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Language center

The term language center refers to the areas of the brain which serve a particular function for speech processing and production. Language is a core system, which gives humans the capacity to solve difficult problems and provides them with a unique type of social interaction. Language allows individuals to attribute symbols to specific concepts and display them through sentences and phrases that follow proper grammatical rules. Moreover, speech is the mechanism. Information is exchanged in a larger system including language-related regions; these regions are connected by white matter fiber tracts that make possible the transmission of information between regions. The white matter fibers bunches were recognized to be important for language production after suggesting that it is possible to make a connection between multiple language centers; the three classical language areas that are involved in language production and processing are Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, angular gyrus. Broca's Area was first suggested to play a role in speech function by the French neurologist and anthropologist Paul Broca in 1861.

The basis for this discovery was the analysis of speech problems resulting from injuries to this region of the brain, located in the inferior frontal gyrus. Paul Broca had a patient called Leborgne. Paul Broca, after working with another patient with similar impairment, concluded that damage in the inferior frontal gyrus affected articulate language. Broca’s area is well-known for being the syntactic processing “center”, it has been known since Paul Broca associated speech production with an area in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus, which he called “Broca’s area”. Although this area is in charge of speech production, its particular role in the language system is unknown. However, it is involved in phonological and syntactic processing and working memory; the anterior region of Broca’s area is involved in semantic processing, while the posterior region in the phonological processing. Moreover, the whole of Broca’s area has been shown to have a higher activation while doing reading tasks than other types of tasks.

In a simple explanation of speech production, this area approaches phonological word representation chronologically divided into segments of syllables, sent to different motor areas where they are converted into a phonetic code. The study of how this area produces speech has been made with paradigms using both single and complex words. Broca’s area is correlated with phonological segmentation and syntactic processing, which are all connected to linguistic information; this area, although it synchronizes the transformation of information within cortical systems involved in spoken word production, does not contribute to the production of single words. The inferior frontal lobe is the one in charge of word production. Furthermore, Broca’s area is structurally related to the thalamus and both are engaged in language processing; the connectivity between both areas is two thalamic nuclei, the pulvinar, the ventral nucleus, which are involved in language processing and linguistic functions similar to BA 44 and 45 in Broca’s area.

Pulvinar is connected to many frontal regions of the frontal cortex and ventral nucleus is involved in speech production. The frontal speech regions of the brain have been shown to participate in speech sound perception. Broca's Area is today still considered an important language center, playing a central role in processing syntax and sentence structure. Wernicke’s area was named for German doctor Carl Wernicke, who discovered it in 1874 in the course of his research into aphasias; this area of the brain is involved in language comprehension. Therefore, Wernicke’s area is for understanding oral language. Besides Wernicke’s area, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus participate in language comprehension. Therefore, language comprehension is not located in a specific area. Contrarily, it left temporal. While the finale of speech production is a sequence of muscle movements, the activation of knowledge about the sequence of phonemes that creates a word is a phonological retrieval.

Wernicke’s area contributes to phonological retrieval. All speech production tasks require phonological retrieval; the phonological retrieval system involved in speech repetition is the auditory phoneme perception system and the visual letter perception system is the one that serves for reading aloud. The communicative speech production entails a phase preceding phonological retrieval; the speech comprehension implicates representing sequences of phonemes onto word meaning. The angular gyrus is an important element in processing concrete and abstract concepts, it has a role in verbal working memory during retrieval for verbal information and in visual memory for when turning written language into spoken language. The left AG is activated in semantic processing requiring concept retrieval and conceptual integration. Moreover, the left AG is activated during problems of multiplication and addition requiring retrieval of arithmetic factors in verbal memory. Therefore, it is involved in verbal coding of numbers.

The insula is implicated in speech and language, partaking of functional and structural connections with motor, linguistic and limbic brain areas. The knowledge about the function of the insula in speech production comes from

Khebez Dawle

Khebez Dawle is a Syrian-Lebanese post-rock band led by Anas Maghrebi. As of 2017, the band is based in Berlin. While the band members are war refugees, they prefer to see themselves as a rock band. Anas Maghrebi's previous band, was formed following the uprisings that occurred as a result of the Arab Spring, was torn apart following the murder of the drummer of his bandmate, Rabea al-Ghazzi, the drafting of the guitarist of the band into the army. In 2012, Anas Maghrebi formed Khebez Dawle in the midst of the Syrian Uprising. Before the war, the band was active underground because of Syrian censorship; as the Syrian Civil War ensued, the guys opted at first to wait it out, while each individual was trying to avoid conscription into the Syrian army. After spending two years in Beirut, members of the band deemed staying on in Lebanon as having no future ahead for them, though they'd managed to record a limited pressing of their new album. Thereafter, the band moved to Turkey, from where they made the perilous boat trip with twelve other refugee musicians on a dinghy of sixteen souls across the Aegean Sea to the Greek island of Lesbos.

From Greece, they moved through Macedonia and Croatia. Throughout their journey, the band used their records to pay for their trips, presented their records as identification. According to some sources, the band's first performance in Europe was playing in a refugee camp. Khebez Dawle did their first substantial European gig in Croatia's capital Zagreb at Klub Močvara, a popular cultural venue that in the past had hosted Mogwai and God is an Astronaut; the men were asked by activists to perform at a concert supporting refugees. At the sold-out club event, the bandmates played with borrowed instruments to a full house attended by Croatians. Subsequently, Khebez Dawle got invitations to play two shows in Austria, performed in Cologne, Germany on New Year's Eve of 31 December 2015. After arrival to Germany, the band members were known in March 2016 to await for a response about their status in Germany's former Berlin Tempelhof Airport, repurposed into a large shelter and housing unit for migrants.

During that time, the group performed their music around Germany. As of late September 2017, the band members' refugee status has since been confirmed. On 15 February 2016, Khebez Dawle performed in Konzerthaus Berlin on Gendarmenmarkt as part of the'Cinema For Peace' charity gala, attended by many German celebrities; the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei had created an installation, in which the classicistic columns of the concert house were dressed in two thousand rescue vests from the island Lesbos. In addition, the attendant members of the public and celebrities were dressed in those same rescue vests and thermal blankets; the totality of the installation was seen as tasteless. As the band had gone through the experience of crossing the perilous seas in the same vests that saved their lives, one band member reacted to the installation by leaving a smashed guitar on the stage. Subsequently, the band members explained understanding of Ai Weiwei's art, but they countered this by describing seeing the rescue vests again as a terrible nightmare: In March 2016, they performed on the stage of Cologne's Lanxess Arena alongside major German literary and musical luminaries at the Lit.

Cologne benefit festival for the Til Schweiger Foundation, which seeks to serve as a less bureaucratic means to aid newly arrived refugees. Between 27 April — 4 May 2016, Khebez Dawle and Leslie Clio headlined the Counter Speech Tour that visited six cities across Germany: Passau, Cologne, Münster, Freital and Flensburg. In specific cities, the tour featured special guest performers: Enno Bunger, Gleis 8, Smudo; the purpose of the tour was to work as a friendly measure to counter racism and extreme-right ideologies that had taken root in some of these cities, in Freital. The tour was sponsored by Facebook, organised in partnership with, inter alia, Warner Music Group, the German brewer fritz-kola, the Bundesliga Foundation, the Internet charity betterplace.org. The project at betterplace.org to support the tour managed to collect €5167 from 134 donations. On 12 August 2016, Khebez Dawle performed at Detmolder Sommerbühne 2016, a summer stage event in Detmold, Germany; the performance was well-received, after requests for more Arabic-language songs from the listening public, Khebez Dawle frontman and vocalist Anas Maghrebi emerged from the listening area to support the four-person "Bukahara" group in their performance.

By 2017, Khebez Dawle have become located in Berlin. As of January 2017, German-American journalist and filmmaker Emily Dische-Becker has been working on a documentary about the band's journey. In February, the band were reported to be working on a new album. Anas Maghrebi — lead vocals, percussion instruments Bachi Darwish — vocals, guitar Muhammad Bazz — bass Hekmat Qassar — keyboards, guitar Dani Shukri — drumsSource: Stepfeed Funded by the Arab Fund for Art and Culture and the Arab Culture Resource Khebez Dawle's self titled first album was released in August, 2015. Recording for the album started 1st May, 2014; the album follows the perspective of a young Syrian man, experiencing various events throughout the Syrian war such as the Arab Spring. As states on Khebez Dawle's website, "this album tells the story from a humanitarian point of view, away from any polarizing political alignment". Homepage @khebezdawle on twitter Khebez Dawle You

With the Lights Out

With the Lights Out is a box set by the American rock band Nirvana released in November 2004. It contains three CDs and one DVD of rare or unreleased material, including B-sides and rehearsal and live recordings; the title comes from the lyrics from Nirvana's 1991 single "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Rumors of a posthumous Nirvana box set, or anthology, first surfaced in the mid-1990s, not long after the death of the band's singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain in April 1994. It was announced that a 45-track box set would be released in September 2001, to mark the 10th anniversary of the band's breakthrough album, but a legal battle between Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, surviving Nirvana members Dave Grohl and Krist Novoselic, precluded this from happening. Much of the dispute centered on "You Know You're Right", a song recorded in January 1994 during the band's final studio session. Grohl and Novoselic had wanted it for the box set, but Love blocked the song's release, sued them for control of Nirvana's legacy.

Love's lawsuit asserted that "the parties have fundamentally different concepts of how to manage the musical and artistic legacy of Kurt Cobain", which resulted "in a stalemate of decision making." She believed that "You Know You're Right" would be "wasted" on a box set, instead belonged on a single-disc compilation similar to the Beatles' 1. In 2002, the legal battle was settled, "You Know You're Right" appeared on the "best-of" compilation Nirvana; this paved the way for what became the With the Lights Out box set, which arrived in November 2004, over three years after its original release date but with more music than had been promised, including an acoustic demo of "You Know You're Right." Before the release of With the Lights Out, a promotional EP entitled Selections from With the Lights Out was sent out to radio stations, featuring the songs "White Lace and Strange," "Blandest," "Lithium", "Heart-Shaped Box" and "You Know You're Right" from the box set. "Lithium" was released as an exclusive iTunes downloadable single on November 22, 2004.

The music video for the original version of "In Bloom," made in 1990 and first released on the Sub Pop Video Network Program VHS compilation in 1991, was -re-released to music television to promote the box set. The video appears on the box set's DVD. An online trailer was released for the box set, featuring footage from the DVD and audio from the three CDs. With the Lights Out is packaged in heat-sensitive material which changes color when touched, revealing images of recording session tapes; each of the three CDs loosely represents the rare recordings from three periods in Nirvana's history, in line with the band's three studio albums, Nevermind and In Utero, which were released in 1989, 1991 and 1993 respectively. The DVD contains rare live rehearsals from throughout the band's career, it includes a 60-page booklet which contains liner notes by Thurston Moore of the American rock band Sonic Youth and journalist Neil Strauss, as well as photographs and a chronological catalog of the band's recording history, including studio sessions and radio appearances, live performances and home demo recordings sessions.

The band's May 6, 1987 radio session at KAOS 89.3 FM in Olympia, Washington is mislabeled as being from April 17, 1987. With the Lights Out received positive reviews from music critics, many of whom saw it as a valuable glimpse into the band's evolution. Julian Marshall of the NME called it "a humanising and heartbreaking document of a man who, in five years, changed the face of music by accident." John Jeremiah Sullivan of New York Magazine called it "an appropriately eccentric testament to Cobain’s talent."However, several critics felt it contained too much second-rate material never intended for release. Mark Richardson of Pitchfork wrote, "Those hoping for a trove of overlooked gems will be disappointed... Put, there's enough good stuff here for a solid single disc." Tim O'Neil of PopMatters wrote, "The majority of the material presented here will appeal only to a select group of hardcore fans, music historians and critics." As of 2016, With the Lights Out had sold 546,000 copies in the US alone.

All songs written except where noted. March 7, 1987 show in Raymond, Washington."Heartbreaker" – 2:59May 6, 1987 radio session at KAOS 89.3 FM, Washington."Anorexorcist" – 2:44 "White Lace and Strange" – 2:09 "Help Me, I'm Hungry" – 2:41Summer 1987 band rehearsal in Aberdeen, Washington."Mrs. Butterworth" – 4:05January 23, 1988 studio session at Reciprocal Recording Studios, Washington. Producer: Jack Endino."If You Must" – 4:01 "Pen Cap Chew" – 4:02January 23, 1988 show at the Community World Theatre, Washington."Downer" – 1:43 "Floyd the Barber" – 2:33 "Raunchola" / "Moby Dick" – 6:241987–1988 solo 4-track home recordings, Washington."Beans" – 1:32 "Don't Want It All" – 2:26 "Clean Up Before She Comes" – 3:12 "Polly" – 2:30 "About a Girl" – 2:44June 6, 1988 studio session at Reciprocal Recording Studios, Washington. Producer: Jack Endino"Blandest" – 3:56Spring 1989 studio session at The Evergreen State College Audio Studio, Washington. Producer: Greg Babior."Dive" – 4:50August 20/ 28 studio session at Reciprocal Recording Studios, Washington.

Producer: Jack Endino. (Studio session for "the Jury," a Lead Belly cover band featuring members of Nirvana and the Screa

Michael Clarkson (pastoralist)

Michael Clarkson was one of the early settlers in the Swan River Colony and the Avon region of Western Australia. Clarkson was born on 7 June 1804 in Yorkshire, to Barnard Clarkson and Elizabeth, he was the eldest of six children. In February 1830, Clarkson and his brother James Smith Clarkson arrived at the Swan River on Tranby, they had chartered the brig in association with Joseph Hardey, a farmer and Wesleyan layman and his brother John Wall Hardey. The immigrants, including family members and indentured servants, were all Methodists and well versed in farming practices, they established their farms on 512 acres fronting the Swan River, at what is now known as Maylands, called it the Peninsula. During this time either Michael or James joined Robert Dale, charged by Governor James Stirling to lead a party to explore the country east of the Darling Range; the party left in late 1830, found and named the Avon River flowing through good pastoral country. The townsites of Beverley and Northam were marked out and the land opened for selection.

Among the first claimants for land grants were the Clarkson brothers. They called their York grant Wilberforce after William Wilberforce, the English politician and philanthropist who led the movement to abolish slavery. In January 1833, the brothers were joined by younger brother Charles Foster and their widowed father Barnard Clarkson; that year on 7 November, Michael married Jane Drummond, the eldest daughter of James Drummond the botanist. Two years the couple went to live at Wilberforce with the father, they had five sons and two daughters, including Deborah Wilberforce, who became the wife of Toodyay's resident magistrate Alfred Durlacher, Barnard Drummond Clarkson, the future Toodyay member of the Legislative Assembly. Clarkson sold his grant at Wilberforce and returned to Peninsula farm and worked as a commission agent at Guildford, he and Jane were to make many moves during their marriage. In 1844, the Clarksons moved to Jane's family home Hawthornden while Michael farmed at nearby Nunyle.

However times were hard. The price of sheep and wool had fallen and many farmers, including the Drummonds and Clarksons, were finding it hard to make a living. In 1849 Clarkson and his wife left for Toodyay. Clarkson's working life over the next couple of years was varied. With the introduction of convicts in 1850, the establishment of a convict hiring depot at Toodyay, he was put in charge of one of the first groups of ticket of leave men to make its way to the district, he was appointed superintendent of the depot, but due to disharmony between himself and the convict overseer he was transferred to the Mt Eliza Hiring Depot in Perth. In 1854, he returned to Toodyay. By 1860, life was becoming more prosperous in the region. Clarkson had leased the Mt Anderson grant where he had a large flock of sheep and was cropping 56 acres. Clarkson became involved in local affairs. In 1854, he was the judge at the first agricultural show to be held in Toodyay, became secretary of the Agricultural Society, he was a trustee of the Anglican Church, became one of the vice presidents at the inaugural meeting of the Newcastle Mechanics' Institute in July 1866.

Following his death in April 1871 Clarkson was buried in the Drummond family cemetery at Hawthornden. This article incorporates text by Robyn Taylor available under the CC BY SA 2.5 AU licence

McIntosh County, North Dakota

McIntosh County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,809, its county seat is Ashley. The Dakota Territory legislature created the county on March 9, 1883, with areas partitioned from Campbelll, McPherson counties, with some previously-unorganized areas, it was named for a territorial legislator at the time. The county seat was Hoskins, but changed in 1888 after everything in Hoskins but the school was moved three miles east to the new Soo Line Railroad townsite of Ashley; the county government was not organized at that date, but the new county was not attached to another county for judicial or administrative purposes. Its government was organized on October 4, 1884. McIntosh County lies on the south line of North Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of South Dakota. The terrain consists of rolling hills dotted with lakes and ponds, with occasional protuberances; the terrain slopes to the south, with its highest point on the north line at 2,156' ASL.

The county has a total area of 995 square miles, of which 975 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. North Dakota Highway 3 North Dakota Highway 11 North Dakota Highway 13 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 3,390 people, 1,467 households, 975 families in the county; the population density was 3.48/sqmi. There were 1,853 housing units at an average density of 1.90/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 98.88% White, 0.15% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 0.83 % of the population were Latino of any race. 82.2 % were of 5.0 % American ancestry. There were 1,467 households out of which 22.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 3.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.50% were non-families. 32.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.75.

The county population contained 19.40% under the age of 18, 4.60% from 18 to 24, 19.40% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 34.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years. For every 100 females there were 91.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,389, the median income for a family was $31,771. Males had a median income of $22,153 versus $16,743 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,018. About 10.60% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 18.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,809 people, 1,307 households, 800 families in the county; the population density was 2.88/sqmi. There were 1,858 housing units at an average density of 1.91/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 98.1% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races.

Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 76.8% were German, 26.9% were Russian, 6.2% were Norwegian, 5.2% were American. Of the 1,307 households, 19.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families, 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.07 and the average family size was 2.66. The median age was 52.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $34,904 and the median income for a family was $46,198. Males had a median income of $35,200 versus $23,594 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,608. About 9.2% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 20.2% of those age 65 or over. Roloff McIntosh County is a powerfully Republican county; the only Democrats to carry McIntosh County have been Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 and 1932, plus Al Smith in 1928, both of whom owed their success to the county's overwhelmingly "wet" German-American culture.

In 1920, 1940, 1944. and 1952 elections the Republican Presidential candidate received over ninety percent of the county's vote. Although shifting somewhat Democratic in more recent Presidential elections, John McCain received nearly sixty percent of the county's vote in the 2008 U. S. presidential election. President Donald Trump won seventy-seven percent of the vote in 2016, the best result in the county since Ronald Reagan; the county is represented in the US House of Representatives by Republican Kevin Cramer. As part of District 28 it is represented in the North Dakota Senate by Robert S. Erbele and in the North Dakota House of Representatives by Mike Brandenburg and Jeffery Magrum. National Register of Historic Places listings in McIntosh County ND

The Ex Files

"The Ex Files" is the 22nd episode of the CW television series, Gossip Girl. It was the fourth episode of the show's second season; the episode was directed by Jim McKay. It aired on Monday, September 22, 2008 on the CW. Dan meets a new girl named Amanda on the first day back to school. Blair and her clique look for new "projects" and "victims" and decide to go after the new girl whilst ignoring Jenny. Serena is upset that Dan has rebounded so and Blair makes it worse by interfering. Dan asks Amanda on a date at Serena's favorite restaurant and she decides to tag along. Dan and Amanda bond over literature leaving Serena as a third wheel. Serena and Dan decide it's better for them to just keep their distance. Blair's clique bullies Amanda by putting Nair in Dan blames Serena. Nate's mistress Catherine agreed to pay the Captain's restitution rather than blackmail him but Vanessa unwittingly thwarted Blair's plan. Chuck hired Amanda to pretend to like Dan in order to take down Blair as Queen B of Constance-Billard.

Dan has become a social pariah because of. The episode has an 8.1 rating out of 10 from TV.com, a 4.6 out of 5 star rating on TV Fanatic, an 8.0 out of 10 star rating on IMDB. The episode received favorable reviews from critics. Most of the critics praised Blake Lively's performances in this episode. Isabelle Carreau, from TV Squad, continued to compare Serena and Dan's relationship to Rachel and Ross from Friends and said that "Blake Lively delivered it with the right amount of attitude and bitchiness" in her final lines in the episode. Jennifer Sankowski, from TV Guide, had said that she was surprised to see that Amanda was working for Chuck all time long, that the reason why she loves the show is because of the many twists between the episodes. Michelle Graham, from Film School Rejects, had said that "overall, this episode kick started the season, with Chuck’s manipulations felt right the way through, but his hand unseen until the end". Carlos Delgado of If Magazine gave the episode a negative rating of D+ and said that the show "is poised to take bad television to a whole new level".

Full Cast & Crew on IMDb Recap from Official Website The Official Gossip Girl website