, its walls made of earth and roof of earth and brush. They built boats of tule to navigate on the bays propelled by double-bladed paddles. Men did not