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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Out of a total population of 744 million, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language. Smaller phyla of Indo-European found in Europe include Hellenic, Albanian, Indo-Aryan and Celtic. Of the 45 million Europeans speaking non-Indo-European languages, most speak languages within either the Uralic and Turkic families. Still smaller groups account for less than 1% of the European population between them. Immigration has added sizeable communities of speakers of African and Asian languages, amounting to about 4% of the population, with Arabic being the most spoken of them. Five languages have more than 50 million native speakers in Europe: French, German and Russian. While Russian has the largest number of native speakers, English has the largest number of speakers in total, including some 200 million speakers of English as a second language; the Indo-European language family is descended from Proto-Indo-European, believed to have been spoken thousands of years ago.

Early speakers of Indo-European daughter languages most expanded into Europe with the incipient Bronze Age, around 4,000 years ago. 215 million Europeans are native speakers of Romance languages, the largest groups including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Sicilian, Venetian language, Sardinian, besides numerous smaller communities. The Romance languages are descended from varieties of Vulgar Latin spoken in the various parts of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity. Latin was itself part of the Italic branch of Indo-European. Romance is divided phylogenetically into Eastern Romance and Sardinian; the Romance-speaking area in Europe is referred to as Latin Europe. We can further break down Italo-Western into the Italo-Dalmatian languages, including the Tuscan-derived Italian and numerous local Romance lects in Italy as well as Dalmatian, the Western Romance languages; the Western Romance languages in turn separate into the Gallo-Romance languages, including French and its varieties, the Rhaeto-Romance languages and the Gallo-Italic languages.

The Germanic languages make up the predominant language family in northwestern Europe. An estimated 210 million Europeans are native speakers of Germanic languages, the largest groups being German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian. There are two extant major sub-divisions: North Germanic. A third group, East Germanic, is now extinct. West Germanic is divided into High German. German is spoken throughout Germany, Liechtenstein, much of Switzerland, northern Italy and the East Cantons of Belgium. There are several groups of German dialects: High German includes several dialect families: Standard German Central German dialects, spoken in central Germany and including Luxembourgish High Franconian, a family of transitional dialects between Central and Upper High German Upper German, including Austro-Bavarian and Swiss German Yiddish is a Jewish language developed in Germany and shares many features of High German dialects and Hebrew. Low German is spoken in various regions throughout Northern Germany and the northern and eastern parts of the Netherlands.

It is an official language in Germany. It may be separated into East Low German. Dutch is spoken throughout the Netherlands, the northern half of Belgium, as well as the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France, around Düsseldorf in Germany. In Belgian and French contexts, Dutch is sometimes referred to as Flemish. Dutch dialects are cut across national borders; the Anglo-Frisian language family is now represented by English, descended from the Old English language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons: English, the main language of the United Kingdom used in English-speaking Europe Scots, spoken in Scotland and Ulster. The Frisian languages are spoken by about 500,000 Frisians, who live on the southern coast of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany; these languages include West Frisian and North Frisian. The North Germanic languages are spoken in Scandinavian countries and include Danish, Swedish, or Elfdalian and Icelandic. English has a long history of c

Lakeland Shores, Minnesota

Lakeland Shores is a city in Washington County, United States. The population was 311 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.73 square miles. County 18 serves as a main route; as of the census of 2010, there were 311 people, 117 households, 84 families living in the city. The population density was 971.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 122 housing units at an average density of 381.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.0% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 117 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.2% were non-families. 17.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age in the city was 46.6 years. 22.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 355 people, 116 households, 93 families living in the city; the population density was 1,092.8 people per square mile. There were 121 housing units at an average density of 372.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.72% White, 0.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. There were 116 households out of which 50.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.0% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.8% were non-families. 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.06 and the average family size was 3.48. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 29.9% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $80,907, the median income for a family was $83,632. Males had a median income of $55,000 versus $35,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,789. About 1.9% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over

Société des forges de Châtillon-Commentry-Neuves-Maisons

The Compagnie anonyme de Châtillon et Commentry was a French steelmaking company, formed as a limited company in 1862 from the Société Bouguéret, Martenot et Cie. a creation from the combination of several French iron makers in 1846. In 1898 the company merged with the Société métallurgique de Champigneulles et Neuves-Maisons to form the Société des forges de Châtillon-Commentry-Neuves-Maisons. In 1979 the works became part of Usinor, forming part of the Unimetal division in 1984. By 2000 the plant in Neuves-Maisons had become part of the Riva Group and as of 2011 produces long products including rebar from scrap metal using electric arc furnaces. Metal working in the Châtillonais region dated back to the Iron age, with a ready supply of wood from the region's forests, near surface deposits of iron ore the area became one of the major production centres of iron in France in the 19th century, the company Bazile, Louis-Maître & Cie. was formed in 1824 by several ironworks owners, one of whom Auguste de Marmont had introduced the'English process' of using coke from coal in iron production.

In Allier, Nicholas Rambourg took advantage of the availability of wood for charcoal production in the Forest of Tronçais and started iron production in 1788. The organisation Société Bouguéret, Martenot et Cie. was formed in 1846 from the merging of the businesses of forgemasters in Allier and Châtillon. The founders of the company include members of the families Bouguéret, Bazile, Rambourg, Maître and others. In 1862 conversion to a limited company took place, the company took the name Compagnie anonyme de Châtillon et Commentry; the Société Métallurgique de la Haute-Moselle was formed in 1872 by others. The first blast furnace opened in 1874, a second in 1882; the company operated the mine of Maron-Val de Fert in Neuves-Maisons. In Liverdun iron making activities had begun in 1864 with the opening of an iron mine by Barbe et Schmidt. Three blast furnaces, a foundry and rolling mill had been built by 1868. Mineral extraction ended in 1877 and the associated works cease by 1879. Activities restarted in 1881 as des forges et laminoirs de Champigneulles.

In 1887 the Métallurgique de Haute Moselle merged with the Forges de Champigneulles to form the Société Métallurgique de Champigneulles et Neuves Maisons. In 1897 the company merged with Commentry. In 1898 Compagnie anonyme de Châtillon et Commentry merged with the Société métallurgique de Champigneulles et Neuves-Maisons, became the Société des forges de Châtillon-Commentry-Neuves-Maisons. At Neuves-Maisons production continued. A Siemens-Martin furnace was added 1909, the next year facilities for production of wire added. By 1914 seven blast furnaces had been installed; the Usine Saint-Jacques in Montluçon was a smelter, but had expanded into steel making using Siemens-Martin and Bessemer converters. It specialised in forgings, it was affected negatively by the Washington Naval Treaty as production of battleship turrets, gun fittings and projectiles was an important element of its business, after which the company diversified into mechanical engineering, including turbines and other transport equipment.

A subsidiary rolling mill existed at Commentry. It closed in 1964. In 1917 the company Forges de Châtillon-Commentry-Neuves-Maison together with the Société de Construction des Batignolles founded the locomotive manufacturer Compagnie générale de construction de locomotives in Nantes. In 1955 the works in Neuves-Maisons, plus the associated lime kilns in Vaucouleurs, wire mills in Sainte-Colombe and Vierzon became the Société des Aciéries et Tréfilerie de Neuves-Maisons Chatillon, this became a subsidiary of Hainaut-Sambre in 1967; the works was further developed. The Chatillon wire mill company merged with the Société des Hauts Forneaux de la Chiers, the Compagnie des Forges de Châtillon-Commentry-Biache to form the Compagnie industrielle Chiers Châtillon in 1977, merged into Usinor in 1979. Neuves-MaisonsAfter acquisition by Usinor in 1979 the works in Neuves-Maisons underwent restructuring - a transition to electrically produced steel, a concentration towards long products took place in the 1980s: the Siemens-Martin plant and coke ovens were closed, a new continuous casting plant built, in 1985 all the liquid phase operations ended and a UHP electric arc furnace installed.

In 1993 the plant along with works in Montereau becomes part of the société des aciers d’armature du béton, three cold drawing lines were installed. In 1995 the company is acquired by the British firm Allied Steel and Wire in 2000 is acquired by the Riva Group. In 2004 steel production was ~840,000t pa, employed 441 people. In 2006 production was from scrap metal by electrical plant producing continuous cast billets, with processing to wire rod and rebar. "Le chemin de fer industriel de l'Usine de Neuves Maisons", (in French


Sextus Julius Frontinus was a prominent Roman civil engineer and politician of the late 1st century AD. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. A novus homo, he was consul three times. Frontinus ably discharged several important administrative duties for Trajan. However, he is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises De aquaeductu, dealing with the aqueducts of Rome. In AD 70, Frontinus participated in the suppression of the Rhineland revolt, recorded that he received the surrender of 70,000 Lingones. Between that date and being appointed governor of Britain to succeed Quintus Petillius Cerialis a few years Frontinus was appointed suffect consul. While governor of Britain, he subjugated the Silures of South Wales and is thought to have campaigned against the Brigantes, he was succeeded by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the father-in-law of the famous historian Tacitus, in 77. Birley believes it "is fair to speculate" that Frontinus was with Domitian during the German campaign of 83.

An inscription at Hieropolis in Phrygia, as well as a number of coins of Smyrna, attests that he was proconsul of Asia in AD 86. In 97, he was appointed curator aquarum by the emperor Nerva, an office only conferred upon persons of high standing, he was a member of the College of Augurs. In this capacity, he followed another distinguished Roman statesman, the friend and son-in-law of Augustus, who organised in 34 BC a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including renovation of the aqueduct Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to cover more of the city; the following year Frontinus held a second consulship as suffect in February, with Trajan as his colleague, two years he was made consul ordinarius with Trajan. Birley notes, "This exceptional honour underlines the high regard in which he was held, suggests, that Trajan had a debt to repay." He died in 103 or 104, a date based on Pliny the Younger writing to his friends that he was elected to the college of augurs to fill the vacancy Frontinus' death had created.

Due to a lack of either a titulus honorarius or sepulcralis, there is no outline of Frontinus' life, the names of his parents, or of his wife. Some details can be inferred from chance mentions: He is thought to be of Narbonese origins, of the equestrian class. From the nomenclature of the name of Publius Calvisius Ruso Julius Frontinus, it is Frontinus had a sister, the other's mother. Frontinus had the wife of Quintus Sosius Senecio and mother of Sosia Polla. Frontinus's chief work is De aquaeductu, in two books, an official report to the emperor on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, it presents a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance. He provides the history and discharge rates of all of the nine aqueducts of Rome at the time at which he was writing at the turn of the 1st century AD: the Aqua Marcia, Aqua Appia, Aqua Alsietina, Aqua Tepula, Anio Vetus, Anio Novus, Aqua Virgo, Aqua Claudia and Aqua Augusta. Frontinus describes the quality of water delivered by each depending on their source, be it river, lake, or spring.

One of the first jobs he undertook when he was appointed water commissioner was to prepare maps of the system so that he could assess their condition before undertaking their maintenance. He says that many were not working at their full capacity, he was concerned by diversion of the supply by unscrupulous farmers and tradesmen, among many others. They would insert pipes into the channel of the aqueducts to tap the supply. He, made a meticulous survey of the intake and the supply of each line, investigated the discrepancies. Lead pipe stamps bearing the name of the owner were used to prevent such water theft, he was well aware of the seminal work De Architectura by Vitruvius, which mentions aqueduct construction and maintenance published in the previous century. Distribution of the water depended in a complex way on its height entering the city, the quality of the water, its rate of discharge. Thus, poor-quality water would be sent for irrigation, gardens, or flushing, while only the best would be reserved for drinking water.

Intermediate-quality water would be used for the many fountains. However, Frontinus criticized the practice of mixing supplies from different sources, one of his first decisions was to separate the waters from each system, he was concerned by leaks in the system those in the underground conduits, which were difficult to locate and mend, a problem still faced by water engineers today. The aqueducts above ground needed care to ensure that the masonry was kept in good condition those running on arched superstructures, it was, he said, essential to keep trees at a distance so that their roots would not damage the structures. He reviewed the existing law governing the state aqueducts, as well as the need for enforcement of those statutes. Frontinus wrote a theoretical treatise on military science, lost, his extant work on military matters, the Stratagems, is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, for the use of generals. He draws on his own experience as a general in Germania under Domitian, but similarities between the anecdotes he records and versions of other Roman authors like Valerius Maximus and Livy suggest that he drew on literary sources.

The authenticity

Sakher Habash

Yahya Sakher Habash known as Abu Nizar, was one of the Fatah founding leaders. Habash was born in Bayt Dajan, near Jaffa, on 10 November 1939, he became a refugee in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, ending up first in Ramallah in the Balata refugee camp near Nablus. He joined the Baathists in 1952, he studied geology and water resources at Ain Shams University in Cairo beginning in 1958 and in the University of Arizona. He became a Palestinian nationalist in the early 1960s and joined Fatah in 1962, being responsible for recruitment, he was appointed Fatah regional command in Lebanon in October 1972. He went to exile with Arafat during the 1970s, he was a member of the Fatah Central Committee from August 1989 to August 2009. He was a writer, a poet and an artist. Habash served as the movement's general deputy of intellectual affairs, he died of a stroke in the West Bank on 1 November 2009 and was survived by his wife and four children. Habash was posthumously awarded on October 5, 2013 with the Star of Jerusalem Medal, the highest medal bestowed by the State of Palestine.

Sakher Habash's website Fatah's Intellectual office website President Abbas awards Sakher Habash with the Star of Jerusalem Medal


A traditional Swazi wedding ceremony is called umtsimba, where the bride commits herself to her new family for the rest of her life. The ceremony is a celebration that includes members of both the bride's - and the groom's - natal village. There are stages to the wedding; each stage is significant, comprising symbolic gestures that have been passed on from generation to generation. The first stage is the preparation of the bridal party before leaving their village; the second stage is the actual journey of the bridal party from their village to the groom's village. The third stage is the first day of the wedding ceremony that spans three days, starts on the day the bridal party arrives at the grooms’ village. Thereafter the actual wedding ceremony takes place, the fourth stage of the umtsimba; the fifth stage takes place the day after the wedding ceremony and is known as kuteka, the actual wedding. The final stage may take place the day after the wedding day, is when the bride gives the groom's family gifts and is the first evening the bride spends with the groom.

Although the traditional wedding ceremony has evolved in modern times, the details below are based on historic accounts of anthropologist Hilda Kuper and sociological research describing the tradition The bride's father notifies friends and relatives that his daughter is to be married, the chief of the village is informed that there will be a wedding. Thereafter, the father invites the neighbours to the wedding; the father appoints two men and two women to accompany the untsimba to the groom's homestead. Grass mats and grass brooms are made by the young bride, her relatives and friends, which the bride will take with her when she leaves her parental home, she takes along hand-made presents for her in-laws, which signals to them a spirit of friendliness and generosity. All Swazi functions and ceremonies include traditional beer called umcombotsi, brewed together with other beverages by the elderly women of the village for the bride's journey to her groom's homestead. Should the groom live close by, the bride takes a pot of beer known as tshwala beliqaka to the groom's home, which indicates to them that she has come with her family's full consent.

Once a message has been sent to the future family that preparations have been made, the bridal party is gathered together young girls and women that are relatives and friends of the bride. The size of an umtsimba may exceed fifty people; the important parties of the bride's maids are 1) ematshitshi 2) emaqhikiza 3) tingcugce. The umtsimba serves to test the hospitality of the future husband; the day of departure is marked by intense activity, with young people wearing their finest traditional attire. Inkomo yekususa umtsimba is killed and the meat cooked and eaten; the bride's father and elderly relatives ensure that the meat is allocated among members of the group. The inyongo is set aside for the bride by the lisokancanti of her paternal grandfather; the Lisokancanti performs a ritual where he squeezes the gall on to the bride's mouth, down the centre of her face, down the right arm and the right leg. This is done to give her good luck; the bladder is inflated and tied with a string above her forehead.

This is her lusiba, the sign that she leaves her parental home with her father's consentThe bride is schooled by older women on the hardships of marriage. She is urged to practice restraint, never to answer insult with insult, is reminded that she represents the honourable name of her family, she is forewarned against accusations of jealous co-wives of witchcraft and laziness, possible beatings from her husband. After the marital schooling, the father of the bride blesses her; the lisokancanti of the bride's grandfather issues instructions and advice to the appointed two men and women. He instructs them to ensure to return the insulamyembeti cow; the bride and tingcugce have a ludzibi to carry clothes and blankets for the bride and the older girls. The young men assist; the bridal party start singing and dancing wedding songs and they depart. Two of the songs they sing are the following: These songs explain that the bride is in great demand; as a special favour, she is being sent to the bridegroom.

Depending on the distance between villages, the journey to the groom's homestead could take a number of days. Along the way, the bridal party is accommodated at the homes of specific kinsmen and friends. Today, the journey to the groom's homestead tends to be of much shorter duration, in part due to availability of modern transport; the bridal party aims to arrive at the groom's homestead as the sun sets as it is believed that the ancestral spirits are at their most active and so welcome and bless the bride. When the bridal party approaches the groom's homestead, members of the bridal party dance in order to make their presence known, they await to be welcomed. The bridal party forms an arc, with the bride at its centre, the men start loudly praising her clan name and praising her ancestors; the singing ends when the groom's female relatives, wearing rattles on their ankles, emerge to welcome the party. As the bride starts singing the first song, a boy from the groom's village leads the bride and her tingcugce to her