Icelandic independence movement
The Icelandic Independence movement was the collective effort made by Icelanders to achieve self-determination and independence from the Kingdom of Denmark throughout the 19th and early 20th century. Iceland received a constitution and limited home rule in 1874, a minister for Icelandic affairs was appointed to the Danish cabinet in 1904. Full independence was granted in 1918 through the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union and this was followed by the severance of all ties to Denmark with the declaration of the republic in 1944. Through the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, following the strife of the Age of the Sturlungs, Icelanders had relinquished sovereignty to Haakon IV. Iceland remained under Norwegian kingship until 1380, when the death of Olav IV of Norway extinguished the Norwegian male royal line, Norway became part of the Kalmar Union with Sweden and Denmark, in which Denmark was the dominant power. Unlike Norway, Denmark did not need Icelands fish and homespun wool and this created a dramatic deficit in Icelands trade, and as a result, no new ships for continental trading were built.
In the ensuing centuries, Iceland became one of the poorest countries of Europe, while attempts have been made to find evidence of pre-19th century nationalist sentiments, not much comprehensive evidence has been found of nationalism as we understand it today. The most notable of these were the so-called Fjölnismenn—poets and writers for the journal Fjölnir— Brynjólfur Pétursson, Jónas Hallgrímsson, Konráð Gíslason, meanwhile, an independence movement developed under Jón Sigurðsson. In 1843, a royal decree re-established a national parliament, the Althing and it claimed continuity with the Althing of the Icelandic Commonwealth, which had remained for centuries as a judicial body and had been abolished in 1800. The advocates of Icelandic independence pursued their aims peacefully, soliciting Danish officials via legal means, the struggle for independence reached its height in 1851 when the Danes tried to pass new legislation, the requests of which the Icelanders ignored. The Icelandic delegates, under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson, passed their own proposal, much to the displeasure of the Kings agent and this caused Sigurðsson to rise up with his fellow delegates and utter the phrase Vér mótmælum allir.
Icelandic farmers worried that various social restrictions in Icelandic society would be abolished, the Icelandic independence movement was peaceful from its start in the post-Napoleonic period to the accomplishment of independence in 1944. Common explanations for the nature of Icelands independence struggle include. The accommodating responses of Denmark to Icelandic demands, the unwillingness of Denmark to respond violently, in part due to a respect for Icelandic culture but an unwillingness to shoulder the costs of quelling the Icelandic independence movement. The peaceful trends in the Nordic region after the Napoleonic Wars, in 1874, a thousand years after the first acknowledged settlement, Denmark granted Iceland home rule. By the end of the 19th century, the efforts made on behalf of Iceland had their desired result. The constitution, written in 1874, was revised in 1903, hannes Hafstein served as the first Minister of Iceland from 31 January 1904 until 31 March 1909. The Act of Union, signed on 1 December 1918 by Icelandic and Danish authorities, recognized Iceland as a sovereign state
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Bay of Kiel
The Bay of Kiel or Kiel Bay is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark. It is connected with the Bay of Mecklenburg in the east, the Little Belt in the northwest, maritime traffic entering or leaving the Baltic through the two Belts must enter the bay. Once in, through traffic to the Baltic passes through another strait, the Fehmarn Belt, into the Bay of Mecklenburg, the Kiel Fjord ends at Kiel, the capital of Schleswig-Holstein. The southwest shore of the bay is the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, from the latter drains the Schlei inlet, actually a brackish estuary, at the head of which is the city named after it, Schleswig. In that coast are two smaller bays, the Eckernförde Bay and the Flensburg Fjord. In the north are the Danish islands of Als, Ærø, kieler Förde, projecting from the bay to the south, is about 17 km long and 1 km wide at its narrowest point. The strategic location was not lost on the founders of Holstein and it became a prolific shipyard, which made it a prime target of allied bombing in World War II.
Before the foundation of Kiel in 1242 and the construction of a city there. Any archaeological trace of them, either lies under the city or was disturbed long ago, Eckernförde Bay is about 16 km long and turns at the mouth, with the south bank on approximately ten km of the Bay of Kiel. The border with Kiel Fjord is at Bülker lighthouse, the once forested peninsula between Kiel Fjord and Eckernförde Bay formed the borderland between the Saxons and the Danes in the Middle Ages. It was termed the Danish Wold, North of Eckernförde Bay is the Schwansen region, at the end of the bay is the city of Eckernförde. The bay itself hosted the events for the 1936 Summer Olympics mainly held in Berlin. The 42-km Schlei forms the border between the historical regions Angeln and Schwansen and this part of the bay hosted the sailing competitions for the 1972 Summer Olympics held in mainly held Munich, Bavaria. Flensburg Fjord is approximately 50 km long and it forms part of the border between Germany and Denmark and marks north border of Angeln
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain. It includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the sea stretches from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 10°E to 30°E longitude. The Baltic Sea is connected by waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal. Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea and they were collected in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør, in the Great Belt at Nyborg. In the Little Belt, the site of intake was moved to Fredericia, the narrowest part of Little Belt is the Middelfart Sund near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers widely agree that the physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill. The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö, it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel.
By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg, another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. Its the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, and a limit to the Belt Sea. The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology, the remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species. While Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people called the Suebi, the origin of the latter name is speculative. Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt and he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.
Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Pytheas and it is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia in On the Ocean by Pytheas. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean near belt of sea, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning white, fair. This root and its meaning were retained in both Lithuanian and Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian, yet another explanation is that the name originally meant enclosed sea, bay as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe the name derives from the god Balder of Nordic mythology, in the Middle Ages the sea was known by variety of names
The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government for Ireland, which was part of the United Kingdom. The Ulster Volunteers were based in the province of Ulster. Many Ulster Protestants feared being governed by a Catholic-majority parliament in Dublin and losing their local supremacy, in 1913, the militias were organised into the Ulster Volunteer Force and vowed to resist any attempts by the British Government to impose Home Rule on Ulster. Later that year, Irish nationalists formed a militia, the Irish Volunteers. In April 1914, the UVF smuggled 25,000 rifles into Ulster, the Home Rule Crisis was halted by the outbreak of World War I in August 1914. Many UVF members enlisted with the British Armys 36th Division and went to fight on the Western Front, after World War I, the British Government decided to set up two self-governing regions in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. However, by 1920 the Irish War of Independence was raging and the Irish Republican Army, as a response to these attacks, the UVF was revived.
However, this revival was largely unsuccessful and the UVF was absorbed into the Ulster Special Constabulary, a unionist paramilitary group calling itself the Ulster Volunteer Force was formed in 1966. It claims to be a descendant of the older organisation and uses the same logo. By 1912, the Irish Parliamentary Party, an Irish nationalist party which sought devolution for Ireland, in April 1912, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced the third Home Rule Bill. Home Rule was popular in all of Ireland apart from the northeast of Ulster, while Catholics were the majority in most of Ireland, Protestants were the majority in Ulster and in Britain. Many Ulster Protestants feared being governed by a Catholic-dominated parliament in Dublin and losing their local supremacy, at the start of 1912, leading unionists and members of the Orange Order began forming small local militias and drilling. On 9 April Carson and Andrew Bonar Law, leader of the Conservative & Unionist Party, on 13 January 1913, the Ulster Volunteer Force was formally established by the Ulster Unionist Council.
Recruitment was to be limited to 100,000 men aged from 17 to 65 who had signed the Covenant, William GIbson was the first commander of the 3rd East Belfast Regiment of the Ulster Volunteers. The Ulster Unionists enjoyed the support of the British Conservative Party. On 23 September 1913, the 500 delegates of the Ulster Unionist Council met to discuss the practicalities of setting up a government for Ulster. On 25 November 1913, partly in response to the formation of the UVF, in March 1914, the British Armys Commander-in-Chief in Ireland was ordered to move troops into Ulster to protect arms depots from the UVF. However,57 of the 70 officers at the Armys headquarters in Ireland chose to resign rather than enforce Home Rule or take on the UVF
Frederick H. Crawford
Colonel Frederick Hugh Crawford CBE, JP was an officer in the British Army. Crawford was born in Belfast on 21 August 1861 into a solid Methodist family of Ulster-Scots roots and he attended Methodist College Belfast and University College, London. His other child, Stuart Wright Knox, is recorded as a pupil at Ballycloghan National School, Stuart would become a lieutenant-colonel in the British Army, before being invalided in 1944. Malcolm, after being a member of the Colonial Police, joined the Royal Ulster Constabulary, in 1931, Malcolm became a Justice of the Peace for Singapore. Crawford worked as an engineer for White Star Line in the 1880s, in 1898, Crawford was appointed governor of Campbell College, Belfast. Two of his children, Stuart Wright Knox and Malcolm Adair Alexander, in 1911 he became a member of the Ulster Unionist Council. With the formation of the Ulster Volunteer Force in 1913, he was made their Director of Ordnance, in World War I he was officer commanding of the Royal Army Service Corps, and was awarded the Royal Humane Societys Bronze Medal for saving life.
He became a Justice of the Peace for Belfast, Crawford in regards to Irish Home Rule was strongly partisan and backed armed resistance in opposing it, being contemptuous of those who used political bluffing. His avocation for armed resistance was evident when he remarked that at one meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council his heart rejoiced when he heard talk of looking into using physical force. At another meeting he went as far as ask some attendees to step into another room where he had fixed bayonets, rifles. In 1910 the Ulster Unionist Council planned for the creation of an army to oppose Home Rule, Crawford tried several times to smuggle arms into Ulster, however vigilant customs officials seized many of them at the docks. By the 1920s Crawford remained as stoic in his beliefs remarking in a letter in 1920 that I am ashamed to call myself an Irishman, I am an Ulsterman, a very different breed. This organisation however only lasted completely unofficially for a few months after failing to gain acceptance with the political authorities, in 1921 Crawford was included in the Royal Honours List and granted a CBE.
In 1934 Crawford wrote his memoirs, titled Guns for Ulster and he died 5 November 1952, and was buried in the City Cemetery, Falls Road, Belfast. Upon news of his death he was described by the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Sir Basil Brooke, arms smuggling Ulster Volunteers Ulster Unionist Council Irish Home Rule Movement
Funen, with an area of 3,099.7 square kilometres, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy. It is the 165th-largest island in the world and it is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284. The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used canal, the citys shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard, has been relocated outside Odense proper. Funen belongs administratively to the Region of Southern Denmark, from 1970 to 2006 the island formed the biggest part of Funen County, which included the islands of Langeland, Ærø, Tåsinge, and a number of smaller islands. Funen is linked to Zealand, Denmarks largest island, by the Great Belt Bridge which carries both trains and cars, two bridges connect Funen to the Danish mainland, Jutland. The Old Little Belt Bridge was constructed in the 1930s shortly before World War II for both cars and trains, the New Little Belt Bridge, a suspension bridge, was constructed in the 1970s and is used for cars only.
Apart from the city, all major towns are located in coastal areas. Beginning in the north-east of the island and moving clockwise, they are Kerteminde, Svendborg, Fåborg, Middelfart, the highest natural point on Funen is Frøbjerg Bavnehøj. Broholm Egeskov Castle Fynske Livregiment Horne Church Hvedholm Castle Korshavn, Denmark Skrøbelev Gods The Funen Village Funen brachteate in the collections of the National Museum of Denmark, official tourist information site for Funen
Larne is a seaport and industrial market town, as well as a civil parish, on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland with a population of 18,323 people in the 2008 Estimate. The Larne Local Government District had a population of 32,180 in 2011 and it has been used as a seaport for over 1,000 years, and is today a major passenger and freight roll-on roll-off port. Larne is twinned with Clover, South Carolina which has named one of its schools, Larne Elementary School, Larne is administered by Mid and East Antrim Borough Council. Together with the district of Carrickfergus and part of Newtownabbey, it forms the East Antrim constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament. The civil parish is situated in the barony of Glenarm Upper. The early coastal dwellers are thought to have had a culture which involved trading between the shores of the North Channel and between other settlements on the coasts of Scotland. The coast of Scotland is in fact clearly visible from here, archaeological digs in the area have found flintwork and other artefacts which have been assigned dates from 6000 BC onwards.
The term Larnian has even been coined by archaeologists to describe such flintworks, Larnian is currently used to refer to people from Larne. The river Inver runs through Larne and was the name of a village to one side of the current Larne town. Its name is a spelling of the Irish inbhear, meaning river-mouth. The oldest recorded name for Larne Lough is the Irish Loch Ollarbha, Larne takes its name from Latharna, a Gaelic territory or túath that was part of the Ulaid minor-kingdom of Dál nAraidi. The name spelt as Latharne was used at one point in reference to the Anglo-Norman cantred of Carrickfergus, Latharna itself means descendants of Lathar, with Lathar according to legend being a son of the pre-Christian king Úgaine Mór. The area where the town sits was known in Irish as Inbhear an Latharna and was anglicised as Inver Larne or simply Inver. The territorial name Latharna was only applied exclusively to the location of the present town in recent centuries, there was Viking activity in the area during the 10th and 11th centuries AD.
Viking burial sites and artefacts have been found in the area, Ulfreksfjord was an Old Norse name for Larne Lough. According to the Norse historian Snorri Sturluson, King of Ireland and this was anglicised as Wulfrickford. Other Norse-derived names for Larne Lough and the area are found in various records. They include Wokings Fyrth, Wolderfirth and Olderfleet, the only one that survives is Olderfleet