Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Hempfield Township is a township in Westmoreland County, United States. The population was 43,241 at the 2010 census, making it the largest suburb in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area by population, its name is taken from Hempfield in Lancaster County, formed in 1729 and is named after the hemp fields in the area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 76.8 square miles, of which, 76.6 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The township contains the following communities: Armbrust, Carbon, Darragh, Emmonston, Fort Allen, Hannastown, High Park, Lincoln Heights, Maplewood Terrace, Radebaugh, St. Clair, Swede Hill, White Hill, West Point City. Hempfield Township has thirteen borders, including Salem Township to the north, Unity Township to the east, Mount Pleasant Township to the southeast, East Huntingdon Township and South Huntingdon Township to the south, Sewickley Township to the west and south-southwest, Madison to the southwest, North Huntingdon Township to the west-northwest, Manor, Penn Township, the borough of Penn and Jeannette, all to the northwest.
Seven separate boroughs are situated within Hempfield Township: Greensburg, Southwest Greensburg, South Greensburg, New Stanton and Adamsburg. As of the census of 2000, there were 40,721 people, 15,997 households, 11,597 families residing in the township; the population density was 531.5 people per square mile. There were 16,799 housing units at an average density of 219.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.42% White, 1.11% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.38% of the population. There were 15,997 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the township the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The median income for a household in the township was $42,288, the median income for a family was $52,440. Males had a median income of $39,001 versus $25,838 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,839. 6.0% of the population and 4.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.8% of those under the age of 18 and 7.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Public school students attend the Hempfield Area School District, which comprises Hempfield Township and the communities of Adamsburg, Bovard, Hunker, Manor, New Stanton, Youngwood. Students can attend Greensburg Central Catholic High School. Hempfield Township is the location of the campus of the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg, the Youngwood campus of Westmoreland County Community College and the Greensburg campus of Carlow University.
Hempfield Township is a major economic player in Westmoreland County. As the retail hub for Westmoreland County and the Laurel Highlands region in particular, it is home to the popular Westmoreland Mall, the third largest shopping mall complex in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area. In addition, Greengate Centre serves as the area's largest big-box retail center. Several smaller shopping centers, well-known national retailers and restaurants can be found in the township. Light industry can be found within Hempfield Township including numerous industrial parks and facilities. RIDC Westmoreland straddles East Huntingdon townships. On March 23, 2011, a funnel cloud appeared over the central area of Hempfield Township southwest of the city of Greensburg just around 4:45 PM and touched down as an EF2 tornado, causing widespread damage to scores of homes in the West Hempfield area as well as the Fort Allen neighborhood and in neighboring Sewickley Township. Hempfield Area High School was impacted with major damage to the auditorium's roof and stadium, as was nearby Harrold Middle School.
Brush Creek Salems Church Fort Allen Hempfield Park Site of Old Hannastown
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Armstrong County, Pennsylvania
Armstrong County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 68,941; the county seat is Kittanning. The county was organized on March 12, 1800, from parts of Allegheny and Lycoming Counties, it was named in honor of John Armstrong, who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress and served as a major general during the Revolutionary War. Armstrong County is included in PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Armstrong County is home to the City of Parker, an incorporated third-class city, an oil boom town with a population rumored to be 20,000 in 1873, but now is the "Smallest City in America" with a population of just under 800. Parker is located in the extreme northwest portion of the county. Iron was made in the Brady's Bend area of the county twenty years before there was a foundry in Pittsburgh doing so. Ford City is home to the plate-glass industry, as John Ford created the company which became Pittsburgh Plate Glass. Kittanning once boasted more millionnaires than anywhere else in Pennsylvania during the 1880s.
Leechburg was the first place in the United States to use natural gas for metallurgical purposes, in 1869. Natural gas was found while drilling for oil, introduced into the boilers and furnaces of Siberian Iron Works here. Freeport and Apollo were communities built along the Pennsylvania Canal, which passed through on the Allegheny and Kiskiminetas rivers, at the southern border of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 664 square miles, of which 653 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water; the Allegheny and Kiskiminetas rivers. The Murphy, Nicholson and Cogley islands are in the Allegheny in Armstrong County. Scrubgrass Creek arises in Wayne Township and flows through Boggs Township, passing Goheenville, to Pine Township where it empties into the Mahoning Creek at Mahoning Station. Sugar Creek flows through Bradys Bend Township, its tributaries include Cove Run, Hart Run, Holder Run, Long Run, Pine Run, Whiskey Run. Clarion County Jefferson County Indiana County Westmoreland County Allegheny County Butler County Venango County As of the census of 2000, there were 72,392 people, 29,005 households, 20,535 families residing in the county.
The population density was 111 people per square mile. There were 32,387 housing units at an average density of 50 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.32% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. 0.43 % of the population were Latino of any race. 34.6% were of German, 10.8% Italian, 9.3% Irish, 8.7% American, 7.4% English and 5.7% Polish ancestry. There were 29,005 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. The distribution of the age of the population in the county was 22.90% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. Birth rateArmstrong County's live birth rate was 890 births in 1990. Armstrong County's live birth rate in 2000 was 740 births, while in 2011 it had declined further to 680 babies. Over the past 50 years, rural Pennsylvania saw a steady decline in both the number and proportion of residents under 18 years old. In 1960, 1.06 million rural residents, or 35 percent of the rural population, were children. Teen Pregnancy rateArmstrong County had 448 babies born to teens in 2011. In 2015, the number of teen births in Armstrong County was 418. County poverty demographics According to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Armstrong County was 13.8% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Allegheny-Clarion Valley School District - 37.2%, Apollo-Ridge School District - 46.6% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level, Armstrong School District - 48.9%, Freeport Area School District - 27.7%, Leechburg Area School District - 39.6.
As of November 7, 2017 there were 41,070 registered voters in the county. Republicans hold a tiny majority of the voters. There were 21,772 registered Republicans, 14,742 registered Democrats, 4,259 voters registered to other parties, 259 to the Libertarian Party and 38 voters registered to the Green Party. County Commissioners: Pat Fabian, Chairman Jason Renshaw, Vice-Chairman George J. Skamai, SecretaryDistrict Attorney: Katie Charlton Sheriff: Bill Rupert Coroner: Brian Myers Controller: Myra "Tammy" Miller Treasurer: Amanda Hiles Register of Wills and Recorder of Deeds: Marianne Hileman Prothonotary and Clerk of Courts: Brenda C. George Judges: Kenneth G. Valasek, Senior Judge James Panchik, President Judge Joseph A. Nickleach, Sr. Senior
Baldwin is a borough in Allegheny County, United States, is part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The population was 19,767 at the 2010 census. Baldwin is located at 40°21′26″N 79°58′10″W. A thin strip of land, still part of Baldwin stretches north along Becks Run Road, separating St. Clair and Hays, reaching all the way to the Monongahela River, it forms the south bank of the river to the Glenwood Bridge surrounding Hays on three sides. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 5.9 square miles, of which, 5.8 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Its average elevation is 1,214 feet above sea level. Baldwin has eleven borders, including five with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Arlington and South Side Flats to the north, Hays to the northeast, Carrick to the west, St. Clair to the north-northwest; the remaining borders are with West Mifflin to the east, Pleasant Hills to the southeast, South Park Township to the south, Bethel Park to the southwest, Whitehall and Brentwood to the west.
The borough was named for Henry Baldwin, a U. S. Congressman from Pennsylvania and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Baldwin Borough was incorporated on October 1950, from Baldwin Township; as of the census of 2000, there were 19,999 people, 8,193 households, 5,776 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,465.5 people per square mile. There were 8,883 housing units at an average density of 1,539.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.20% White, 2.42% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population. There were 8,193 households, out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.1% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $40,752, the median income for a family was $48,503. Males had a median income of $39,086 versus $28,458 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,918. About 3.9% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.4% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Baldwin Borough is served by the Baldwin Borough Library, it has three volunteer fire companies, an Emergency Medical Service, a Police force of 29 sworn officers. The Borough of Baldwin is represented by elected officials including a 7-member Borough Council taking the position of Baldwin's Legislative Branch, a Borough Mayor serving as the borough's Executive Branch.
There are nine voting districts in the borough, Baldwin is included in the 14th Congressional District. The Borough Council is a seven-membered body of lawmakers who abide by and amend the "Borough Code". Members are elected at-large to serve four year terms. Agenda Meetings are held the second Tuesday of each month at 7:30 p.m. at the Municipal Building. Regular Meetings are held the third Tuesday of each month at 7:30 p.m. at the Municipal Building. The Mayor of Baldwin is David Depretis Borough of Baldwin Historic Pittsburgh Map Collections 1876 - Atlas of the Cities of Pittsburgh and Adjoining Boroughs: Plate 44 1886 - Atlas of the Vicinity of the Cities Pittsburgh and Allegheny Pennsylvania 1906 - Southern Vicinity of Pittsburgh
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
Beaver County, Pennsylvania
Beaver County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 170,539, its county seat is Beaver. The county was created on March 1800, from parts of Allegheny and Washington Counties, it took its name from the Beaver River. Beaver County is part of PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the original townships at the date of the erection of Beaver County were North Beaver and west of the Big Beaver Creek. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 444 square miles, of which 435 square miles is land and 9.3 square miles is water. The Ohio River flows north through Beaver County from a point near Ambridge turns west near Beaver and on to the Ohio and West Virginia borders, it divides the southern third of the county from the northern two-thirds. The Beaver River flows south from Lawrence County entering Beaver County near Koppel and continuing south to its confluence with the Ohio near Beaver. Lawrence County Butler County Allegheny County Washington County Hancock County, West Virginia Columbiana County, Ohio Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge Raccoon Creek State Park, a Pennsylvania state park Bradys Run Park Brush Creek Park Old Economy Park As of the census of 2000, there were 181,412 people, 72,576 households, 50,512 families residing in the county.
The population density was 418 people per square mile. There were 77,765 housing units at an average density of 179 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.55% White, 5.96% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.0% were of German, 17.4% Italian, 9.9% Irish, 6.5% English, 6.4% Polish and 5.8% American ancestry. There were 72,576 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.50% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 22.60% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 18.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. Birth rate Beaver County's live birth rate was 2,437 births in 1990. Beaver County's live birth rate in 2000 was 1,891 births, while in 2011 it had declined to 1,690 babies. Over the past 50 years, rural Pennsylvania saw a steady decline in both the number and proportion of residents under 18 years old. In 1960, 1.06 million rural residents, or 35 percent of the rural population, were children. Teen Pregnancy rateBeaver County reported 1,069 babies born to teens in 2011. In 2015, the number of teen births in Beaver County was 1,025. County poverty demographicsAccording to research by The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, the poverty rate for Beaver County was 11.7% in 2014. The statewide poverty rate was 13.6% in 2014. The 2012 childhood poverty rate by school district was: Ambridge Area School District – 40.6% living at 185% or below than the Federal Poverty Level, Aliquippa School District – 82.7%, Beaver Area School District – 17.4%, Big Beaver Falls Area School District – 71.3%, Blackhawk School District – 27.9%, Central Valley School District – 30.8%, Freedom Area School District – 40.8%, Hopewell Area School District – 24.9%, Midland Borough School District – 64.9%, New Brighton Area School District – 54.4%, Riverside Beaver County School District – 31.9%, Rochester Area High School – 66.3%, South Side Area School District – 31.5%, Western Beaver County School District – 36.5%.
The child poverty rate is collected by the school districts as part of the federal free school lunch program. In November 2008, there were 118,269 registered voters in Beaver County. Democratic: 70,819 Republican: 36,239 Other Parties/Non-partisan: 11,211 By April 2016, there were 109,091 registered voters, a decrease of 7.7% since 2008. The county is divided into 129 precincts. Democratic: 58,828 Republican: 38,015 Other Parties/Non-partisan: 12,248 As of November 7th 2017 there was 108,931 registered voters in the county. Democrats have a majority of the voters. There was 55,600 registered Democrats, 40,101 registered Republicans, 12,581 voters registered to other parties, 568 to the Libertarian Party and 81 voters registered to the Green Party. Beaver County used to be a Democratic stronghold, still has a large Democratic edge in registration. In 2015, the GOP took majority status in the Commissioners' Office for the first time since 1955. Multiple Democratic seats in both houses of the Pennsylvania Legislature have been lost to Republicans over the past few years.
In statewide and federal elections it has been moving rightward as well. In 2004 Democrat John Kerry won Beaver County over Republican George Bush 51% to 48%. In 2008 Republican John McCain defeated Democrat Barack Obama 50% to 47%, becoming the first Republican to win there since 1972 and only the third since 1928; each of the three state row office winners carried Beaver. In 2010 Republican Governo
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, vein, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package, of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, oil shale, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed.
Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, modern practices have improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone and metals found close to the Earth's surface; these were used to make early weapons. Flint mines have been found in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and galleries; the mines at Grimes Graves and Krzemionki are famous, like most other flint mines, are Neolithic in origin. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District; the oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old.
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. Quarries for turquoise and copper were found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties; the gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known maps.
The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. Mining in Europe has a long history. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC; the marble was shipped away and was found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns, he captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage producing 26 tons per year. However, it was the Romans who developed large scale mining methods the use of large volumes of water brought to the minehead by numerous aqueducts; the water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed and driving simple machinery.
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. There, the water stored in large tanks; when a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. The rock was worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water; the resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines; the methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited.
In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia, but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased as the Romans needed Britannia's resources gold, silver