Language isolate

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A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. Language isolates are in effect language families consisting of a single language. Commonly cited examples include Ainu, Basque, Korean, Sumerian, and Elamite, though in each case a minority of linguists claim to have demonstrated a relationship with other languages.[1]

Some sources use the term "language isolate" to indicate a branch of a larger family with only one surviving daughter. For instance, Albanian, Armenian and Greek are commonly called Indo-European isolates. While part of the Indo-European family, they do not belong to any established branch (such as the Romance, Celtic or Slavic and Germanic branches), but instead form independent branches. Similarly, within the Romance languages, Sardinian is a relative isolate. However, without a qualifier, isolate is understood to be in the absolute sense of having no demonstrable genetic relationship to any other known language.

Some languages once seen as isolates may be reclassified as small families. This happened with Japanese (now included in the Japonic family along with Ryukyuan languages such as Okinawan) and Georgian (now the most dominant or standard of the Kartvelian languages of the Caucasus). The Etruscan language of Italy has long been considered an isolate, but some have proposed that it is related to the so-called Tyrsenian languages, an extinct family of closely related ancient languages proposed by Helmut Rix (1998), including the Rhaetian, formerly spoken in the central Alps, and the Lemnian language, formerly spoken on the Greek island of Lemnos. The Japonic and Kartvelian families are widely accepted by linguists, but since the ancient family that includes Etruscan has not received a similar level of acceptance,[citation needed] Etruscan is still included in the list of language isolates.

Language isolates may be seen as a special case of unclassified languages that remain unclassified even after extensive efforts. If such efforts eventually do prove fruitful, a language previously considered an isolate may no longer be considered one, as happened with the Yanyuwa language of northern Australia, which has been placed in the Pama–Nyungan family. Since linguists do not always agree on whether a genetic relationship has been demonstrated, it is often disputed whether a language is an isolate or not.

"Genetic" or "genealogical" relationships[edit]

The term "genetic relationship" is meant in the genealogical sense of historical linguistics, which groups most languages spoken in the world today into a relatively small number of families, according to reconstructed descent from common ancestral languages. A "genetic relationship" is a connection between languages, like similarities in vocabulary or grammar, that can be attributed to a common ancestral proto-language that diverged into multiple languages or branches. For example, English is related to other Indo-European languages and Mandarin Chinese is related to other Sino-Tibetan languages. By this criterion, each language isolate constitutes a family of its own, which explains the exceptional interest that these languages have received from linguists.[2]

Looking for relationships[edit]

It is possible that all natural languages spoken in the world today are related by direct or indirect descent from a single ancestral tongue. The established language families would then be only the upper branches of the genealogical tree of all languages, or, equally, lower progeny of a parent tongue. For this reason, language isolates have been the object of numerous studies seeking to uncover their genealogy. For instance, Basque has been compared with every living and extinct Eurasian language family known, from Sumerian to Kartvelian, without conclusive results.

There are some situations in which a language with no ancestor might arise. This frequently happens with sign languages, most famously in the case of Nicaraguan Sign Language, where deaf children with no language were placed together and developed a new language. Similarly, if deaf parents were to raise a group of hearing children who have no contact with others until adulthood, they might develop an oral language among themselves and keep using it later, teaching it to their children, and so on. Eventually, it could develop into the full-fledged language of a population. With unsigned languages, this is not very likely to occur at any one time but, over the tens of thousands of years of human prehistory, the likelihood of this occurring at least a few times increases. There are also creole languages and constructed languages such as Esperanto, which do not descend directly from a single ancestor but have become the language of a population; however, they do take elements from existing languages.

Extinct isolates[edit]

Caution is required when speaking of extinct languages as isolates. Despite their great age, Sumerian and Elamite can be safely classified as isolates, as the languages are well enough known that, if modern relatives existed, they would be recognizably related[citation needed].

However, many extinct languages are very poorly attested, and the fact that they cannot be linked to other languages may be a reflection of our poor knowledge of them. Etruscan, for example, is sometimes claimed to be Indo-European. Although most historical linguists believe this is unlikely, it is not yet possible to resolve the issue. Hattic, Gutian,[3] Hurrian, Mannean and Kassite are also believed to be isolates by mainstream majority, but their status is disputed by a minority of linguists. Similar situations pertain to many extinct isolates of the Americas such as Beothuk and Cayuse. A language thought to be an isolate may turn out to be relatable to other languages once enough material is recovered, but material is unlikely to be recovered if a language was not documented in writing.

Sign language isolates[edit]

A number of sign languages have arisen independently, without any ancestral language, and thus are true language isolates. The most famous of these is the Nicaraguan Sign Language, a well documented case of what has happened in schools for the deaf in many countries. In Tanzania, for example, there are seven schools for the deaf, each with its own sign language with no known connection to any other language.[4] Sign languages have also developed outside schools, in communities with high incidences of deafness, such as Kata Kolok in Bali, the Adamorobe Sign Language in Ghana, the Urubu Sign Language in Brazil, several Mayan sign languages, and half a dozen sign languages of the hill tribes in Thailand including the Ban Khor Sign Language.

Studies are also being conducted on Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL) in an isolated village in Israel. The language was developed in isolation for over 75 years by both deaf and hearing people within the village.[5]

These and more are all presumed isolates or small local families, because many deaf communities are made up of people whose hearing parents do not use sign language, and have manifestly, as shown by the language itself, not borrowed their sign language from other deaf communities during the recorded history of these languages.[citation needed]

List of language isolates by continent[edit]

Below is a list of known language isolates, arranged by continent, along with notes on possible relations to other languages or language families.

In the Status column, "Vibrant" means that a language is in full use by the community, and is spoken in all areas of life by people of all generations. "Vulnerable" means that language use is restricted to certain domains, like the home. "Endangered" means that children are no longer learning the language, and it will die without active revitalization. "Moribund" means that a language is still spoken, but only by older people, who may not be full speakers. "Extinct" means a language has no more fluent native speakers. These definitions come from the UNESCO Atlas of World's Endangered languages. Data comes from their Wikipedia pages.

Africa[edit]

With few exceptions, all of Africa’s languages have been gathered into four major phyla: Afroasiatic, Niger–Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan.[6] However, the genetic unity of some language families, like Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan, is questionable, and so there may be many more language families and isolates than currently accepted. Data for several African languages, like Kwadi and Kwisi, are not sufficient for classification. In addition, Jalaa, Shabo, Laal, Kujargé, and a few other languages within Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic-speaking areas may turn out to be isolates upon further investigation. Defaka and Ega are highly divergent languages located within Niger-Congo-speaking areas, and may also possibly be language isolates.[7]

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Bangime 2,000 Vibrant Mali Spoken in the Bandiagara Escarpment. Used as an anti-language.
Hadza 1,000+ Vulnerable Tanzania Spoken on the southern shore of Lake Eyasi in the southwest of Arusha Region. Once listed as an outlier among the Khoisan languages. Language use is vigorous, though there are fewer than 1,000 speakers.
Jalaa 200 Moribund Nigeria Spoken in Bauchi State. Poorly known. Strongly influenced by Dikaka, but most vocabulary is very unusual.
Laal 750 Moribund Chad Spoken in three villages along the Chari River in Moyen-Chari Region. Poorly known. Also known as Gori. Possibly a distinct branch of Niger–Congo, Chadic of the Afroasiatic languages, or mixed.
Sandawe 60,000 Vibrant Tanzania Spoken in the northwest of Dodoma Region. Tentatively linked to the Khoe languages.
Shabo 400 Endangered Ethiopia Poorly known. Spoken in Anderaccha, Gecha, and Kaabo of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region. Linked to the Gumuz and Koman families in the proposed Komuz branch of the Nilo-Saharan languages

Asia[edit]

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Ainu 10 Moribund Japan, Russia Formerly spoken on southern Sakhalin, and all of the Kuril Islands and Hokkaido, now reduced to a handful of speakers in Hokkaido. May actually constitute a small language family, if the extinct varieties are classed as languages rather than dialects. Possibly related to the unattested language of the Emishi.
Burushaski 96,800 Vulnerable Pakistan Spoken in the Hunza Valley of Gilgit-Baltistan. Linked to Caucasian languages, Indo-European, and Na-Dene languages in various proposals.
Elamite Extinct Iran Formerly Spoken in Elam, along the northeast coast of the Persian Gulf. Some propose a relationship to the Dravidian languages (see Elamo-Dravidian), but this is not well-supported.
Enggano 700 Vibrant Indonesia Spoken on Enggano Island, west of the southern tip of Sumatra. Classified by some as a language isolate, and by others as Austronesian. However, general consensus holds that it has both Austronesian and non-Austronesian origins.
Japonic 130 millon Vibrant Japan With over 130 million speakers, Japanese has more speakers than all other language isolates combined.
Korean 77.23 million Vibrant North Korea, South Korea Connections to the Altaic languages had been proposed, but have been generally discredited by most linguists.[8] It has also been proposed that Korean may be related to Japanese in the Japanese-Korean classification hypothesis, both with and without a common Altaic ancestor. Sometimes classified as a language family, forming the Koreanic family with the Jeju language.
Kusunda 3 Moribund Nepal Spoken in the Gandaki Zone. The recent discovery of a few speakers shows that it is not demonstrably related to anything else.
Nihali 2,000 Endangered India Also known as Nahali. Spoken in northeastern Maharashtra and southwestern Madhya Pradesh, along the Tapti River. Strong lexical Munda influence from Korku. Used as anti-language by speakers.
Nivkh 200 Moribund Russia Also known as Gilyak. Spoken in the lower Amur River basin and in the northern part of Sakhalin. Dialects sometimes considered two languages. Has been linked to Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages.
Sumerian Extinct Iraq Long-extinct but well-attested language of ancient Sumer. Included in various proposals involving everything from Basque to the Sino-Tibetan languages.

Oceania[edit]

The languages of New Guinea are poorly studied, and candidates for isolate status are likely to change when more becomes known about them.

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Abinomn 300 Vibrant Indonesia Spoken in the far north of New Guinea. Also known as Bas or Foia. Language use is vigorous, despite low number of speakers.
Anêm 800 Vibrant Papua New Guinea Spoken on the northwest coast of New Britain. Perhaps related to Yélî Dnye and Ata.
Ata 2,000 Vibrant Papua New Guinea Spoken in the central highlands of New Britain. Also known as Wasi. Perhaps related to Yélî Dnye and Anem.
Enindhilyagwa 1,486 Vulnerable Australia Spoken on Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Also known as Andilyaugwa. Classified as part of the Macro-Gunwinyguan languages.
Gaagudju Extinct Australia Formerly spoken in Kakadu National Park in northern Australia. Also known as Gaagudu. Part of a proposal for an Arnhem Land language family.
Giimbiyu Extinct Australia Formerly spoken in the northern part of Arnhem Land. Part of a proposal for an Arnhem Land language family.
Isirawa 1,800 Vulnerable Indonesia Spoken in along the north coast of New Guinea. Formerly classified as Trans–New Guinea. Part of a proposal for a North Papuan family.
Kol 4,000 Vibrant Papua New Guinea Spoken in the northeastern part of New Britain. Possibly related to the poorly-known Sulka, or the Baining languages.
Kuot 2,400 Vulnerable Papua New Guinea Spoken on New Ireland. Also known as Panaras.
Laragiya 14 Moribund Australia Spoken in the Darwin area, along the far-northern coast of the Top End. Part of a proposal for a Darwin language family.
Massep 25 Moribund Indonesia Spoken on the north coast of Papua. A link to the Trans–New Guinea languages is being explored.
Malak-Malak 10 Moribund Australia Spoken in northern Australia. Sometimes linked with the Wagaydyic languages in a Northern Daly family.
Murrinh-patha 1,973 Vibrant Australia Spoken on the eastern coast of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in the Top End. Proposed linkage to Ngan’gityemerri in Southern Daly family.
Ngan’gityemerri 26 Moribund Australia Spoken in the Top End along the Daly River. Proposed linkage to Murrinh-patha in a Southern Daly family.
Pyu 100 Endangered Papua New Guinea Spoken on the northeast coast of New Guinea, in the far northwest of Madang Province. Formerly classified as Kwomtari–Fas.
Sulka 2,500 Vibrant Papua New Guinea Poorly attested. Spoken on the eastern end of New Britain. Primary schools teach the language. Possibly related to Kol or the Baining languages.
Taiap 75 Moribund Papua New Guinea Spoken on the northeast coast of New Guinea, in the northeast of East Sepik Province. Also known as Gapun, formerly classified as Sepik-Ramu. Tentatively linked to the Torricelli languages.
Tiwi 2,040 Vulnerable Australia Spoken in the Tiwi Islands in the Timor Sea. Traditionally Tiwi is polysynthetic, but the Tiwi spoken by younger generations is not.
Umbugarla Extinct Australia Formerly spoken along the far-northern coast of the Top End. Part of a proposal for an Darwin language family.
Wagiman 18 Moribund Australia Spoken in the southern part of the Top End. Once thought to be a member of the Macro-Gunwinyguan family, but this proposal has fallen out of favor.
Wardaman 50 Moribund Australia Spoken in the southern part of the Top End. Sometimes the extinct and poorly-attested Dagoman and Yangman dialects are treated as separate languages in a Yagmanic family. Previously classified as Macro-Gunwinyguan, but no evidence was found to support this.
Yele 3,750 Vibrant Papua New Guinea Spoken on Rossel Island in the Louisiade Archipelago. Perhaps related to Anem and Ata.

Europe[edit]

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Basque 751,500 (2016),[9] 1,185,500 passive speakers Vulnerable Spain, France Natively known as Euskara, the Basque language, found in the historical region of the Basque Country between France and Spain, is the second most-widely spoken language isolate after Korean. It has no known living relatives, although Aquitanian is commonly regarded as related to or a direct ancestor of Basque. Some linguists have claimed similarities with various languages of the Caucasus that are indicative of a relationship, while others have proposed a relation to Iberian and to the hypothetical Dené–Caucasian languages.
Etruscan Extinct Italy Language of the ancient Etruscans in northwestern Italy; not well attested. Some have suggested a Tyrsenian family consisting of Etruscan, Lemnian, Rhaetian, and possibly Camunic.

North America[edit]

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Alsea Extinct United States Poorly attested. Was spoken along the central coast of Oregon. Sometimes regarded as two separate languages. Often included in the Penutian hypothesis in a Coast Oregon Penutian branch.
Atakapa Extinct United States Was spoken on the Gulf coast of eastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana. Often linked to Muskogean in a Gulf hypothesis.
Chimariko Extinct United States Was spoken in northern California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Chitimacha Extinct United States Well-attested. Was spoken along the Gulf coast of southeastern Louisiana. Often linked to Muskogean in a Gulf hypothesis. The Chitimacha tribe is attempting to revive the language among younger members.
Coahuilteco Extinct United States, Mexico Was spoken in southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Cuitlatec Extinct Mexico Was spoken in Guerrero. Formerly considered to be Macro-Chibchan.
Esselen Extinct United States Poorly known. Was spoken in the Big Sur region of California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Haida 14 Moribund Canada, United States Spoken in the Haida Gwaii archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, and the southern islands of the Alexander Archipelago in southeastern Alaska. Some proposals connect it to the Na-Dené languages, but these have fallen into disfavor.
Huave 18,000 Endangered Mexico Spoken in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in the southeast of Oaxaca state. Part of the Penutian hypothesis when extended to Mexico, but this idea has generally been abandoned.
Karuk 12 Moribund United States Spoken along the Klamath River in northwestern California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Keres 10,670 Endangered United States Spoken in several pueblos throughout New Mexico, including Cochiti and Acoma Pueblos. Has two main dialects: Eastern and Western. Sometimes those two dialects are separated into languages in a Keresan family.
Kutenai 245 Moribund Canada, United States Spoken in the Rockies of northeastern Idaho, northwestern Montana and southeastern British Columbia. Attempts have been made to place it in a Macro-Algic or Macro-Salishan family, but these have not gained significant support.
Natchez Extinct United States Was spoken in southern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana. Often linked to Muskogean in a Gulf hypothesis.
Purépecha 124,494 Endangered Mexico Spoken in the north of Michoacán state. Language of the ancient Tarascan kingdom. Sometimes regarded as two languages.
Salinan Extinct United States Was spoken along the south-central coast of California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Seri 764 Vulnerable Mexico Spoken along the coast of the Gulf of California, in the southwest of Sonora state. Formerly spoken on Tiburón Island in the Gulf of California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Siuslaw Extinct United States Formerly spoken on the southwest coast of Oregon. Likely related to Alsea, Coosan languages, or possibly the Wintuan languages. Part of the Penutian hypothesis.
Takelma Extinct United States Formerly spoken in western Oregon. Part of the Penutian hypothesis. A specific relationship with Kalapuyan is now rejected.
Timucua Extinct United States Well attested. Was spoken in northern Florida and southern Georgia. A connection with the poorly known Tawasa language has been suggested, but this may be a dialect.
Tonkawa Extinct United States Was spoken in central and northern Texas.
Tunica Extinct United States Was spoken in western Mississippi, northeastern Louisiana, and southeastern Arkansas. Attempts at revitalization have produced 32 second-language speakers.
Washo 20 Moribund United States Spoken along the Truckee River in the Sierra Nevada of eastern California and northwestern Nevada. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Yana Extinct United States Well-attested. Was spoken in northern California. Part of the Hokan hypothesis.
Yuchi 4 Moribund United States Spoken in Oklahoma, but formerly spoken in eastern Tennessee. A connection to the Siouan languages have been proposed.
Zuni 9,620 Vulnerable United States Spoken in Zuni Pueblo in northwestern New Mexico. Links to Penutian and Keres have been proposed.

South America[edit]

Language Speakers Status Countries Comments
Aikanã 200 Endangered Brazil Spoken in the Amazon of eastern Rondônia. Arawakan has been suggested.
Andoque 370 Endangered Colombia, Peru Spoken on the upper reaches of the Japurá River. Extinct in Peru. Possibly Witotoan.
Betoi Extinct Venezuela Formerly spoken in the Apure River basin near the Colombian border. Paezan has been suggested.
Camsá 4,000 Endangered Colombia Spoken in Sibundoy in the Putumayo Department. Also known as Kamsa, Coche, Sibundoy, Kamentxa, Kamse, or Camëntsëá.
Candoshi-Shapra 1,100 Endangered Peru Spoken along the Chapuli, Huitoyacu, Pastaza, and Morona river valleys. Could be related to the extinct and poorly-attested Chirino language.
Canichana Extinct Bolivia A connection with the extinct Tequiraca (Auishiri) has been proposed.
Cayuvava 4 Moribund Bolivia Spoken in the Amazon west of Mamore River, north of Santa Ana del Yacuma in the Beni Department.
Chimane 5,300 Vulnerable Bolivia Spoken along the Beni river in Beni Department. Also spelled Tsimané. Sometimes split into multiple languages in a Moséten family. Linked to the Chonan languages in a Moseten-Chonan hypothesis.
Chiquitano 5,900 Endangered Bolivia, Brazil Spoken in the eastern part of Santa Cruz department and the southwestern part of Mato Grosso state. Formerly regarded as a member of the Macro-Jê family, but this claim was unsubstantiated.
Cofán 2,400 Endangered Colombia, Ecuador Also called A'ingae. Sometimes classified as Chibchan, but the similarities appear to be due to borrowings. Seriously endagered in Colombia.
Fulniô 1,000 Moribund Brazil Spoken in the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and the northern part of Bahia. Divided into two dialects, Fulniô and Yatê. Sometimes classified as a Macro-Jê language, but not much evidence to support this.
Guató 6 Moribund Brazil Spoken in the far south of Mato Grosso near the Bolivian border. Previously classified as Macro-Jê, but no evidence was found to support this.
Itonama 5 Moribund Bolivia Spoken in the far-eastern part of Beni Department. Paezan has been suggested.
Kunza Extinct Chile Was spoken in areas near Salar de Atacama. Also known as Atacameño. Part of a Macro-Paesan proposal.
Kanoê 5 Moribund Brazil Spoken in southeastern Rondônia. Also known as Kapishana. Part of a Macro-Paesan proposal.
Leco 20 Moribund Bolivia Spoken in the Andes east of Lake Titicaca.
Mapuche 260,000 Endangered Chile, Argentina Spoken in areas of the far-southern Andes and in the Chiloé Archipelago. Also known as Mapudungun, Araucano or Araucanian. Considered a family of 2 languages by Ethnologue. Variously part of Andean, Macro-Panoan, or Mataco–Guaicuru proposals. Sometimes Huilliche is treated as a separate language, reclassifying Mapuche into an Araucanian family.
Munichi Extinct Peru Formerly spoken in the southern part of Loreto Region. Possibly related to Arawakan languages
Movima 1,400 Endangered Bolivia Spoken in the Llanos de Moxos, in the north of Beni Department.
Oti Extinct Brazil Was spoken in São Paulo. Macro-Jê has been suggested.
Páez 60,000 Endangered Colombia Spoken in the northern part of Cauca Department. Several proposed relationships in the Paezan hypothesis but nothing conclusive.
Puelche Extinct Argentina, Chile Formerly spoken in the Pampas region. Sometimes linked to Het. Included in a proposed Macro-Jibaro family.
Tequiraca Extinct Peru Also known as Auishiri. A connection with Canichana has been proposed.
Trumai 51 Moribund Brazil Settled on the upper Xingu River. Currently reside in the Xingu National Park in the northern part of Mato Grosso.
Urarina 3,000 Vulnerable Peru Spoken in the central part of the Loreto Region. Part of the Macro-Jibaro proposal.
Waorani 2,000 Vulnerable Ecuador, Peru Also known as Sabela. Spoken between the Napo and Curaray rivers. Could be spoken by several uncontacted groups.
Warao 28,000 Endangered Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago Spoken in the Orinoco Delta. Sometimes linked to Paezan.
Yaghan 1 Moribund Chile Spoken in far-southern Tierra del Fuego. Also called Yámana. Last native speaker is Cristina Calderón, who is 90 years old.
Yaruro 7,900 Vibrant Venezuela Spoken along the Orinoco, Cinaruco, Meta, and Apure rivers. Linked to the extinct Esmeralda language.
Yuracaré 2,700 Endangered Bolivia Spoken in the foothills of the Andes, in Cochabamba and Beni Departments. Connections to Mosetenan, Pano–Tacanan, Arawakan, and Chonan have been suggested.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell, Lyle (2010-08-24). "Language Isolates and Their History, or, What's Weird, Anyway?". Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. 36 (1): 16–31. doi:10.3765/bls.v36i1.3900. ISSN 2377-1666. 
  2. ^ Grey., Thomason, Sarah. Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Kaufman, Terrence, 1937-. Berkeley. ISBN 0520078934. OCLC 16525266. 
  3. ^ Jump up ^ Mallory, J.P.; Mair, Victor H. (2000). The Tarim Mummies. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-500-05101-6.
  4. ^ Tanzanian Sign Language (TSL) Dictionary. H.R.T. Muzale, University of Dar es Salaam, 2003
  5. ^ "American Sign Language". NIDCD. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2017-01-25. 
  6. ^ Blench, Roger. 2017. African language isolates. In Language Isolates, edited by Lyle Campbell, pp. 176-206. Routledge.
  7. ^ Blench, Roger. "Niger-Congo: an Alternative View" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Sanchez-Mazas; Blench; Ross; Lin; Pejros, eds. (2008), "Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?", Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence, Taylor & Francis 
  9. ^ (in French) VI° Enquête Sociolinguistique en Euskal herria (Communauté Autonome d'Euskadi, Navarre et Pays Basque Nord) (2016).)

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]