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Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien

The philologist and author J. R. R. Tolkien created a number of constructed languages, including languages devised for fictional settings. Inventing languages was a lifelong occupation for Tolkien, starting in his teens. An early project of Tolkien's was the reconstruction of an unrecorded early Germanic language which might have been spoken by the people of Beowulf in the Germanic Heroic Age; the most-developed project of Tolkien's was his Elvish languages. He first started constructing an Elvin tongue in c. 1910–1911 while he was at the King Edward's School, Birmingham. He called it Quenya, he continued developing the history and grammar of his Elvish languages until his death in 1973. In 1931, he held a lecture about his passion for constructed languages, titled A Secret Vice. Here he contrasts his project of artistic languages constructed for aesthetic pleasure with the pragmatism of international auxiliary languages; the lecture discusses Tolkien's views on phonaesthetics, citing Greek and Welsh as examples of "languages which have a characteristic and in their different ways beautiful word-form".

Tolkien's glossopoeia has two temporal dimensions: the internal timeline of events described in The Silmarillion and other writings, the external timeline of Tolkien's own life during which he revised and refined his languages and their fictional history. Tolkien was a professional philologist of ancient Germanic languages, specialising in Old English, he was interested in many languages outside his field, developed a particular love for the Finnish language. He described the finding of a Finnish grammar book as "like discovering a complete wine-cellar filled with bottles of an amazing wine of a kind and flavour never tasted before". Glossopoeia was Tolkien's hobby for most of his life. At a little over 13, he helped construct a sound substitution cypher known as Nevbosh,'new nonsense', which grew to include some elements of actual invented language. Notably, Tolkien claimed. Shortly thereafter, he developed a true invented language called Naffarin which contained elements that would survive into his languages, which he continued to work on until his death more than 65 years later.

Language invention had always been connected to the mythology that Tolkien developed, as he found that a language could not be complete without the history of the people who spoke it, just as these people could never be realistic if imagined only through English and as speaking English. Tolkien therefore took the stance of a translator and adaptor rather than that of the original author of his works. Tolkien was of the opinion that the invention of an artistic language in order to be convincing and pleasing must include not only the language's historical development, but the history of its speakers, the mythology associated with both the language and the speakers, it was this idea that an "Elvish language" must be associated with a complex history and mythology of the Elves, at the core of the development of Tolkien's legendarium. Tolkien wrote in one of his letters: "what I think is a primary'fact' about my work, that it is all of a piece, fundamentally linguistic in inspiration.... It is not a'hobby', in the sense of something quite different from one's work, taken up as a relief-outlet.

The invention of languages is the foundation. The'stories' were made rather to provide a world for the languages than the reverse. To me a name comes first and the story follows. I should have preferred to write in ‘Elvish’. But, of course, such a work as The Lord of the Rings has been edited and only as much'language' has been left in as I thought would be stomached by readers.... It is to me, anyway an essay in'linguistic aesthetic', as I sometimes say to people who ask me'what is it all about'."While the Elvish languages remained at the center of Tolkien's attention, the requirements of the narratives associated with Middle-earth necessitated the development at least superficially of the languages of other races of Dwarves and Men, but the Black Speech designed by Sauron, the main antagonist in The Lord of the Rings. This latter language was designed to be the ostensible antithesis of the ideal of an artistic language pursued with the development of Quenya, the Black Speech representing a dystopian parody of an international auxiliary language just as Sauron's rule over the Orcs is a dystopian parody of a totalitarian state.

The Elvish language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language. Tolkien constructed the family from around 1910, working on it up to his death in 1973, he constructed the grammar and vocabulary of at least fifteen languages and dialects in three periods: 1910 – c. 1930: most of Primitive Quendian the proto-language, Common Eldarin and Goldogrin. C. 1935–1955: Goldogrin had changed and was now Noldorin, joined by Telerin, Ilkorin and the Avarin. The late and mature stage dispensed with Doriathrin. Noldorin matured into Sindarin. Although the Elvish languages Sindarin and Quenya are the most famous and the most developed of the languages that Tolkien invented for his Secondary World, they are by no means the only ones, they belong to a family of Elvish languages, that originate in Common Eldarin, the language common to all Eldar, which in turn originates in Primitive Quendian, the common root of Eldarin and Avarin languages. Finnish morphology (particularly its rich system of

Three Sharp Peaks of Hong Kong

The Three Sharp Peaks of Hong Kong are a collection of three peaks that Hong Kong hikers deem as challenging to summit because of loose rocks and steep inclination. The peaks are Sharp Peak in Sai Kung and High Junk Peak in Clear Water Bay; the three peaks are scattered in different regions in Hong Kong. While Castle Peak is the tallest of the three, Sharp Peak is considered the hardest of the three because of its remoteness and steepness. Hikers have another list of three peaks called the Three Sharp Peaks of Sai Kung, a popular hiking spot in Hong Kong, they are High Junk Peak and the remote Tai Yue Ngam Teng peak. List of mountains and hills in Hong Kong Castle Peak Sharp Peak High Junk Peak Wilson Trail Wilson Trail

Altes Schloss (Oberzaunsbach)

The burgstall of the Altes Schloss is the site of a, now levelled, mediaeval castle on the hillside of the Zaunsbacher Berg above the valley of the Trubach. It lies around 1,000 metres south-shouteast of the village of Oberzaunsbach in the Upper Franconian municipality of Pretzfeld in the south German state of Bavaria. No historical or archaeological information exists about this castle, it has been dated to the mediaeval period. All that has survived of the castle is a neck ditch, largely natural; the site is listed as heritage site number D-4-6233-0072: Mittelalterlicher Burgstall. The simple site of the spur castle lies at around 450 m above sea level on a rocky crag on the hill of Zaunsbacher Berg that juts northwards into the Trubach valley.. It thus is densely wooded today; the castle rock is separated from the uphill slopes of the hillside on the southwestern side of the site by a arched gully in the terrain, about 6.5 metres deep and up to 20 metres wide. It runs for about 45 metres in a northwest to southeast direction.

This gully, largely natural, was used as a neck ditch, was deepened in the Middle as a spoil heap at both ends of the ditch, where it ends at steep slopes, indicates. In the northern part of ditch is an eight-metre-long and 1.8-metre-wide ditch-like depression. Whether this is natural or manmade is uncertain; the ovale level castle site measures 30 by 18 metres and is about five metres above the floor of the ditch. Its southern part is higher. Apart from the side bounded by the neck ditch, the edge of the site drops for several metres down vertical rock faces. No traces of the foundations walls of any castle buildings have been discovered to date. From the castle rock there are good views over the Trubach valley and it is on the line of sight to the neighbouring Wichsenstein Castle Walter Heinz: Ehemalige Adelssitze im Trubachtal. Verlag Palm und Enke and Jena, 1996, ISBN 3-7896-0554-9, pp. 191–194. Hellmut Kunstmann: Die Burgen der südwestlichen Fränkischen Schweiz. 2. Auflage. Kommissionsverlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch, 1990, pp. 260–261.

Klaus Schwarz: Die vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Geländedenkmäler Oberfrankens.. Verlag Michael Lassleben, Kallmünz, 1955, p. 98

The Big Sheep

The Big Sheep is an amusement farm park located in Abbotsham, England. The site was Barton Farm, a busy sheep farm owned by six generations of the same family. Due to challenges in the farming community, owner Rick Turner decided to bring in more profits by turning the farm into an attraction in 1988; the site started with restaurant. After its initial focus on agriculture yielded disappointing returns, the park began to add entertainment attractions as well; the park gained attention for it daily sheep races. The park suffered substantial losses in the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. In 2012 the park drew attention when Turner claimed that "needlessly pessimistic" weather forecasts by the Met Office were unnecessarily driving tourists away from local attractions, it gained more exposure in March 2016 when it launched its new roller coaster but erected signs to state no screaming after complaints were made by local residents during the planning process. The Big Sheep features an indoor playground, animal shows, gin distillery, animal barn, Battlefield Live laser tag, outdoor playground, shops and 2 restaurants.

There are currently 8 rides including a roller coaster, farm safari ride, train ride, twister ride, piggy pull along, swan pedalos, tractor school and pony rides. During the first few months of the roller coaster's operation in 2016, it was named "The Big One", it is now named "Rampage". The roller coaster was made by Zierer and was located at Metroland, the defunct indoor amusement park of the MetroCentre shopping centre in Gateshead. Throughout the year the park hosts many live events.

Kisha club

A kisha club, or "reporters' club", from the Japanese word kisha, meaning reporter, is a Japanese news-gathering association of reporters from specific news organizations, whose reporting centers on a press room set up by sources such as the Prime Minister's Official Residence, government ministries, local authorities, the police, or corporate bodies. In English, it called a Press Club. Institutions with a kisha club limit their press conferences to the journalists of that club, membership rules for kisha clubs are restrictive; this blocks access by domestic non-member media, such as magazines and smaller newspapers, the foreign media, as well as freelance reporters, to the press conferences. While similar arrangements exist in other countries, the Japanese form of this type of organization is seen as one of the most extreme, with journalists denying access to other journalists, which has led to use of the Japanese term in other languages with a critical meaning. 1890 In response to the ban imposed by the first Imperial Diet on reporting by newspaper reporters, a reporter from the Jiji Shinpō newspaper called together the Diet correspondents from the Tokyo newspapers to form a "Group of journalists visiting the Diet", which in October merged with newspaper companies across Japan, changing its name to the Associated Newspaper Journalists' Club, to become the first kisha club.

March 1941 With the formation of the "Japan Newspaper Union", a newspaper control organization, the number of kisha clubs was reduced to one third, kisha clubs were forbidden from governing themselves. October 26, 1949 The Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association created a "Policy on Kisha Clubs", stating that they were "an organization for the purpose of socialization, are not to intervene in matters related to reporting". December 1997 The Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association changed this policy, stating that kisha clubs were "bases for reporting" which allowed easy access to information held by public bodies. March 24, 2005 Livedoor became the first Internet media company to apply for membership of the Japan Meteorological Agency kisha club. However, on March 15, 2006, the former president of Livedoor, Takafumi Horie, was charged with a breach of the Securities Trading Law, for this reason the application was rejected unanimously by the companies present. July 9, 2005 The freelance journalist Yū Terasawa and the deputy editor of the Shūkan Gendai weekly magazine submitted an application for a provisional ruling against the Tokyo Metropolitan Police and the 15 companies in the related kisha club to the Tokyo District Court and Tokyo High Court, stating that groups such as kisha clubs must not be allowed to obstruct journalists wishing to attend at the offices of the Metropolitan Police and give questions, but the application was refused.

A special appeal is being made to the Tokyo High Court. November 8, 2005 When a journalist from NHK Ōtsu bureau was arrested in relation to an arson incident, the offices of the Shiga Prefecture Police kisha club to which he belonged were searched by the Shiga Prefecture Police. Kisha clubs make agreements on reporting, which are known as "blackboard agreements" because they are communicated via a blackboard in a press room; the aim of making reporting agreements is to avoid excessive competition during reporting. Agreements may be made based on a request by, for example, the police, to protect the victims in cases such as kidnappings; these backroom agreements came under criticism following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, when they were blamed for causing journalists to self-censor, limit their coverage to official announcements by government and plant officials. In 1956, the J-Magazine association was set up, containing "Japanese magazine kisha clubs and Japanese magazine photo-journalist clubs, formed from member companies, to expedite the reporting activities related to magazine editing".

Setting up a kisha club allows bodies such as government agencies to communicate official announcements to the media. In particular, it simplifies reporting in the case where the body giving the report gives the time of the announcement to the club. At the same time, it is possible to set up transmission equipment for each media company in the press room, reducing the time taken between gathering information and editing. If, for example, local authorities want to provide information, it is easy to convey it by communicating with the kisha club for a higher-level body. Defenders of the system argue that the kisha clubs' influence is used to open up the institution they are covering to scrutiny, although this argument would seem self-contradictory; the kisha clubs have been criticized, both in Japan and abroad, for encouraging an extreme type of access-driven journalism that undermines the quality of journalism in Japan by stifling criticism and turning reporters into mouthpieces for the institutions that they are supposed to cover.

In one representative criticism, Jonathan Watts, the former Tokyo bureau chief for The Guardian, said the kisha club create a problem of "watchdogs becoming lapdogs" because "the kisha-club system rewards self-censorship, fosters uniformity and stifles competition."In its 2018 rankings of World Press Freedom, the non-governmental group Reporters Without Borders singled out the kisha clubs as a major reason that it ranked Japan 67th out of 180 countries, saying, "journalists find it hard put to play their role as democracy’s watchdog." Smaller

Ucayali River

The Ucayali River is the main headstream of the Amazon River. It rises about 110 km north of Lake Titicaca, in the Arequipa region of Peru and becomes the Amazon at the confluence of the Marañón close to Nauta city; the city of Pucallpa is located on the banks of the Ucayali. The Ucayali, together with the Apurímac River, the Ene River and the Tambo River, is today considered the main headwater of the Amazon River, totaling a length of 2,669.9 kilometres from the source of the Apurímac at Nevado Mismi to the confluence of the Ucayali and Marañón Rivers: Apurímac River: 730.7 km Ene River: 180.6 km Tambo River: 158.5 km Ucayali River: 1,600.1 km The Ucayali was first called San Miguel Ucayali, Poro, Apu-Poro and Rio de Cuzco. Peru has organised many ably-conducted expeditions to explore it. One of them claimed to have reached within 380 km of Lima, the little steamer "Napo" found its way up the violent currents for 124 km above the junction with the Pachitea River, as far as the Tambo River, 1,240 km from the confluence of the Ucayali with the Amazon.

The "Napo" succeeded in ascending the Urubamba River 56 km upstream from its junction with the Tambo, to a point 320 km north of Cuzco. Its width varies from 400–1,200 metres, due to the large number of islands; the current runs from 5–6 kilometres per hour, a channel from 20–50 metres wide can always be found with a minimum depth of 1.5 m. There are five difficult passes, due to the accumulation of rafts of timber. Sometimes large rocks which have fallen from the mountains and spread over the river-bed cause whirlpools. Ucayali is home to the Amazon river dolphin, giant otter, the Amazonian manatee, which are abundant in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, close to Nauta; the southeastern border of the reserve is formed by the lower Ucayali River. The river gives its name to the Ucayali Region of Peru and the Ucayali Province of the Loreto Region