Foreign policy of the United States
U. S. foreign policy and foreign aid have been the subject of much debate and criticism, both domestically and abroad. The United States Secretary of State is the minister of the United States and is the primary conductor of state-to-state diplomacy. Both the Secretary of State and ambassadors are appointed by the President, with the advice, Congress has power to regulate commerce with foreign nations. The main trend regarding the history of U. S, since the 19th century, U. S. foreign policy has been characterized by a shift from the realist school to the idealistic or Wilsonian school of international relations. These policies became the basis of the Federalist Party in the 1790s, but the rival Jeffersonian feared Britain and favored France in the 1790s, declaring the War of 1812 on Britain. After the 1778 alliance with France, the U. S. did not sign another permanent treaty until the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949, over time, other themes, key goals, attitudes, or stances have been variously expressed by Presidential doctrines, named for them.
Initially these were uncommon events, but since WWII, these have made by most presidents. The U. S. bought Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867, victory over Spain in 1898 brought the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, as well as oversight of Cuba. The short experiment in imperialism ended by 1908, as the U. S. turned its attention to the Panama Canal, the 20th century was marked by two world wars in which the United States, along with allied powers, defeated its enemies and increased its international reputation. President Wilsons Fourteen Points was developed from his idealistic Wilsonianism program of spreading democracy and it became the basis of the German Armistice and the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. In the 1920s, the United States followed an independent course, and succeeded in a program of naval disarmament, operating outside the League it became a dominant player in diplomatic affairs. New York became the capital of the world, but the Wall Street Crash of 1929 hurled the Western industrialized world into the Great Depression.
American trade policy relied on high tariffs under the Republicans, and reciprocal trade agreements under the Democrats, but in any case exports were at very low levels in the 1930s. As a result of internal debate, the national policy was one of becoming the Arsenal of Democracy. Roosevelt mentioned four fundamental freedoms, which ought to be enjoyed by people everywhere in the world, American policy was to threaten Japan, to force it out of China, and to prevent its attacking the Soviet Union. However, Japan reacted by an attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and the United States was at war with Japan and Italy. Instead of the given to allies in World War I. The American economy roared forward, doubling industrial production, and building vast quantities of airplanes, tanks, and, much of the American war effort went to strategic bombers, which flattened the cities of Japan and Germany
A secondary school is both an organization that delivers level 2 junior secondary education or level 3 secondary education phases of the ISCED scale, and the building where this takes place. Level 2 junior secondary education is considered to be the second, Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 11 and 16, the systems and terminology remain unique to each country. School building design does not happen in isolation, schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the roll of the school. A general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55m2, or more generously 62m2, a general art room for 30 students needs to be 83m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2, examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary.
The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of, The students, the teachers, the support staff, the adminstrators. It has to should meet health requirements, minimal functional requirements- such as classrooms and showers, textbooks, Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establish building costs. Future plans are audited to ensure that standards are not exceeded. The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014 and it said the floor area should be 1050m² +6. 3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m², a secondary school, locally may be called high school, junior high school, senior high school. Sweden, gymnasium Switzerland, secondary school, collège or lycée Taiwan, Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, in Nigeria, secondary school starts from JSS1 until SSS3.
Most students start at the age of 10 or 11 and finish at 16 or 17, Students are required to sit for the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. To progress to university students must obtain at least a credit in Maths, English, in Somalia, secondary school starts from 9th grade until 12th. Students start it when they are around 14 to 15 years of age, Students are required to study Somali and Arabic, with the option of either English or Italian depending on the type of school. Religion, physics, physical education, art, when secondary school has been completed, students are sent to national training camp before going to either college, or military training. In South Africa, high school begins at grade 8, Students study for five years, at the end of which they write a Matriculation examination
Bilingual education involves teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. The following are different types of bilingual education program models. Research has shown many of the skills learned in the native language can be transferred easily to the second language later. The goal is to help transition to mainstream, English-only classrooms as quickly as possible. In a transitional bilingual program, the primary language is used as a vehicle to develop literacy skills. It is used to develop literacy and academic skills in the primary language Two-Way or Dual Language Immersion Bilingual Education and these programs are designed to help native and non-native English speakers become bilingual and biliterate. The two-way bilingual immersion program has 90% of the instructions in grade K-1 in minority language which is supported by the broader society. This proportion gradually changes in the majority language until the curriculum is divided in both languages by 5th grade.
The two-way bilingual immersion program is based on the principle of clear separation of the two languages of instruction. The languages of instructions are alternated by theme or content area, as of May 2005, there were 317 dual immersion programs operating in elementary schools in the United States in 10 different languages. Native English speakers benefit by learning a second language, English language learners are not segregated from their peers. Research has shown many of the skills learned in the native language can be transferred easily to the second language later. In this type of program, the language classes do not teach academic subjects. The second-language classes are content-based, rather than grammar-based, so students learn all of their subjects in the second language. Education is in the native language for an extended duration. The goal is to develop literacy in the native language first. Many myths and much prejudice has grown around bilingual education and these are all harmful convictions which have long been debunked, yet still persist among many parents.
Although bilingual schools exist, the majority of Senegalese schools teach in French, studies have shown that approximately 80% of teachers use a local language in order to communicate with all of their students
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks.
Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden.
Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
Norman Bertram Norm Coleman, Jr. is an American lobbyist and politician. Senator from Minnesota from 2003 until 2009, before that, he was mayor of Saint Paul, Minnesota from 1994 to 2002. Previously a member of the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, Coleman became a Republican in 1996, Coleman was elected to the Senate in 2002 and served one term, losing his 2008 reelection bid by 312 votes. Coleman was born in New York, a son of Norman Bertram Coleman, Sr. and his wife and his family was Jewish, his paternal grandfather having changed the surname from Goldman to Coleman. He was a graduate of James Madison High School in Brooklyn, New York Senator Chuck Schumer, a Democrat, attended high school with Coleman, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders and Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg are both graduates of the same high school. During his time at college, Coleman was an member of the 1960s counterculture. Carting a bullhorn around campus, hed regularly lecture students about the immorality of the Nixon administration and he successfully ran for president of the student senate during his junior year.
Under Coleman, the senate refused to ratify the newspapers editor and her co-editor, but after refusing to swear in the editor on four different occasions, the senate finally backed down. He admitted to smoking marijuana, and he celebrated his 20th birthday at the Woodstock Festival and he worked as a roadie for Jethro Tull and Ten Years After, amongst others. Coleman attended Brooklyn Law School from 1972 until 1974 but received his Juris Doctor from the University of Iowa College of Law in 1976, Coleman joined the office of the Minnesota Attorney General as a prosecutor, eventually rising to chief prosecutor and solicitor general. Coleman left the Attorney Generals office upon being elected the mayor of St. Paul, in 1993, Coleman was elected mayor of St. Paul as a Democrat. One of his first actions as mayor was the elimination of underfunded retirement health benefits for city workers, one of Colemans best-known accomplishments as mayor of Saint Paul was bringing professional hockey back to Minnesota.
In 1993, the Minnesota North Stars moved to Dallas, Texas, on June 7,1997 the NHL awarded Saint Paul an expansion franchise, named the Minnesota Wild, that would play in a new arena in downtown at the site of Civic Center Arena. The new arena, named the Xcel Energy Center, was built through a partnership, with $65 million from state taxpayers. Coleman successfully fought property tax increases, freezing property tax rates for the eight years he served as mayor, during Colemans mayoralty, St. Paul’s job rate grew by 7.1 percent and 18,000 jobs were added. In 1996, he was booed at party events or excluded from them altogether. Coleman joined the Republican Party in 1996 and was reelected Mayor of St. Paul in 1997, Colemans role in bringing professional hockey back to Minnesota and his popularity in St. Paul helped fuel a run for governor in 1998. He easily secured the Republican nomination, facing just token opposition in the primary and he faced DFL candidate Hubert H
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Chinese economic reform
China had one of the worlds largest and most advanced economies prior to the nineteenth century. The economy stagnated beginning in the 16th century and even declined in terms in the nineteenth and much of the twentieth century. Economic reforms introducing market principles began in 1978 and were carried out in two stages, the private sector grew remarkably, accounting for as much as 70 percent of China gross domestic product by 2005. From 1978 until 2013, unprecedented growth occurred, with the economy increasing by 9. 5% a year, the conservative Hu-Wen Administration more heavily regulated and controlled the economy after 2005, reversing some reforms. The success of Chinas economic policies and the manner of their implementation has resulted in changes in Chinese society. Large-scale government planning programs alongside market characteristics have minimized poverty, while incomes and income inequality have increased, during the 1930s, China developed a modern industrial sector, which stimulated modest but significant economic growth.
The economy was disrupted by the war against Japan and the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1949. Urban Chinese citizens experienced virtually no increase in living standards from 1957 onwards, one study noted that average pay levels in the catering sector exceeded wages in higher education. The economic performance of the Peoples Republic of China was poor in comparison with other East Asian countries, such as Japan, South Korea and rival Chiang Kai-sheks Republic of China. The economy was riddled with huge inefficiencies and malinvestments, and with Maos death, Economic reforms began after Deng Xiaoping and his reformist allies ousted the Gang of Four Maoist faction. By the time Deng took power, there was support among the elite for economic reforms. As the de facto leader, Dengs policies faced opposition from party conservatives but were successful in increasing the countrys wealth. Dengs first reforms began in agriculture, a long neglected by the Communist Party. Deng responded by decollectivizing agriculture and emphasizing the household-responsibility system, which divided the land of the Peoples communes into private plots, farmers were able to keep the lands output after paying a share to the state.
This move increased agricultural production, increased the living standards of hundreds of millions of farmers, reforms were implemented in urban industry to increase productivity. Moreover, the adoption of Industrial Responsibility System 1980s further promote the development of state-owned enterprise by allowing individuals or groups to manage the enterprise by contract. Private businesses were allowed to operate for the first time since the Communist takeover, price flexibility was increased, expanding the service sector. The country was opened to foreign investment for the first time since the Kuomintang era, Deng created a series of special economic zones for foreign investment that were relatively free of the bureaucratic regulations and interventions that hampered economic growth
Japanese economic miracle
The Japanese economic miracle was Japans record period of economic growth between post-World War II era to the end of Cold War. During the economic boom, Japan rapidly became the second largest economy by the 1960s. In the Lost Decade of the 1990s, however, it suffered its longest economic stagnation since World War II and this economic miracle was the result of post-World War II Japan and West Germany benefiting from the Cold War. It occurred chiefly due to the economic interventionism of the Japanese government and partly due to the aid, after World War II, the U. S. established a significant presence in Japan to slow the expansion of Soviet influence in the Pacific. This economic miracle was spurred mainly by Japanese economic policy, in particular through the Ministry of International Trade, the Japanese financial recovery continued even after SCAP departed and the economic boom propelled by the Korean War abated. The Japanese economy survived from the recession caused by a loss of the U. S. payments for military procurement.
By the late 1960s, Japan had risen from the ashes of World War II to achieve an astoundingly rapid, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry was instrumental in Japans post-war economic recovery. According to some scholars, no other governmental regulation or organization had more impact than MITI. The particular speed and consequences of Japanese economic growth, established in 1949, MITIs role began with the Policy Concerning Industrial Rationalization that coordinated efforts by industries to counteract the effects of SCAPs deflationary regulations. In this way, MITI formalized cooperation between the Japanese government and private industry, the Ministry coordinated various industries, including the emerging keiretsu, toward a specific end, usually toward the intersection of national production goals and private economic interests. MITI boosted the security by untying the imports of technology from the imports of other goods. MITIs Foreign Capital Law granted the power to negotiate the price.
This element of control allowed it to promote industries it deemed promising. The low cost of imported technology allowed for industrial growth. Productivity was greatly improved through new equipment and standardization, MITI gained the ability to regulate all imports with the abolition of the Economic Stabilization Board and the Foreign Exchange Control Board in August 1952. Power over the foreign exchange budget was given directly to MITI. MITIs establishment of the Japan Development Bank provided the private sector with low-cost capital for long-term growth, the Japan Development Bank introduced access to the Fiscal Investment and Loan Plan, a massive pooling of individual and national savings. At the time FILP controlled four times the savings of the worlds largest commercial bank, with this financial power, FILP was able to maintain an abnormally high number of Japanese construction firms
Government of China
The Government of the Peoples Republic of China is divided among several bodies, the legislative branch, the National Peoples Congress. The primary organs of power are the National Peoples Congress, the President. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a number of Vice Premiers, five State Councilors. During the 1980s there was a made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the leadership within the state are the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power, at the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government. It is not unheard of for an executive to be party secretary. This frequently causes conflict between the executive and the party secretary, and this conflict is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Under the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, the NPC is the highest organ of power in China.
It meets annually for two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, the budget. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress, most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Partys Politburo Standing Committee. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a tax to finance the construction of expressways. This article is about the administrative structure of the state, its branches, departments. As the role of the military is to enforce these decisions, experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leaders de facto control over the government. The Constitution was first created on September 20,1954, before that an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference was in force. The second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, the role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone.
The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution, the current constitution is the PRCs fourth promulgation. On December 4,1982, it was promulgated and has served as a constitution for 30 years
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, North Carolina is the 28th most extensive and the 9th most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties, the most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second largest banking center in the United States after New York City. The state has a range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell. The climate of the plains is strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a highland climate. North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, the United States Census Bureau places North Carolina in the South Atlantic division of the southern region.
So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, the most famous of these is the Queen Annes Revenge, which went aground in Beaufort Inlet in 1718. The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, the Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the states most populous region, containing the six largest cities in the state by population. It consists of rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. The Piedmont ranges from about 300 feet in elevation in the east to about 1,500 feet in the west, the western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, the Black Mountains are the highest in the eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet, the highest point east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina has 17 major river basins, the five basins west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico, while the remainder flow to the Atlantic Ocean.
Of the 17 basins,11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the states border – the Cape Fear, the Neuse, the White Oak, and the Tar-Pamlico basin. Elevation above sea level is most responsible for temperature change across the state, the climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream, especially in the coastal plain. These influences tend to cause warmer winter temperatures along the coast, the coastal plain averages around 1 inch of snow or ice annually, and in many years, there may be no snow or ice at all. North Carolina experiences severe weather in summer and winter, with summer bringing threat of hurricanes, tropical storms, heavy rain