The city of Aabenraa or Åbenrå, with a population of 15,814, is at the head of the Aabenraa Fjord, an arm of the Little Belt, in Denmark,61 kilometres north of the town of Schleswig. It was the seat of Sønderjyllands Amt until 1 January 2007, the name Aabenraa originally meant open beach. Aabenraa was first mentioned in accounts in the 12th century. Aabenraa started growing in the early Middle Ages around Opnør Hus, the castle, and received status as a merchant town in 1240. During the Middle Ages the town was known for its fishing industry, between 1560 and 1721 the town was under the rule of the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp. The towns glory days were during the period of the 1750s to c,1864, when ship traffic was at a high growth rate with trade to the Mediterranean Sea, South America, and Australia. It possessed a harbour, which afforded shelter for a large carrying trade, Aabenraa having the Danish monarchys third-largest trade fleet, after Copenhagen. The city had a number of well-known shipbuilding yards, which were known for their fine ships, the most famous of these was the clipper Cimber, which in 1857 sailed from Liverpool to San Francisco in 106 days.
Fishing and various small factories provided occupations for the population, from 1864 as a result of the Second War of Schleswig it was part of Prussia, and as such part of the North German Confederation, and from 1871 onwards, part of the German Empire. In the 1920 Schleswig Plebiscite that brought Northern Schleswig to Denmark,55. 1% of Aabenraas inhabitants voted for remaining part of Germany and 44. 9% voted for the cession to Denmark. However, since a plurality of votes in the surrounding Aabenraa municipality voted to join Denmark, after the 1948 Danish spelling reform, which abolished the digraph Aa in favor of Å, there was fervent resistance in Aabenraa. The town feared, among other things, to lose its status as first in alphabetical listings. A revision of the rules allowed for retaining the Aa spelling as an option. While the municipality of Aabenraa and most local citizens use the Aa spelling, the town has a 7.5 meter deep harbour, with a significant shipping trade. There is varied industry in the city, including Marcussens Organ Building, the city is the administrative center for the county.
Danmarks Radio has an office in the city, a significant German minority live in Aabenraa and they publish Der Nordschleswiger newspaper in German. Some significant buildings in the town are St. Nikolai Church from the time of King Valdemar with construction beginning ca,1250, and restored from 1949 to 1956. Brundlund Castle, erected by Queen Margaret I1411, and rebuilt in 1807, the town is a bathing resort, as is Elisenlund close by
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
QWERTY is a keyboard layout for Latin script. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard, the QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to Remington in 1873. It became popular with the success of the Remington No, the QWERTY layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In October 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden. Firstly, characters were mounted on arms or typebars, which would clash. Secondly, its point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator. Consequently, jams were especially serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed, the solution was to place commonly used letter-pairs so that their typebars were not neighboring, avoiding jams.
Sholes struggled for the five years to perfect his invention. The study of bigram frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the arrangement of letters, others suggest instead that the letter arrangement evolved from telegraph operators feedback. In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the half of the alphabet, O to Z. These adjustments included placing the R key in the previously allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name TYPE WRITER QUOTE from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated. Vestiges of the original layout remained in the home row sequence DFGHJKL. The modern layout is, The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No.2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key. 0 and 1 were omitted to simplify the design and reduce the manufacturing and maintenance costs, they were chosen specifically because they were redundant and could be recreated using other keys.
Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I for the one. In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For instance, the point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on modern keyboards, could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
St. Peter's Church, Copenhagen
St. Peters Church is the parish church of the German-speaking community in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated at the corner of Nørregade and Sankt Peders Stræde in the citys Latin Quarter, built as a single-nave church in the mid-15th century, it is the oldest building in central Copenhagen. It is notable for its complex of sepulchral chapels. St. Peters Church was in the Middle Ages one out of four Catholic parish churches in Copenhagen and it is first mentioned in 1304 but was most likely founded in the 12th century. The first church burnt down in 1380 but was shortly thereafter. After the Reformation the church building was for a used as a canon. Frederick II presented St. Peters Church to his German-speaking subjects in 1585, the building was renovated by Hans van Steenwinckel the Elder who added a gablet upper floor to the uncompleted tower, which was however replaced by a spire in the 17th century. The church became a centre for Copenhagens political, economic and military elite, the rapidly growing congregation made it necessary to expand the church in several stages.
Christian IV added a transept in 1631 and a southern transept in 1634. Just 60 years later, Christian V extended the north transept with a further three severies, the distinctive sepulchral chapels arose between 1648 and 1740. St. Peters Church was severely damaged in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728, the interior was lost to the flames but the outer walls were left intact and the church could fairly easily be rebuilt by Johan Cornelius Krieger. The church was first given a lantern spire which was replaced by the current copper-clad spire in 1756-57. The spire survived the British bombardment during the Battle of Copenhagen in 1807, as time passed, it became an impossible task for the congregation to maintain the large building complex, and in 1994 the state took over the church back into its care. St. Peters Church was originally built as a church but with Christian IVs addition of the northern and southern transepts. Most of the church, including the nave, the choir, the main entrance is located in the southern transept and is marked by a richly carved Baroque portal from 1731, carved by the sculptor Diderik Gercken.
The complex contains numerous tombs and epitaphs of important German families in Denmark, beneath the tombs contain the sarcofages of the most destinguished family members while other chests are placed in three to four layers in underground crypts. Many of the chapels are made by Johannes Wiedewelt and Andreas Weidenhaupt, amidst the chapels lies the idylic herb garden. The congregation arranges guided tours and other events in the historic building
North Schleswig Germans
Approximately 15,000 persons in Denmark belong to an ethnic German minority traditionally referred to as hjemmetyskere meaning domestic Germans in Danish, and as Nordschleswiger in German. This minority of Germans hold Danish citizenship and self-identify as ethnic Germans and they continue to use German and South Jutlandic as their home languages. Furthermore, there are several thousand German citizens residing in Denmark with no historical connection to this group. In 1920, in the aftermath of World War I, two Schleswig Plebiscites were held in the northernmost part of the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the plebiscites were held in two zones that were defined by Denmark according to the ideas of the Danish historian Hans Victor Clausen. The northern Zone I was deliminated according to Clausens estimation of where the rural population identified itself as Danish. In the southern Zone II, each parish/town voted for its own future allegiance, the eventual border was deliminated virtually identical with the border between Zones I and II.
In the northern Zone, 25% of the population, i. e, smaller German minorities existed in Haderslev and Christiansfeld. Sønderborg and Aabenraa were strongly dominated by both nationalities, Tønder had a vast German majority but was included in the northern Zone for geographical and economic reasons, and because of the small population of this North Schleswig towns. Between 1920–1939, the North Schleswig Germans elected Johannes Schmidt-Vodder as their representative in the Danish Parliament with c, 13–15% of the North Schleswig votes, indicating that the share of North Schleswigers that identified as Germans had decreased when compared with the 1920 referendum. Since 1945, the North Schleswig Germans have been presented by Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger, a cultural organisation, the North Schleswig Germans are currently represented in the municipal councils of Aabenraa, Tønder, and Sønderborg. Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger estimates the current number of North Schleswig Germans to be around 15,000, which are a lot fewer than the 50,000 Danish who lives in Southern Schleswig, where for instance Flensborg Avis, a newspaper in Danish is printed every day.
Potato Germans German-Danish agreement on minority rights,1955
The Faroe Islands, spelled the Faeroes, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland,320 kilometres north-northwest of Scotland. Its area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 49,188 in 2016, the Faeroe Islands is an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The land of the Faeroes is rugged, and these islands have an oceanic climate, wet, cloudy. Despite this island groups northerly latitude, temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream, between 1035 and 1814, the Faeroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most domestic matters, areas that remain the responsibility of Denmark include military defence, the police department, the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation, the people of the Faroe Islands compete as national team in certain sports. In Danish, the name Færøerne may reflect an Old Norse word fær, the morpheme øerne represents a plural of ø in Danish. The Danish name thus translates as the islands of sheep, in Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for island, the modern Faeroese word for island is oyggj. In the English language, their name is sometimes spelled Faeroe, archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods prior to the arrival of the Norse, the first between 400 and 600 and the second between 600 and 800. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, archaeologist Mike Church noted that Dicuil mentioned what may have been the Faroes. He suggested that the living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland or Scandinavia.
A Latin account of a made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578. This association, however, is far from conclusive in its description, Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language, according to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against Sigmund Brestursson, the Norwegian monarchy, a traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí, possibly refers to the Skeggjar Beards, a nickname given to island dwellers
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and it was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties, although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919 and this article, Article 231, became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, in 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently, although it is often referred to as the Versailles Conference, only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace.
Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the Big Four meetings taking place generally at the Quai dOrsay, the First World War was fought across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Countries beyond the war zones were affected by the disruption of trade, finance. In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire, which led to the collapse of the Imperial Government, the American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the power with aggressive ambitions. On 8 January 1918, United States President Woodrow Wilson issued a statement that became known as the Fourteen Points and this speech outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements and self-determination. After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front and this treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles of territory and 62 million people.
During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse, desertion rates within the German army began to increase, and civilian strikes drastically reduced war production. On the Western Front, the Allied forces launched the Hundred Days Offensive, sailors of the Imperial German Navy at Kiel mutinied, which prompted uprisings in Germany, which became known as the German Revolution. The German government tried to obtain a settlement based on the Fourteen Points. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armistice, the terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied Belgium and Luxembourg within fifteen days. In addition, it established that Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland, in late 1918, Allied troops entered Germany and began the occupation. Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americas, the Blockade of Germany was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout The placements and keys of a keyboard, visual layout The arrangement of the legends that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout The arrangement of the associations, determined in software. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system, from there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is usually possible for a user to change keyboard operation. There is some variation between different keyboard models in the mechanical layout – i. e. how many there are. However, differences between national layouts are mostly due to different selections and placements of symbols on the character keys, the core section of a keyboard comprises character keys, which can be used to type letters and other characters.
Typically, there are three rows of keys for typing letters and punctuation, a row for typing digits and special symbols. The positioning of the keys is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter. Besides the character keys, a keyboard incorporates special keys that do nothing by themselves, for example, the ⇧ Shift key can be used to alter the output of character keys, whereas the Ctrl and Alt keys trigger special operations when used in concert with other keys. Typically, a key is held down while another key is struck. To facilitate this, modifier keys usually come in pairs, one functionally identical key for each hand, so holding a modifier key with one hand leaves the other hand free to strike another key. An alphanumeric key labeled with only a letter can generally be struck to type either a lower case or capital letter. The ⇧ Shift key is used to type the upper of two symbols engraved on a given key, the lower being typed without using the modifier key. The English alphanumeric keyboard has a key for each of the letters A–Z, along with keys for punctuation.
In many other languages there are additional letters or symbols, which need to be available on the keyboard, to make room for additional symbols, keyboards often have what is effectively a secondary shift key, labeled AltGr. It can be used to type an extra symbol in addition to the two otherwise available with a key, and using it simultaneously with the Shift key may even give access to a fourth symbol
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans. The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages, before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany in 1990, Germans constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. Thus, the number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most often subscribe to their own national identities, the German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic language of the people.
It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German, used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of a German emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century. The Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni and it was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects, while in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci, originally with a meaning foreigner, the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century, the Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages.
Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War and these states eventually formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe, the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe, during antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine, in Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would become an influence in the development of a common German identity
A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of education, and is normally available without charge. The term grade school is used in the US though this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries, especially in the United States, in the United States, primary school may refer to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these municipalities, the school includes grade three through five or grades four to six