Lanercost Priory was founded by Robert de Vaux between 1165 and 1174, the most date being 1169, to house Augustinian Canons. It is situated at the village of Lanercost, England, within sight of Naworth Castle, with which it long had close connections, it is now open in the guardianship of English Heritage. The foundation date was traditionally 1169, but can only be dated between 1165 and 1174 on the evidence of charters; the dedication is to St. Mary Magdalene, unusual in the region, it would seem the arrangements for founding the Priory were well advanced by the time of the foundation charter, as opposed to the more gradual process at Wetheral and St. Bees. Robert de Vaux gave the land of Lanercost "between the ancient wall and the Irthing and between Burth and Poltros, the vill of Walton by stated bounds, the church of that vill with the chapel of'Treverman,' the churches of Irthington, Brampton and Farlam"; the charter of foundation states that the benefaction was made for the sake of Henry II, for the health of the souls of his father Hubert and his mother Grace.
Soon after the foundation of the house, Robert de Vaux granted to the canons the right of free election, so that when the lord prior died the person on whom the choice of the canons or the greater part of them fell should be elected in his place. The bulk of the church building dates from the late 13th century, though there is evidence of earlier work; the Priory buildings were constructed, at least in part, from stones derived from Hadrian's Wall, including a number of Roman inscriptions that were built into its fabric. The proximity to Scotland had an effect on the fortunes of the priory, it was a target of Scots attacks in retaliation to English raids; this became acute after the outbreak of the War of Independence. In 1296 the Scottish army encamped at Lanercost after burning Lambley nunnery; the Scots were interrupted before the damage could become great, they retreated through Nicolforest, having burnt some houses of the monastery but not the church. Similar depredations under Wallace continued the next year and led to calls for reprisals from the English.
Edward I made several visits to the priory in the latter part of his reign. In the autumn of 1280 he visited in the company of Queen Eleanor on his way to Newcastle; the canons met him at the gate in their copes, although staying only a few days, he found time to take 200 stags and hinds while hunting in Inglewood forest. In 1300, on his way to the siege of Caerlaverock Castle, Edward stayed at Lanercost for a short while. Edward's last visit was in 1306, travelling in a horse litter owing to age and illness, accompanied by Queen Margaret, he arrived at Michaelmas and his stay extended until the following Easter, a duration of 6 months which put a huge burden upon the resources of the priory. It was while Edward was at Lanercost that the brothers of Robert de Brus and other Scottish captives were sent to Carlisle for execution by his order; this last royal visit depleted the reserves of the priory, the canons begged him for recompense, but a deal to acquire the church of'Hautwyselle,' worth about 100 marks a year, fell through.
However the king granted the appropriation of the churches of Mitford in Northumberland and Carlatton in Cumberland, for the relief of the Priory. In a letter to the Pope, Edward gave his reasons for generosity being the special devotion he felt to St. Mary Magdalene, his long stay due to illness, making good the damage of the Scots. Edward died shortly afterwards at Burgh by Sands in July 1307, whilst still campaigning against the Scots. In August 1311, Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, came with his army and made it his headquarters for three days, "committing infinite evils" and imprisoning some canons. By contrast in 1328, in fulfilment of the treaty between the Bruce and Edward III, a mutual interchange of good offices took place between the priory of Lanercost and Kelso Abbey in respect of their common revenues out of the church of Lazonby. Though, in 1346, David II ransacked the conventual buildings and desecrated the church. Fresh from the overthrow of Liddel he "entered the holy place with haughtiness, threw out the vessels of the temple, stole the treasures, broke the doors, took the jewels, destroyed everything they could lay hands on".
As late as 1386, one of the priors was taken prisoner by the Scots and ransomed for a fixed sum of money and four score quarters of corn. The fortunes of the priory were linked to the state of warfare and raids on the border; the priory was in affluent circumstances before the outbreak of the war of Independence in 1296, the annual revenue of the house was returned at £74 12s 6d in the 1291 valuation of Pope Nicholas IV. But by the taxation of 1318, the value had fallen to nothing. Lanercost Priory was dissolved in 1538 by Henry VIII, the conventual buildings were stripped of their roofs, excepting the church building which continued in use as the parish church. In the late 17th century, as the Nave deteriorated, the congregation used just the north aisle, re-roofed. In 1747, the nave was re-roofed, but by 1847 the Priory was in a state of disrepair to the extent that the east end roof collapsed. However, by 1849, The church was in use again after a major restoration by Anthony Salvin. In the 1870s, there was further restoration by the Carlisle architect C. J. Ferguson.
At the Dissolution, ownership had passed to the Dacre family, in the early 18th century to the Howards. In 1929, The Priory ruins were put into public ownership, today they are managed by English Heritage; the nave has an aisle to the north, but a large wall to the south with no aisle, where it abuts the cloister. The impres
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328; the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the'Disinherited' in 1332, ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a great crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of both wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state; the wars were important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I.
This marriage would not create a union between Scotland and England because the Scots insisted that the Treaty declare that Scotland was separate and divided from England and that its rights, laws and customs were wholly and inviolably preserved for all time. However, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290. With her death, there were 13 rivals for succession; the two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Fearing civil war between the Bruce and Balliol families and supporters, the Guardians of Scotland wrote to Edward I of England, asking him to come north and arbitrate between the claimants in order to avoid civil war. Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted; when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice.
Edward's ploy worked, the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, would have lost them if they had defied the English king. However, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. On 11 June, acting as the Lord Paramount of Scotland, Edward I ordered that every Scottish royal castle be placed temporarily under his control and every Scottish official resign his office and be re-appointed by him. Two days in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm and the leading Scottish nobles gathered to swear allegiance to King Edward I as Lord Paramount. All Scots were required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291. There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, where the claimants to the crown pleaded their cases before Edward, in what came to be known as the "Great Cause".
The claims of most of the competitors were rejected, leaving Balliol, Floris V, Count of Holland and John de Hastings of Abergavenny, 2nd Baron Hastings, as the only men who could prove direct descent from David I. On 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that might concern the competitors' rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland, accordingly executed. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292 and on 30 November he was crowned King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made. Balliol, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, the Scots resented Edward's demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, ordered that he had until 1 September 1294 to provide Scottish troops and funds for his invasion of France.
On his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward I. A few weeks a Scottish parliament was hastily convened and 12 members of a war council were selected to advise King John. Emissaries were dispatched to inform King Philip IV of France of the intentions of the English, they negotiated a treaty by which the Scots would invade England if the English invaded France, in return the French would support the Scots. The treaty would be sealed by Philip's niece Joan. Another treaty with King Eric II of Norway was hammered out, in which for the sum of 50,000 groats he would supply 100 ships for four months of the year, so long as hostilities between France and England continued. Although Norway never acted, the Franco-Scottish alliance known as the Auld Alliance, was renewed until 1560, it was not until 1295. In early October, he began to strengthen his northern defences against a possible invasion, it was at this point that Robert Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale was appointed by Edward as the governor of Carlisle Castle.
Edward ordered John Balliol to relinquish control of the castles and burghs of Berwick and Roxburgh
Sir Herbert Maxwell, 7th Baronet
Sir Herbert Eustace Maxwell, 7th Baronet, was a Scottish novelist, artist, antiquarian and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1880 to 1906. A member of Clan Maxwell descended from the first Lord Maxwell of Caerlaverock Castle, Maxwell was the eldest surviving son of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Maxwell, 6th Baronet and his wife, Helenora Shaw-Stewart, daughter of Sir Michael Shaw-Stewart, 5th Baronet, he was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a captain in the 4th battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers and a J. P. and Deputy Lieutenant for Wigtownshire. Maxwell was elected Member of Parliament for Wigtownshire in the 1880 general election and held the seat until 1906, he served in the Conservative administration of Lord Salisbury as a Junior Lord of the Treasury from 1886 to 1892 and was admitted to the Privy Council in 1897. He was Lord Lieutenant of Wigtown from 1903 to 1935, he was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1933. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Glasgow in June 1901.
Maxwell was President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Chairman of the National Library of Scotland. He was the chairman of Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland from its inception in 1908 until 1934. Maxwell gave the Rhind Lectures in 1893, on the placenames of Scotland, again in 1912 on the early chronicles relating to Scotland, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1898 and was awarded the Victoria Medal of Honour by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1917. Maxwell married Mary Fletcher-Campbell, daughter of Henry Fletcher-Campbell, of Boquhan, Stirling, on 20 January 1869, she predeceased him on 3 September 1910. By her, he had two sons and three daughters: Sgt. William Maxwell, died on the veldt near Fort Gibbs, Mashonaland Ann Christian Maxwell, married Sir John Stirling-Maxwell, 10th Baronet Winfred Edith, married Alastair Graham-Moir of Leckie. Beatrice Mary, married Ernest Walker, son of Sir James Robert Walker, 2nd Baronet in St Margaret's Westminster on 10 October 1901.
Lt. Col. Aymer Edward Maxwell. In 1909, he married Lady Mary Percy, daughter of Henry Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland and by her had one daughter and three sons before he died of wounds suffered at Antwerp while serving with the Lovat Scouts:Christian Maxwell, died unmarried Sir Aymer Maxwell, 8th Baronet Eustace Maxwell, married Dorothy Bellville, with whom he had one daughter and one son: Diana Mary Maxwell Sir Michael Maxwell, 9th Baronet Gavin Maxwell and authorSir Herbert died at Monreith House, aged 92. Sir Lucian Elphin The Letter of the Law A Duke of Britain Chevalier of the Splendid Crest Meridiana, Noontide Essays Scottish Land Names Afternoon Essays Rainy Days in a Library Sixty Years a Queen Salmon and Sea Trout Bruce and the Struggle for Scottish Independence History of the House of Douglas-from the earliest times down to the legislative union of England and Scotland, introduction by William Lindsay, Windsor Herald Memories of the Months British Soldiers in the Field British Fresh-Water Fishes Story of the Tweed Scalacronica.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Works by Herbert Maxwell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Herbert Maxwell at Internet Archive
Robert the Bruce
Robert I, popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence against England, he fought during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero. Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobility, his paternal fourth great-grandfather was King David I. Robert's grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause"; as Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family's claim to the Scottish throne and took part in William Wallace's revolt against Edward I of England. Appointed in 1298 as a Guardian of Scotland alongside his chief rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews, Robert resigned in 1300 due to his quarrels with Comyn and the imminent restoration of John Balliol to the Scottish throne.
After submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to "the king's peace", Robert inherited his family's claim to the Scottish throne upon his father's death. In February 1306, having wounded Comyn, rushed from the church where they had met and encountered his attendants outside, he told them what had happened and said, "I must be off, for I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn." "Doubt?" Roger de Kirkpatrick of Closeburn answered, "I mak sikker," and, rushing into the church, killed Comyn. For this Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope. Bruce moved to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Edward I's forces defeated Robert in battle, forcing him to flee into hiding before re-emerging in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, in 1309 held his first parliament. A series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland, at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Robert defeated a much larger English army under Edward II of England, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish kingdom.
The battle marked a significant turning point, with Robert's armies now free to launch devastating raids throughout northern England, while extending his war against the English to Ireland by sending an army to invade there and by appealing to the Irish to rise against Edward II's rule. Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, peace was concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.
Robert died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey and his internal organs embalmed and placed in St Serf’s Chapel, site of the medieval Cardross Parish church. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway. Several members of the Bruce family were called Robert, the future king was one of ten children, the eldest son, of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I, his mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne; the Bruces held substantial estates in Aberdeenshire, County Antrim, County Durham, Essex and Yorkshire.
Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known, his place of birth is less certain, although it is most to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother's earldom. However there are claims that he may have been born in Lochmaben in Dumfriesshire, or Writtle in Essex. Little is known of his youth, he was brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was an integral part of Galloway, though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking. Robert the Bruce would most have become trilingual at an early age, he would have been schooled to speak and write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family.
He would have spoken both the Gaeli