Barrydale is a village located on the border of the Overberg and Klein Karoo regions of the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Named after Joseph Barry, a well known merchant of the 19th century it is situated at the northern end of the Tradouw's pass which winds its way through the mountains to Swellendam. Barrydale's history dates back to the early 18th century when farmers moved into the area looking for fertile arable land with water; the community built their church on a spot where the R324 roads meet. In the days before the church was built there were a number of nagmaal houses and a school, but not much else; the Dutch Reformed Community of Barrydale came into being in 1878 when land was purchased to build the church. As the farmers in the area were encouraged to plant vineyards and orchards, it was natural that a winery and distillery would be built. In 1940 the Barrydale Koöperatiewe Wynkelder was formed and a distillery established giving rise to the wine industry in the area. Joseph Barry Brandy, produced locally, was voted best brandy in the world in 2003.
Over the years the village grew and a municipality was established in 1921. Today there is an estimated population of ~4100 permanent residents; the population increases in the tourist season, with visitors drawn by arts and crafts displays including textiles and African souvenirs. Barrydale has a temperate climate of warm, dry summers with averages of 25°C up to 35°C, mild, wet winters when the temperature dips to around -1°C accompanied by light frosts; the warm temperate climate is perfect for the growth of various fruit trees with numerous orchards on the fertile soils of the Tradouw Valley. Apples and oranges are harvested in the winter and crops of apricots, cling peaches and grapes in the summer; the town still shows the legacy of the apartheid era when it was divided in two to separate whites from non-whites, a large proportion of which are direct descendants of the indigenous Khoisan tribe. Barrydale is culturally diverse for a small village with English- and Afrikaans-speaking inhabitants as well as a substantial European expatriate community including French, German and Italian residents.
The annual Barrydale Spring Festival in October is an important event on the town's calendar. The Joseph Barry Tradouw Pass Half Marathon attracts a large number of runners who compete over a 21 km course through the pass. Barrydale and the surrounding area is rich in species diversity with abundant wildlife such as baboons, mongooses and rock hyraxes, known locally as dassies. More elusive animals, such as porcupines, jackals and the reclusive leopards, are seen in the mountains. Reptiles are common snakes, with a few poisonous species such as puff adder and Cape cobra; the area is home to numerous bird species such as the Cape eagle-owl, hadeda ibis, grey heron, fiscal shrike which impales its prey on acacia thorns or barbed wire, black eagles seen soaring high overhead on the thermals. The area has many rare plant species, notably the fynbos flora on the slopes of the Langeberg mountain range in the south, succulent-dominated Karroid flora to the north. There are many private and state reserves in the area such as the Grootvadersbosch Nature Reserve.
Like in many other South African cities and villages there are church buildings of different denominations. Useful knowledge with some good photos. News from Barrydale online, amenities etc Barrydale accommodation and business directory. Eponymous website with interesting facts. Wine route encompassing the Breede River Valley and the Klein Karoo. Accommodation list, local artists and map of area. History of Barrydale
Geography of South Africa
South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its coastline stretching more than 2,850 kilometres from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast southwards around the tip of Africa and northeast to the border with Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. The low-lying coastal zone is narrow for much of that distance, soon giving way to a mountainous escarpment that separates the coast from the high inland plateau. In some places, notably the province of KwaZulu-Natal in the east, a greater distance separates the coast from the escarpment. Although most of the country is classified as semi-arid, it has considerable variation in climate as well as topography. South African central plateau contains only two major rivers: the Limpopo the Orange which runs with a variable flow across the central landscape from east to west, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at the Namibian borderThe eastern and southern coastal regions are drained by numerous shorter rivers. There are few coastal rivers along the arid west coast north of 31°30′S.
In such a dry country and irrigation are important: the largest dam is the Gariep on the Orange River. Like much of the African continent south of the Sahara, South Africa’s landscape is dominated by a high Central Plateau surrounded by coastal lowlands; this plateau is rimmed by the Great Escarpment which extends northwards to about 10° south of the Equator In South Africa the plateau is at its highest in the east where its edge varies in altitude between 2,000 m and 3,300 m. This edge of the plateau, as the land drops to the coastal plain, forms a high, steep escarpment known as the Drakensberg Mountains; the southern and western extents of the escarpment are not as high as Drakensberg, but are known by a wide variety of local names, all termed “mountains”, in spite of being parts of an escarpment whose top is the central plateau. From the coastal plain the escarpment does, look like a range of mountains, hence the names; the portion of the Great Escarpment that could be designated a “mountain” is where it forms the international border between KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho.
The Lesotho Highlands form a localized high spot on the Central Plateau. This is because it is capped by a 1400 m thick layer of erosion resistant lava which welled up and spread across most of Southern Africa when it was still part of Gondwana. Most of this lava has eroded away together with a layer of Karoo sedimentary rocks several kilometres thick on top of which the lava was poured out 182 million years ago. Only a small patch of this lava covers much of Lesotho, it has been eroded by the tributaries of the Orange River which drain these highlands towards the south-west. This gives this high region its rugged, mountainous appearance.. The downward slope to the south is less pronounced; the plateau slopes downwards, northwards from about the 25° 30' S line of latitude, into a 150‑million-year-old failed rift valley which cuts into the central plateau and locally obliterates the Great Escarpment, forming what is today known as the Limpopo Lowveld at less than 500 m above sea level. The rivers which drain the plateau therefore run west via the Orange River, into the Atlantic Ocean.
North of the Witwatersrand, where the land starts to slope down towards the north, the drainage is into the Limpopo River and from there into the Indian Ocean. The coastal plain, which varies in width from about 60 km in the north-west to over 250 km in the north-east slopes downwards from the foot of the escarpment to the coast. Numerous small rivers drain the area, being more numerous in the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Midlands regions, where they arise on the well watered slopes of the high escarpment, than elsewhere. In the west there are few such rivers because of the aridity of the region. In the south and south-west the coastal plain contains a series of mountain ranges that run parallel to the coastline; these are the Cape Fold Mountains, whose rocks were laid down 510 – 350 million years ago, were crumpled into a series of parallel folds by the collision of the Falkland Plateau into the south of what was to become Africa when it was part of Gondwana. These series of parallel folds are in the form of an “L”, with the western section running north-south, the eastern section running east-west, for a total length of about 800 km.
The right angle of the “L” occurs in the south-western corner of the country, just inland from the Cape Peninsula and Cape Town. These folds lie along the coastline in the south and are not much more than 100 km wide in total along most of their length. In the west they are separated from the coast by a pronounced coastal plain; the floors of the long valleys between the parallel mountains ranges consist of fertile soils composed of weathered mudstones belonging to the Bokkeveld Group of the Cape Supergroup, as opposed to the nutrient-poor, sandy soils on the quartzitic sandstone mountains, on either side of the valleys. However, the rainfall is, in general, bordering on the semiarid. Agriculture, which includes viniculture and fruit-growing, therefore depends on irrigation from rivers with source
The Swartberg mountains are a mountain range in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is composed of two main mountain chains running east–west along the northern edge of the semi-arid Little Karoo. To the north of the range lies the other large semi-arid area in South Africa, the Great Karoo. Most of the Swartberg Mountains are above 2000 m high, making them the tallest mountains in the Western Cape, it is one of the longest, spanning some 230 km from south of Laingsburg in the west to between Willowmore and Uniondale in the east. Geologically, these mountains are part of the Cape Fold Belt. Much of the Swartberg is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Swartberg consists of two named ranges, the Smaller and the Greater Swartberg Mountains. The Smaller Swartberg are the westernmost of the two; this range is the higher one, including the province's highest peak, Seweweekspoortpiek at 2325 m. The famous Towerkop towers over the Klein Karoo town of Ladismith at a height of 2189 m; the peak is so named for its cleft peak, according to legend, was split by a spell and subsequent bolt of lightning.
The Greater Swartberg is located to the east, with the dividing line between the two ranges being the Gouritz River, which cuts a gorge directly through the range. This section of a similar height, is lower in elevation, with the Tierberg at 2132 m being the highest; these mountains are home to the Cango Caves in the exposed limestone basement rocks exposed by upliftment along a 300 km fault line that runs along the southern flank of the Swartberg ranges. These are the most famous subterranean system in South Africa, located just north of Oudtshoorn. Several passes cut through the Swartberg Range, these are famous for the spectacular geology they dissect, as well as for the engineering skill required in completing several of the routes across them; until the first pass was cut, these mountains were insurmountable, cut the Great Karoo off from the Little Karoo and from the coast. John Molteno, Beaufort West businessman first surveyed the range for a pass with Andrew Bain, Thomas Bain, they rode out from Beaufort West on horseback, in 1854, for a week-long ride to traverse the range and plan the routes.
The pass was cut and the route completed in only 223 working days, comprising one of the era's most extraordinary feats of engineering. It was a huge economic step for the interior of the Cape Colony. For example, by 1870, an eighth of the country's wool exports passed through the Meiringspoort; the Meiringspoort provides paved road transit through the Swartberg range, using the route carved by a river. The poort connects the town of De Rust in the south, with the town of Klaarstroom in the north, it offers a spectacular drive through incredible rock formations, is the setting for an annual half marathon that ends in the town of De Rust. Modern additions mean; this pass, to the far west in the Klein Swartberge, connects the modern town of Laingsburg and the "Rooinek pass" in the north, with the Little Karoo to the south. It was built purely by a team of convicts without engineers, it was begun in 1859, the work was taken over by Adam de Schmidt. It was completed and opened in 1862. Most famous of all is the Swartberg Pass, which runs between Oudtshoorn in the south and Prince Albert in the north.
The Swartberg pass was built by Thomas Bain, son of the famous Andrew Geddes Bain who built Bain's Kloof Pass and many more. It was built using convict labour, opened on 10 January 1888; the pass is not paved and can be treacherous after rain, but has views over the Little Karoo and the Great Karoo to the north, as well as unusual geology. The Swartberg is regarded as one of the "finest exposed fold mountain chains in the world", this is apparent at the northern end of the pass; the plant life along the pass is interesting as many hundreds of species are found on the Swartberg. Notable is the drystone work supporting some of its hairpin bends. Paved road transit through the Swartberg is available further east, through the Meiringspoort. Prince Albert hosts the annual Swartberg Pass Half Marathon; the race route goes out of the town and into the Swartberg Pass, with sheer rock and mountains on both sides. The warped and twisted rock formations are both spectacular; this race is held on the first Saturday of May, to coincide with the Olive Festival.
Geography of South Africa List of mountain ranges of South Africa
Swellendam is the 3rd oldest town in the Republic of South Africa, a town with 17,537 inhabitants situated in the Western Cape province. The town has over most of them buildings of Cape Dutch architecture. Swellendam is situated on the N2 220 km from both Cape Town and George. Early travellers and explorers who visited the Cape in the 16th century traded with the Khoikhoi people who lived on these shores and in the interior; when the Dutch East India Company established a replenishment station at the Cape in 1652, trade continued inland as far as Swellendam. In 1743 Swellendam was declared a magisterial district, the third oldest in South Africa, was named after Governor Hendrik Swellengrebel, the first South African born Governor, his wife, Helena Ten Damme; this outlying settlement soon became a gateway to the interior, was visited by many famous explorers and travellers including François Le Vaillant, Lady Anne Barnard, William John Burchell and Thomas William Bowler. In time, a village was established beyond the Drostdy, where artisans including numerous wainwrights and traders settled.
Swellendam was the last outpost of Dutch civilisation on the eastern frontier and thus the services of the residents of the town were of utmost importance. By 1795 maladministration and inadequacies of the Dutch East India Company caused the long-suffering burghers of Swellendam to revolt, on 17 June 1795 they declared themselves a Republic. Hermanus Steyn was appointed as President of the Republic of Swellendam; the burghers of Swellendam started to call themselves "national burghers" – after the style of the French Revolution. However, the Republic was short-lived and was ended on 4 November 1795 when the Cape was occupied by the Kingdom of Great Britain. With the arrival of British settlers in the early 19th century the Overberg boomed, Swellendam was soon the heart of the mercantile empire of Barry and Nephews, created by Joseph Barry, which dominated trade in the area up until 1870; the Breede River is the only navigable river in South Africa and ships sailed 35 km up river to Malgas to unload and load merchandise.
By the middle of the 19th century, the eastern districts had been colonised by the British settlers and Swellendam was a thriving metropolis. The town served as a useful refreshment station on the slow journey up the coast. Today Swellendam is a flourishing agricultural area, has many attractive and historic buildings which serve as a reminder of its past; the first known sketch of Swellendam was of the Drostdy, by Johannes Schumacher in 1776, when he accompanied the son of Governor Swellengrebel to the town. Today the Drostdy forms part of a museum complex that consist of several heritage sites, namely the Drostdy, the old Goal and Mayville. In June 2011, the Swellendam Municipality area, which includes Barrydale, Malgas and Stormsvlei, re-declared itself a Republic; this republic is dedicated to the principles of the New South Africa, celebrates rural life, racial harmony, respect for nature and wildlife, aims to promote sustainability and an "unplugged" way of life for all to enjoy. Some of the well known families that settled in the region and have stayed for decades are the Barry family, the Moodies from Scotland, the Steyns, the Streicher family, the van Eedens, the Rothmanns, the Tomlinson and the Dunn family The region has a predominantly Mediterranean climate.
There are long summer days in February. During February and March, summer draws with prevailing South Easter winds. April and May are autumnal months, with occasional showers. June and July bring the Cape winter, with mild weather and possible snow on the mountain tops. August and September are the start of spring. Three nature reserves are situated near Swellendam, Marloth Nature Reserve, Sanbona Wildlife Reserve and Bontebok National Park. Bontebok National Park is; the population has increased from 17 individuals in 1931 to a sustainable number today. The area is botanically diverse with an abundance of wild fynbos; the 250ha indigenous forest at Grootvadersbosch is the most noteworthy in the southwestern Cape. Woods like these are rare to find in the Cape this far west of the Knysna forests. Wildlife such as the endangered bontebok and Cape mountain zebra inhabit the area. Other species include bushbuck, grey rhebuck, Cape grysbok, mongoose and the occasional leopard, as well as a species of ghost frog and a unique forest emperor butterfly.
Over 200 bird species found near the town include waterfowl, the crowned eagle, black eagle, Narina trogon, paradise flycatcher and the Knysna woodpecker. Witsand, a small coastal town about 50 km from Swellendam, is one of the best whale viewing spots on the South coast as it is the largest whale nursery in South Africa; the town is situated at the foot of the Langeberg, there are many hiking trails, ranging from day-walks to a 5 to 7-day trail. Wheat, oats and dairy farming is practised in the area. Sentraal-Suid Koöperasie serves as a co-operative in the area. May 2007 the Swellendam VOR SWV 114.4 MHz was permanently withdrawn. Drostdy arms — In 1804, when the Cape Colony was ruled by the Batavian Republic, the government assigned armorial seals to each of the drostdyen, i.e. administrative districts. Swellendam was given the arms of its founder, Hendrik Swellengrebel, namely a golden shield displaying a blue fleur de lis with a red band. An anchor was placed behind the shield; the British authorities discontinued the drostdy seals in 1814, replaced them with the royal coat of arms.
Municipality — The town of Swellendam esta
Riversdale, Western Cape
Riversdale is a town located on the N2 highway between Cape Town and George on the Agulhas Coastal Plain of the southern Western Cape province of South Africa. It is an agricultural service oriented town, being a hub for shopping and other services for surrounding farming communities, smaller towns, coastal resorts, like Witsand and Stilbaai, it is located beneath the imposing Langeberg Mountains to the north, with Sleeping Beauty Mountain overlooking the town. The town was founded as a church on the farm and was subsequently named after Harry Rivers, the incumbent Civil Commissioner of Swellendam, it was proclaimed a town on 30 August 1838. Riverdale is the seat of the Hessequa Local Municipality, it is sometimes considered the westernmost point in the Garden Route region. Dyan Buis, Paralympic Athlete JT Jackson, Blue Bulls rugby Dr Cecil Moss, Springbok Jack Simons and anti-apartheid activist Jan Ernst Abraham Volschenk, was a South African painter, noted for his majestic landscapes of the Langeberg Range in the Western Cape Province Vera Volschenk was a South African painter, born in 1899.
Eldest of nine daughters of Jan Ernst Abraham Volschenk South African Class 7E 4-8-0 South African Class 7F 4-8-0
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le