Stringtown is a town in Atoka County, United States. The population was 410 at the 2010 census, an increase of 3.5 percent from 396 at the 2000 census. It is the second largest town in Atoka County; the town is notable for the Mack H. Alford Correctional Center, a medium-security prison operated by the Oklahoma Department of Corrections, just outside Stringtown. Stringtown is located at 34°28′6″N 96°3′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.7 square miles, of which 4.7 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 1.24%, is water. Stringtown is located at the southern intersection of U. S. Highway 69 and State Highway 43. Named Springtown for the natural springs that flow out of the hills the town is built upon, the current name is believed to be a corruption. Once home to a bank and pub, the town has declined over the years, both economically and in population. In the past five years, small population growth and the addition of a new café have brought new life to the town.
Annually in September, the Good Ole Days Festival celebrates the town's past with parade and concert. On August 5, 1932, while Bonnie Parker was visiting her mother, Clyde Barrow and two associates were drinking alcohol at a dance in Stringtown, they were approached by Sheriff C. G. Maxwell and his deputy, at which time Clyde opened fire, killing deputy Eugene C. Moore; that was the first killing of a lawman by what was known as the Barrow Gang, a total which would amount to nine slain officers. In the 1940s during World War II, Fritz Johann Hansgirg, the Austrian inventor of magnesium and heavy water processes was interned at the U. S. alien internment camp located in Stringtown. In the late 1960s, a tornado touched down in the town directly on top of the built Community Center, now the Senior Citizens Center; the tornado was only on the ground for a few seconds, but during that time the building was destroyed. It was an unusual occurrence for a tornado to touch down in the town itself, given its location between two chains of steep hills.
The nearby Mack Alford State Penitentiary is a large source of employment in the county. It was an internment camp for Japanese Americans arrested as "enemy aliens" and for German POWs during World War II. Despite its small size, Stringtown is the second-largest town in Atoka County, behind Atoka and ahead of Tushka. On January 14, 2014, the Oklahoma Highway Patrol disbanded the Stringtown Police Department for generating too much of the city’s revenue off of writing traffic tickets, a violation of the state "speed trap" law; the Garside house is one of the biggest historical sites of the town, next to the Bonnie and Clyde monument. The land the Garside house sits on was allotted to Joseph and Sarah Garside and their two kids in 1902. In the middle of building the house, a tornado came through the town and tore down the part of the house, built; the Garside’s had to start from the bottom again but they finished in 1915 with a beautiful two-story house. The house and land was purchased by E. H. Colbertson, who just so happened to be the first white man to buy land in that area.
Four years ago, the house was remodeled and decorated to be a museum. The Southwest Stone Company known as the Rock Crusher, is another big part of the town’s history and is one of the biggest sources of employment in the county; the crusher moved from Chockee to Stringtown in the early 1900s. Up until this point Stringtown had not had electricity yet; the railroad that runs through Stringtown stretch’s from south Texas, takes several routes in Oklahoma and Kansas, reaches to the Northern parts of Missouri. The part that runs through Stringtown was built in 1872 and is known now as the Union Pacific Railroad. Stringtown was once home to a sawmill and a cotton gin that had the biggest production rate in the late 1800s; when the fire came through the town on July 15, 1954, the sawmill and cotton gin burned down, along with half the town. Stringtown had a café, a jailhouse, a barbershop, a bank, a hotel that burned down that day. All, left was Robert’s Store and a few homes; the town never rebuilt after this.
Today, there is a school, a church, a fire department, City Hall, Dianna’s store, a senior citizens building. A state investigation revealed that 76 percent of the Stringtown's 2013 budget came from traffic tickets; the investigation found excessive speed trapping, the police department was disbanded in 2014. The United States Postal Service operates the Stringtown Post Office; the Oklahoma Department of Corrections operates the Mack Alford Correctional Center in an unincorporated area in Atoka County, near Stringtown. As of the census of 2000, there were 396 people, 166 households, 113 families residing in the town; the population density was 83.7 people per square mile. There were 217 housing units at an average density of 45.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 69.95% White, 11.36% African American, 10.35% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from two or more races. There were 166 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families.
28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 1
Lane Clyde Frost was an American professional bull rider, the 1987 World Champion of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association and the 1990 ProRodeo Hall of Fame inductee. He is known as the only rider to score qualified rides from the 1987 World Champion and 1990 ProRodeo Hall of Fame bull Red Rock, he died in the arena at the 1989 Cheyenne Frontier Days Rodeo as a result of injuries sustained when the bull Takin' Care of Business struck him after the ride. He died by getting rammed in the back with the bull's horn, breaking several of his ribs which severed an artery. At the time of Lane's birth, his parents lived in Utah. However, his father, was on the rodeo circuit as a saddle bronc and bareback rider, his mother, went to stay with her parents in Kim, while she waited for him to arrive. He was born in the hospital in the closest medical facility to Kim, he had an older sister, a younger brother, Cody. Frost started riding dairy calves on the family dairy farm when he was six; when he was nine, he first got on a bull.
However, to the relief of his family, he met Don Gay about that time. Elsie says that she and Clyde had been telling him the same thing, but "Of course, he listened to Don." At age fifteen, Frost started to ride bulls on a regular basis. Before that, he steers, his first rodeo awards were won in 1974, when he was 10, at the "Little Buckaroos" Rodeos held in Uintah Basin. He stayed on a bucking Shetland Pony to win first in bareback, took second in calf roping, rode a calf in the "bull riding" event to place third. While rodeoing was not the way of life his parents wanted for him, they never discouraged him, helped him whenever they could. Frost spent his first fourteen years in Utah, doing chores on the family dairy farm, competing in various rodeo events; when he was in junior high in Vernal, he excelled in wrestling. Although he never did so before entering junior high, as many of the other boys had done, because of his interest in rodeo, the coaches still had high expectations for him, he weighed only 75 pounds.
Frost continued competing in the Little Britches Rodeo, any other one he could enter, until his parents moved the family to Lane, Oklahoma, in 1978 to escape the harsh Utah winters. He attended Atoka High School in Atoka. Frost was taught the art of riding by Clyde and his good friend, Freckles Brown, a World Champion Bull Rider. In Oklahoma, he was the National High School Bull Riding Champion in 1981, he was the Bull Riding Champion of the first Youth National Finals in Fort Worth, Texas, in 1982. On January 5, 1985, Frost married Kellie Kyle, a barrel racer from Quanah, west of Wichita Falls. Frost joined the PRCA and began rodeoing full-time after graduating from high school in 1982. In 1987, he realized a lifelong dream when he became the PRCA World Champion Bull Rider at age 24; that same year, the great bull Red Rock, owned by Growney Bros. Rodeo Company, was voted Bucking Bull of the Year. In 309 attempts, no one had ridden him, in 1988, at the Challenge of the Champions, Frost rode him in seven exhibition matches and was successful in four out of seven tries.
He went on to compete at the Rodeo'88 Challenge Cup held as part of the Cultural Olympiad in association with the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Sometime in 1988, John Growney pondered a special competition between the two 1987 Champions, it was decided that Frost and Red Rock would have seven showdowns at different rodeos in states across the West. The event was titled the "Challenge of the Champions." Red Rock was brought out of retirement and Frost rode him to the eight-second whistle for a scoring ride for 4 of the 7 matches. On July 30, 1989, at the Cheyenne Frontier Days Rodeo in Cheyenne, after completing a successful 91-point ride on a Brahma bull named Takin' Care of Business, Frost dismounted and landed in the dirt; the bull hit him in the back with his horn, breaking several of his ribs. He rose to his feet, waving at Tuff Hedeman for help; as he took a couple of steps, he fell to the ground, causing his heart and lungs to be punctured by the broken ribs. He was rushed to Memorial Hospital.
On the discovery that his heart injury was irreparable, the doctors pronounced him dead. He was 25 years old. No autopsy was performed, he posthumously finished third in the event. Takin' Care of Business went on to appear in the 1990 National Finals Rodeo, he was retired in the 1990s and put out to stud until he died in 1999. Frost is buried near his hero and mentor, Freckles Brown, at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Hugo, Oklahoma. After Frost's death, Cody Lambert, who resides in Bowie, one of his traveling partners, a founder of the Professional Bull Riders, created the protective vest that all professional cowboys now must wear when riding bulls. In 1994, the biopic based on Frost's life, 8 Seconds, was released. Luke Perry played the role of Frost. Stephen Baldwin was cast as Tuff Hedeman; the medical team for the PBR league is named after Frost, as is the Lane Frost/Brent Thurman Award, given for the highest scoring ride at the PBR World Finals. The Lane Frost Health and Rehabilitation Center in Hugo is dedicated to his memory.
Country music star Garth Brooks paid tribute to Frost in the video for his 1990 hit single "The Dance". Rodeo announcer Randy Schmutz wrote the song "A Smile Like That" about him; the 1993 song "Red Rock" by the Smokin' Armadillos is about him, he is mentioned at the end of the video f
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Atoka is a city in, the county seat of, Atoka County, United States. The population was 3,107 at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.0 percent from 2,988 at the 2000 census. The city was settled by the Choctaw and named in 1867 by a Baptist missionary for Chief Atoka, whose name means "ball ground" in English. Atoka was founded by the Choctaw Indians in the 1850s, named for Captain Atoka, a leader of the Choctaw Nation and the signer of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which began the process of re-locating the Choctaw people from Mississippi to Oklahoma in 1830; the name "Atoka" is derived from the Choctaw word hitoka. He is believed to be buried near the town of Farris. Atoka is the site of the oldest Catholic parish in the Indian Territory, the oldest chapter of the Freemasons in Oklahoma, the oldest chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star in Oklahoma. A small Civil War confrontation occurred on February 1864, north of Atoka. Early in 1864, Colonel William A. Philips set out with some 1,500 Union troops from Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, to cut a swath through Confederate Indian Territory.
Their purpose was to break Confederate control over the Indian Territory and gain the support and recruits from the Native Americans. "I take you with me to clean out the Indian Nation south of the river and drive away and destroy rebels. Let me say a few words to you that you are not to forget.... Those who are still in arms are rebels. Do not kill a prisoner after he has surrendered, but I do not ask you to take prisoners. I ask you to make your footsteps terrible. Muskogees! the time has now come when you are to remember the authors of all your sufferings. Stand by me faithfully and we will soon have peace...." -- Colonel William A. Philips, to his men before beginning the campaign Along the way, Colonel Phillips sent out an advance of about 350 men toward Boggy Depot, a large Confederate supply base located on the Texas Road with the intention of capturing the outpost. While en route, his command encountered a small Confederate camp on the banks of the Middle Boggy River, made up of around 90 Confederate soldiers.
In the ensuing skirmish 47 Confederate soldiers were killed. Among the dead were those wounded, left behind when their comrades retreated, they were found on the battlefield with their throats slashed. There were no Union deaths as a result of the battle; the Confederate Museum in Atoka commemorates this battle. Though the Choctaw Indians had inhabited the area since the 1830s with a small town located near the city today, the city was founded by a Baptist missionary named J. S. Murrow in 1867 and supplanted the dying town of Boggy Depot as the chief city in Atoka County. A main contributing factor in the early growth of Atoka was the MKT Railroad, which came through the area in 1872; the railroad provided the economic lifeblood to Atoka that any isolated rural town needs to survive and flourish. Many businesses moved to Atoka from Boggy Depot. In 1872, Father Michael Smyth founded St. Patrick's Catholic Church; this was the first Roman Catholic church in. On October 12, 1875, the Sacred Heart Mission, what became St. Gregory's University, was founded in Atoka by the Benedictine monks Father Isidore Robot, O.
S. B. and Brother Dominic Lambert, O. S. B. In 1876, the mission relocated to near Konawa and became an abbey. About 1896, Robert L. Williams, who would become the third Governor of Oklahoma and first Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, moved to Atoka from Troy, Alabama. In 1898, land allotments were implemented and town lots were sold, as required by the Dawes Commission. Despite being strategically located at the intersection of two major highways, Atoka is struggling to create a town attractive to both new business and new residents. Though the town has experienced an economic upturn in the past few years, it still lacks the main thing that ensures economic prosperity and attracts new residents: well-paying jobs. However, there is a beacon of hope for Atoka in the future. For the past several years, economic growth has been moving northward along U. S. 75 from Dallas, Texas. Two towns located to the south of Atoka, Durant and Sherman, are experiencing tremendous economic and population growth.
As this wave of development moves north, the next town in line is the city of Atoka. If the growth continues, it is possible that Atoka could begin to see the type of expansion underway across the Red River to the south. National Register of Historic Places sites in Atoka include the Atoka Armory Building, Atoka Community Building, Boggy Depot Site, First Methodist Church Building, the Indian Citizen Building, the Old Masonic Temple building, the Middle Boggy Battlefield Site and Confederate Cemetery, Old Atoka County Courthouse, Old Atoka State Bank, Pioneer Club, Joe Ralls House, Captain James S. Standley House and the Zweigel Hardware Store Building. Atoka is located at 34°23′3″N 96°7′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 2.00%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,107 people residing in the city; the population density was 354.7 people per square mile. There were 1,499 housing units at an average density of 178.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 72.86% White, 11.51% African American, 10.27% Nativ
Oklahoma State Highway 3
State Highway 3 abbreviated as SH-3 or OK-3, is a highway maintained by the U. S. state of Oklahoma. Traveling diagonally through Oklahoma, from the Panhandle to the far southeastern corner of the state, SH-3 is the longest state highway in the Oklahoma road system, at a total length of 615 miles via SH-3E. Highway 3 begins at the Colorado state line 19 mi north of Oklahoma. At this terminus, it is concurrent with US-287/US-385, it remains concurrent with the two U. S. Routes until reaching Boise City, where it encounters a traffic circle which contains five other highways. After the circle, US-385 splits off, SH-3 overlaps US-287, US-56, US-64, US-412, though US-56 and US-287 both split off within the next 8 miles. In Guymon, US-64 splits off. At Elmwood, US-270 joins US-412, coming from a concurrency with State Highway 23. SH-3 remains concurrent with US-270 through Watonga. In Seiling, US-183 leaves the concurrency but is replaced by U. S. Highway 281. SH-33 joins the roadbed 20 miles later. In Watonga, SH-33 and SH-3 split off from US-270 and US-281.
Highways 3 and 33 remain concurrent for 28 more miles, until Kingfisher, where SH-3 joins U. S. Highway 81, it will stay concurrent with US-81 through the town of Okarche. Three miles after Okarche, SH-3 leaves US-81; this marks the first point. Beginning at the split from US-81, Highway 3 becomes a major artery in the Oklahoma City highway system known as the Northwest Expressway because it is a diagonal route and because it serves the northwestern part of the metro area, it skirts the northern limits of El Reno before entering the Oklahoma City limits. The often-congested Northwest Expressway passes through the suburb of Warr Acres and passes close to Lake Hefner. At the intersection with the Lake Hefner Parkway, SH-3 again re-enters a concurrency; the Lake Hefner Parkway ends shortly after, SH-3 becomes concurrent with Interstate 44 through the western side of the city. Near Will Rogers World Airport, Highway 3 transfers to I-240 along the southern side of the city. After I-240 ends, SH-3 is transferred onto I-40.
In Shawnee, SH-3 splits into two highways, SH-3E and SH-3W. SH-3W splits off I-40 onto U. S. Highway 177, along with US-270, at I-40 milemarker 181, it continues along with US-270 and 177 through the west side of Shawnee, continues south of that city until Tecumseh, where US-270 splits off. South of Asher, Oklahoma, SH-3W leaves veers southeast toward Ada. SH-3E, the longer of the two split routes, was the original routing of Highway 3 before the two highways were split, it remains on I-40 for five miles. When it does split off, it soon joins SH-18, it follows a route closer to the center of Shawnee. After leaving Shawnee, it heads southeast toward Seminole. Here, it meets US-377/SH-99. SH-3E merges onto this highway, they will remain concurrent until after they reach Ada. In Ada, SH-3E and SH-3W are become SH-3 once again. SH-3 becomes part of the Richardson Loop, a freeway around the west and south sides of Ada. Throughout the Richardson Loop, it overlaps US-377 / SH-99 at different times; the highway becomes two-lane once again and heads southeast to the town of Coalgate, where begins an 18-mile concurrency with U.
S. Highway 75, lasting through Atoka. In Atoka, US-75 splits off to join U. S. Highway 69. Two miles west of Antlers, the highway has an interchange with the Indian Nation Turnpike, in Antlers it intersects U. S. Highway 271. After reaching the town of Broken Bow, Oklahoma, it turns southward and overlaps US-259 and US-70. Near Idabel, the highway splits off after being with US-259 for 13 mi. Twenty-eight miles it becomes Highway 32 as it crosses the state line into Arkansas; the current SH-3 was designated on 15 May 1939. The original highway included all of current SH-3 up to Antlers, where it terminated at US-271, it was extended to the Arkansas state line on 4 August 1952. SH-3 ended there concurrent with US-70 and SH-7, near Arkansas. On 7 January 1963, the highway was given its own alignment from near Idabel to Arkansas, taking over that of SH-21, eliminated at that time. From the highway's commissioning to 1976, there was only one fork of SH-3 between Shawnee and Ada, the path of current SH-3E.
SH-3W and SH-3E were created on 4 October 1976. Other than minor realignments, the highway remains the same today. In the early 1980s, Governor George Nigh was able to obtain $97.1 million to upgrade the highway between Oklahoma City and Colorado, despite opponents labeling the project "the highway to nowhere". House Concurrent Resolution 1067 labeled the highway as "Governor George Nigh's Northwest Passage." ODOT named the highway on 2 February 1981. SH-3's concurrency with Interstate 44 in Oklahoma City is an example of a wrong-way concurrency – I-44 West is SH-3 East and vice versa. SH-3's concurrency with US-70 is a wrong-way concurrency, as US-70 is signed as going west and SH-3 as going east; the SH-3 bypass around Atoka is named the Cecil B. "Bud" Greathouse Bypass. It was designated by ODOT on 4 October 1982. SH-3 had one lettered spur, SH-3A, which continued the alignment of the Northwest Expressway for two more miles before ending at Interstate 44 near Penn Square Mall, it was known as SH-66A, a spur off U.
S. Highway 66; the combined effect of US-66 being decommissioned and "3A" being a more logical name for an extension of Highway 3 led to the name change. State Highway 3A was decommissioned in 2009. SH-3 at OKHighways.com SH-3E at O
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol