A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Gloverville, South Carolina
Gloverville is a census-designated place in Aiken County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 2,831 at the 2010 census, it is part of Georgia metropolitan area. Gloverville is located in historic Horse Creek Valley. Gloverville is located in western Aiken County at 33°31′36″N 81°49′24″W. Neighboring communities are Langley to the southwest, part of Burnettown to the northwest, Graniteville to the north, Warrenville to the east. Gloverville is located 9 miles east of downtown Augusta, 8 miles southwest of downtown Aiken. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Gloverville CDP has a total area of 3.6 square miles, of which 0.0077 square miles, or 0.25%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,805 people, 1,142 households, 771 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 801.6 people per square mile. There were 1,324 housing units at an average density of 378.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 86.27% White, 10.91% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.36% from other races, 2.03% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 1,142 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $24,679, the median income for a family was $31,719. Males had a median income of $29,088 versus $18,143 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,314. About 18.0% of families and 22.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.6% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010, the census reported a population of 2,831. Of this, 2,290 were White, 382 were Black or African American, 86 were two or more races, 46 were some other race, 21 were American Indian or Alaska Native 6 were Asian
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Augusta metropolitan area
The Augusta metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in the U. S. states of Georgia and South Carolina centered on the principal city of Augusta. The U. S. Office of Management and Budget, Census Bureau and other agencies define Augusta's Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, as comprising Richmond, Columbia, McDuffie Counties in Georgia and Aiken and Edgefield Counties in South Carolina; as of the 2010 Census, the area had a population of 556,877, though a 2014 estimate of it was at 583,632. Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia Pop: 197,872 Martinez, Georgia Pop: 35,795 Aiken, South Carolina Pop: 29,884 Evans, Georgia Pop: 29,011 North Augusta, South Carolina Pop: 21,873 Grovetown, Georgia Pop: 12,210 Thomson, Georgia Pop: 6,718 Belvedere, South Carolina Pop: 5,792 Waynesboro, Georgia Pop: 5,816 Edgefield, South Carolina Pop: 4,690 Clearwater, South Carolina Pop: 4,370 Hephzibah, Georgia Pop: 4,021 Gloverville, South Carolina Pop: 2,831 Burnettown, South Carolina Pop: 2,673 Harlem, Georgia Pop: 2,779 Johnston, South Carolina Pop: 2,362 New Ellenton, South Carolina Pop: 2,052 Jackson, South Carolina Pop: 1,700 Lincolnton, Georgia Pop: 1,520 Sardis, Georgia Pop: 999 Wagener, South Carolina Pop: 797 Blythe, Georgia Pop: 721 Dearing, Georgia Pop: 549 Salley, South Carolina Pop: 398 Keysville, Georgia Pop: 332 Midville, Georgia Pop: 269 Monetta, South Carolina Pop: 236 Perry, South Carolina Pop: 233 Trenton, South Carolina Pop: 196 Girard, Georgia Pop: 156 Windsor, South Carolina Pop: 121 Vidette, Georgia Pop: 112 As of the census of 2000, there were 499,684 people, 184,801 households, 132,165 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 60.81% White, 35.09% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.40% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $36,933, the median income for a family was $42,869. Males had a median income of $34,574 versus $22,791 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $17,652. Georgia census statistical areas South Carolina census statistical areas https://web.archive.org/web/20131013222920/http://2010.census.gov/2010census/popmap/
Savannah Town, South Carolina
Savannah Town, South Carolina is a defunct settlement, located in the colonial years on the Savannah River below the Fall Line in present-day Aiken County. In the 1670s the Westo had a village here, but they were displaced by the Savannah in a trade war, it became known by 1685 as Savannah Town; the English colony had traders who did a lucrative business in dressed skins with the Savannah Shawnee. Fortified as a frontier post, the settlement developed and ferry service was established across the river; the town was overtaken by its competitor of Augusta, established in 1735 five miles upriver and closer to Indian settlements. Traders here intercepted commerce. By 1740 Savannah Town was declining, by 1765 the village was abandoned and the fort closed. Nearby Silver Bluff was the site in 1773-1775 of the first separate black congregation organized in the current United States. During the American Revolutionary War, when the British occupied Savannah, most of the congregation members migrated to the city to gain freedom as promised by the British.
Some were evacuated with the British in the last days of the war. This settlement was first recorded by English colonists as a Westo village. Joel Gascoyne's 1685 Plat of the Province of Carolina showed the settlement by the name of Savannah Town; the growing English colony considered Savannah Town important for its profitable Indian trade, for frontier defense. A thriving business developed around colonial traders, many of them Scots-Irish, who used pack horses to carry their goods and travel throughout Native American communities in what was considered the interior, western wilderness away from Low Country settlements. In 1692 the South Carolina Proprietors expressed their hope that traders would reside at "Savannah town". In 1698, Colonel Thomas Welch reached the Mississippi River on a Native American trail, which came to be known as the Upper Trading Path to the Chickasaw homeland. Traders offered the Shawnee and other Indians iron and woolen goods in exchange for the dressed skins which they shipped by the thousands from Savannah Town via oared'periagoe' to Charles Town, thence to Europe.
The colonial authorities built Fort Moore nearby in 1715 and garrisoned it with twenty-five soldiers. In 1740 settlers established a ferry service across the Savannah River; the Savannah people resented the encroaching Englishmen and departed the area. In the early 1720s the South Carolina Assembly invited Chickasaw living in northern Mississippi to occupy the area, hoping to encourage trade and use them defensively on the frontier. Seeking to strengthen ties with the English as a source of guns, a Chickasaw group led by Squirrel King came to Savannah Town in 1723, settling along nearby Horse Creek; these Chickasaw collaborated with the English colonists in defense of this area from other tribes until returning to their Mississippi homeland about the time of the Revolutionary War. In 1730, South Carolina organized eleven frontier townships to buffer the more developed Low Country settlements. Savannah Town was incorporated into the Township of New Windsor. In 1737, 200 settlers from Appenzell, Switzerland colonized New Windsor.
Savannah Town gained a competitor in 1735 with the founding of Augusta, five river miles upstream on the Georgia side of the Savannah River. The new Colony of Georgia took good advantage of the settlement's superior position, closer to the bulk of the interior Indian settlements, to attract traders to Augusta. Georgia colonists worked to deflect commercial traffic to their own Atlantic coastal seaport at Savannah. By 1740 the prospect for Savannah Town was a matter of dispute. During the Cherokee war of 1760, Fort Moore harbored militia and refugees, but by 1765, the town as such had disappeared, the fort was closed. Savannah Town, variously called Savano Town, Savanaton or Old Savannah, was located at 33°26'18"N, 81°54'32"W, 225 river miles above the port of Savannah; the closest modern town is South Carolina. Due to uncertain political jurisdiction over Savannah River islands and sand bars, this area became a popular dueling ground in the early 19th century; the ferry at Savannah Town called Sand Bar Ferry, continued to operate until a road bridge was constructed over the river in the 1920s.
George Galphin operated a trading post at nearby Silver Bluff. Silver Bluff was developed for plantation agriculture, it was the site of the first African-American congregation to be organized in the South, founded in 1773-1775 under elder David George during the Great Awakening. The black Baptist congregation moved into Savannah, Georgia during the Revolutionary War, where the slaves could gain freedom behind British lines. Atkinson, James R.. Splendid Land, Splendid People. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-5033-0. Cumming, William; the Southeast in Early Maps. ISBN 0-8078-2371-6; the 1685 Joel Gascoyne map is a manuscript held by the British Library. London. Maness, Harold. Forgotten Outpost: Fort Moore & Savannah Town, 1685-1765. ISBN 0-937229-01-6. McCrady
Langley known as Langley Marish, is a large village in the unitary authority of Slough in South East England. It is two miles east of central Slough, with which it is contiguous, 18 miles west of Charing Cross in Central London. Langley is located in the historic county of Buckinghamshire, however between 1974 and 1998 it was administered as part of Berkshire. Aside from Colnbrook and Poyle to the south, it is the easternmost settlement in the ceremonial county of Berkshire; the place-name Langley derives from two Middle English words: lang meaning long and leah, a wood or clearing. Langley was formed of a number of clearings: George Green, Horsemoor Green, Middle Green, Sawyers Green and Shreding Green, they became the sites for housing which merged into one village centred on the parish church in St Mary's Road. The clearings are remembered in the names of smaller green fields. Marish or Maries commemorates Christiana de Marecis who held the manor for a short time in the reign of Edward I; the Church of St Mary the Virgin is in the Church of England diocese of Oxford.
The church is a Grade I listed building and houses the Kedermister Library, given by Sir John Kedermister, who endowed the surviving almshouses of 1617 in the village. Other surviving almshouses include the Seymour Almshouses, given by Sir Edward Seymour, a Speaker of the House of Commons, those founded in 1839 by William Wild in Horsemoor Green. Sir John Kedermister's house, Langley Park was demolished and rebuilt to designs by Stiff Leadbetter, starting in 1756 and completed in the year of his death, 1758. Langley Hall was built in the 17th century. In the early part of the 20th century it housed a preparatory school for boys and was known as Langley Place; the Hall served as the Actor's Orphanage, was used by RAF Bomber Command during World War II by the Road Research Laboratory, Langley College and East Berkshire College. Langley Hall was purchased by the government in June 2011 to become one of the country's first Free Schools. Langley Hall Primary Academy opened in September 2011 for children aged 4 to 11.
The Langley Academy secondary school opened in 2008 and was designed by architects Foster + Partners. The Hawker Aircraft Company bought Parlaunt Farm at Langley in 1938 and built a major factory and airfield there. Well over 8,000 military aircraft were manufactured at the site the Hurricane during World War II and the Tempest and Sea Fury; the final Hurricane built was completed here on 15 September 1944 and named'Last of The Many' in a special ceremony. Retiring Chief Test Pilot P W S'George' Bulman flew the aeroplane on this occasion – having made the first flight of the prototype from Brooklands nine years earlier; the Hawker Tornado, Tempest, Sea Fury, the General Aircraft Hamilcar X tank-carrying glider all made their first flights from Langley. Postwar, the aerodrome was used by Airwork Services and British South American Airways for aircraft maintenance work; the Hawker factory closed in 1958 having manufactured Hawker Hunter fighters and earlier jet prototypes. Production and staff were transferred to the flight test airfield at Dunsfold Aerodrome and the parent Hawker factory in Kingston-on-Thames, both in Surrey.
Little of the factory or airfield remain today although the area's aviation past is remembered in street-names such as Spitfire Close and Hurricane Way. The Ford Motor Company opened a commercial vehicle component factory at Langley Airfield in 1949, bought the entire site from Hawker Siddeley in 1959; the former aircraft factory was re-used for commercial vehicle manufacture and the Ford Transit was built here until production was transferred to Ford's Southampton plant at Swaythling and the Ford Cargo. The Langley factory became part of Iveco in 1986 but closed in September 1997. Demolished a year by Gregory Demolition, the site is now redeveloped with new housing and warehousing. Langley Carnival is held annually on the second Saturday in July at the Langley Park Memorial Recreation Ground; the Cable Corporation, based at Langley, was the first cable company in the world to offer voice and data services to business and residential users. The first volume of writer Charles Tyrie's autobiography is titled The Langley Boy.
ISBN 1-4259-6403-6 / ISBN 978-1-4259-6403-0 Langley is reputed to be haunted by a ghost in a yellow coat. Langley railway station, which includes a Isambard Kingdom Brunel period building, is on the Great Western Main Line to London Paddington. Great Western Railway operate a half-hourly service in each direction. From 2019, it will became part of the Elizabeth line with services operated by TfL Rail. Poet John Milton is said to have lived for a time near Kedermister Library in Langley World War I war artist Paul Nash is buried in the churchyard of St. Mary's Church, Langley Writer John Pudney – who wrote one of the best-known poems of the Second World War, For Johnny – was born in Langley Nathaniel Vincent, nonconformist minister and writer, lived in Langley after the Restoration Fraser, Maxwell; the History of Slough. Slough: Slough Corporation. P. 148. Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft Since 1920. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-839-9. Page, W. H. ed. (1925
Graniteville, South Carolina
Graniteville is a census-designated place in Aiken County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 2,614 at the 2010 census, it lies along U. S. Route 1, five miles west of Aiken in Horse Creek Valley, which originates in the nearby town of Vaucluse. Graniteville is part of the Augusta, Georgia metropolitan area known as the C. S. R. A. or Central Savannah River Area. Graniteville dates back to 1845 when William Gregg built the South's first large-scale cotton mill in what became known as Graniteville, his paternalistic mill town included 90 homes, several boarding houses, six stores, two churches, a school for the mill workers and their families. The community got its name because most of those original buildings were constructed of blue granite. Gregg required the children of mill workers to attend the public school he instituted, violators were fined; as such, Graniteville holds the distinction of having the first compulsory education system in the Southern United States. The Graniteville Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
On January 6, 2005, a Norfolk Southern Railway freight train struck a parked train on the spur leading to Avondale's Stevens Steam Plant. One of two train cars that were carrying liquid chlorine ruptured, releasing a poisonous chlorine cloud. Nine people were killed, more than 550 injured, more than 5,400 were displaced from their homes for more than a week; the town built a memorial in a small park at the intersection of Canal Street and Aiken Road, on May 20, 2006, the memorial was dedicated to the people who died in the crash. In 2008, there were talks about incorporating the villages of Graniteville and Warrenville. If approved, the municipality would have had an area of around 20 square miles; the referendum was defeated by a two-to-one margin in August 2008. Until 1996, Graniteville was the home office and central location of a collection of textile plants in South Carolina and Georgia known as The Graniteville Company. In 1996, the company was bought out by Avondale Mills, a company, one of the largest denim manufacturers in the United States.
Avondale closed or sold off all of its plants in the area in 2006, unable to recover financially from the train accident in 2005. Graniteville is home to a Bridgestone/Firestone Tire and Rubber Company plant. A continuing legacy of The Graniteville Company is the Gregg-Graniteville Foundation, established by the company in 1941 in honor of Mr. Gregg. To continue his concern for people, the Foundation awards annual college scholarships and other charitable contributions. Gregg Park Civic Center, a recreational complex, has services offered to community residents at a nominal charge; the Foundation funds the complex which includes a walking track and baseball fields, tennis courts, swimming area, picnic area. The gym includes a basketball court, weight room, exercise room, racquetball courts, locker rooms and showers; as of 2010, the total population of the CDP was 2,614. 0.65% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.04% were Asian, 28.62% were African American, 0.08% were Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 65.26% were white, 2.83% were some other race, 2.52% were of two or more races.
People of Hispanic or Latino origin were 5.93% of the population. Males were 47.59% of the population, females were 52.41%. The age distribution of the population was 9.45% under 5 years of age, 18.06% 5 to 17 years, 57.46% 18 to 64 years, 15.03% age 65 and over. 274 Calhoun Street - Home of William Gregg