Football in Gibraltar
Football has been a popular part of sport in Gibraltar since its introduction by British military personnel in the 19th century. The Gibraltar Football Association, founded in 1895, is one of the ten oldest active football associations in the world. Football was introduced to the civilian population of Gibraltar by the British Armed Forces in the late 19th century, it is not known when the first civilian football teams were formed, but the earliest records mention that the Prince of Wales F. C. existed in 1892, the Gibraltar F. C. was formed in November 1893. Between 1895 and 1907, the only known football competition organised by the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association was the Merchants Cup; the cup was donated each year by the Merchants of Gibraltar. The first Cup Final was between the Gibraltar F. C. and the Jubilee F. C. and was witnessed by 1,500 spectators. In 1902, the military authorities in Gibraltar designated one of their four football grounds at North Front as a civilian ground. Before this there was no civilian football grounds in Gibraltar, so the only way the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association could practice outside the annual Merchants Cup was by playing friendly matches against the military teams whenever possible.
The Gibraltar Football League was set up in October 1907. The military had well-established league and cup competitions before this, but local civil teams were not allowed to compete in them; the first league competition saw eight teams competing, with Prince of Wales F. C. being the winner. The growing success of the league and cup competitions was reflected in the increasing number of new teams that were registering with the association; such was the increase in participating teams that a Second Division was added in 1909, in 1910 the association was organising separate leagues and cup competitions for senior and junior divisions. This continuously growing interest in football in Gibraltar was reflected in the association's affiliation with The Football Association in 1909. Up until 2005-06, the league operated a Third Division, however the loss of several reserve teams that dominated the Second Division led to the two divisions merging. Years the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association changed its name to the Gibraltar Football Association.
The period between 1949 and 1955 is regarded as the "Golden era" for football in Gibraltar. It was during this time that world-renowned teams such as Real Madrid C. F. Atlético Madrid, Real Valladolid and Admira Wacker among many others were arriving on The Rock to play against the national team who acquitted themselves admirably against professionals despite being amateurs; the Gibraltar national football team has a long history competing against teams of visiting British military personnel. The highlight of their existence to date was a draw with Real Madrid C. F. in 1949 at a time when the Spanish club were about to enter a period of European dominance. On the most part though, they compete in smaller matches against non-sovereign national teams. Gibraltar won the championship at the 2007 Island Games, held in Rhodes; the Gibraltar national team play their matches, as do most of the clubs in the territory, at the 5,000 capacity FIFA approved and licensed Victoria Stadium. On 8 January 1997 the GFA applied for FIFA membership, in March 1999 FIFA confirmed that the GFA fulfilled the requirements of Article 4.7 of the FIFA Statutes and passed their file onto UEFA.
On 12 April 1999 the GFA applied for membership in UEFA. This would have allowed them to join the qualifiers for the European Football Championships and enter teams in European club competition; this drew a hostile reception from the Royal Spanish Football Federation, whose government opposes any suggestion that Gibraltar is in fact a separate territory and not part of Spain. Spanish authorities waged a campaign of virulent opposition to their application, causing it to be rejected by officials on the grounds that it did not meet their criteria. In 2002 UEFA had stipulated that future members would have to be sovereign nations, despite a number of their existing members failing to meet this requirement. After a legal challenge, a ruling by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2006 insisted that UEFA had to accept the GFA as any other member, as the application had come before the new criteria had been put in place and the rejection had political overtones, which are discouraged in sport. UEFA awarded the GFA associate member status along with Montenegro and deferred the matter to the 2007 Congress in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Spanish delegates had for some months, by attempting to secure support for their position been threatening to withdraw Spanish teams from UEFA competitions if Gibraltar was approved. This tactic was successful - winning the vote 45 to 3, with 5 abstentions. Gibraltar's application was at this point thrown out, while Montenegro was unanimously granted membership. On 3 October 2012, UEFA again granted Gibraltar provisional membership and deferred the matter about full membership to the next Congress, to be held in London in May 2013; the decision was taken to admit Gibraltar to UEFA. On 24 May 2013, Gibraltar became the 54th member of UEFA, with a team in the UEFA Champions League from the 2014/15 season. UEFA confirmed that due to the political dispute with Spain, the two countries would be kept apart in qualifying competitions. On 23 February 2014, Gibraltar were drawn against Germany, Scotland, the Republic of Ireland and Georgia in the qualifying rounds for UEFA Euro 2016 On the 13 May 2016, Gibraltar was granted FIFA membership so they can enter for the World Cup.
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Gibraltar Football Association
The Gibraltar Football Association is the governing body for Gibraltarian football and futsal. It was formed as the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association in 1895, changing to its current name in years, it is one of the oldest football associations in the world. From October 2012, the GFA were provisional members of UEFA and the Gibraltar national futsal team, under-19 and under-17 representative teams participated in the 2013/14 UEFA season competitions. At the XXXVII UEFA Congress held in London on 24 May 2013, Gibraltar was accepted as a full member of UEFA. Gibraltar were admitted to FIFA as a full member on 13 May 2016 at the 66th FIFA Congress in Mexico; the GFA was formed as an increasing number of football clubs were coming into existence in Gibraltar, the association was designed to bring some form of organisation to the game there. Between the association's formation and 1907 the only football competition in Gibraltar was the Merchant's Cup. However, in 1907 the GFA established a league to complement the existing cup competition.
By 1901 the GFA had established a representative national team, competing against British military teams. This representative team continued to play down the years, their highlight being a draw against Real Madrid C. F. in 1949. The GFA affiliated with The Football Association in 1909, became a full member of FIFA in 2016 allowing its national team is allowed to compete in all international competitions; this attempt was met with fierce opposition from the Royal Spanish Football Federation but was ratified on 13 May 2016 at the 66th FIFA Congress in Mexico. The GFA's application to become a member of FIFA was filed in 1997. Two years FIFA confirmed the opening of the procedure and forwarded the GFA application to the appropriate continental confederation, UEFA, since according to FIFA statutes it is the responsibility of confederations to grant membership status to applicants. In 2000, a joint delegation of UEFA and FIFA conducted an inspection on the GFA's facilities and infrastructure; the Spanish FA opposed the GFA's application.
In 2001, UEFA changed its statutes so that only associations in a country "recognised by the United Nations as an independent State" could become members. On such grounds, UEFA denied the GFA's application. Current FIFA and UEFA members include several federations which cannot be said to represent independent nations, such as the UK Home Nations, the Faroe Islands, Hong Kong, Puerto Rico, Chinese Taipei and New Caledonia. French Guiana, Martinique and Saint Martin each have national teams which, despite not being FIFA members, are allowed to compete at the CONCACAF confederation level. FIFA has accepted members from other British overseas territories who compete in FIFA World Cup qualification tournaments despite not being sovereign states, including Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands; the GFA appealed to the world's highest sporting court, the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which in 2003 ruled that the GFA application should be handled according to the old statute.
However, UEFA continued to refuse accepting the GFA as member. In August 2006, the CAS ruled again that Gibraltar had to be allowed as a full UEFA and FIFA member, on 8 December 2006, it was announced that Gibraltar had become a provisional member of UEFA. However, full membership required a vote of the UEFA membership. Leading up to this vote, the Spanish football federation lobbied against Gibraltar's membership; the Federation's president Ángel María Villar attributed Spain's opposition to the Spanish claim over Gibraltar. He claimed it was a political issue and referred to the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. On 26 January 2007 at the UEFA Congress held in Düsseldorf, Gibraltar's application to become a full member of UEFA was rejected, with 45 votes against, 3 in favour, 4 undecided. On 21 March 2012 the request for full UEFA membership by Gibraltar was discussed again, a road map which includes financial and educational support from UEFA was agreed; this road map was to run until the Ordinary UEFA Congress in 2013, when member associations would vote on the request for admission.
UEFA's Executive Committee admitted the GFA as a provisional member as of 1 October 2012, pending a vote at its Congress in May 2013 to make it a full member. After the vote at the UEFA congress held in London on 24 May 2013, Gibraltar was accepted as a full UEFA member. A vote was carried out, a clear majority was found to have voted to admit Gibraltar to UEFA. Two national associations. Gibraltar became the smallest UEFA member by population, behind San Marino Liechtenstein and the Faroe Islands. Following the example of Armenia and Azerbaijan, Russia and Georgia it was confirmed that Gibraltar and Spain would be kept apart in qualifying groups for the European Championship; as part of the celebrations for the GFA's achievement, a 54p stamp was issued by the Gibraltar Philatelic Bureau commemorating the association becoming the 54th member of UEFA. On 13 May 2016, Gibraltar was accepted as a member of FIFA with a vote of 172 to 12 in favour. Gibraltar became FIFA's 211th member after the Football Federation of Kosovo was voted member 210.
Football in Gibraltar Gibraltar national football team GFA website Gibraltar at UEFA site Gibraltar's historic Four Nations Tournament campaign Website campaigning for GFA to become full UEFA and FIFA member Sportgibraltar with references to Herald Tribune etc. Sportgibraltar with references to Gibraltar Chronicle Spanish Football Federation interfering at UEFA BBC report on entry to UEFA BBC report on GFA's provisional
The Gibraltarians are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. Some Gibraltarians are a racial and cultural mixture of the many immigrants who came to the Rock of Gibraltar over three hundred years. Following its capture by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704, all but 70 of the existing population elected to leave with many settling nearby. Since immigrants from Britain, Malta, Morocco, Minorca and Sephardic Jews from North Africa have settled. Most Gibraltarian surnames are of British extraction; the exact breakdown according to the 1995 Census was as follows: Genoese and Catalans became the core of Gibraltar's first civilian population under Habsburg Gibraltar. Sephardi Jews from Tetouan in Morocco, suppliers to English Tangier, began supplying fresh produce to Gibraltar in 1704. Jews in Gibraltar by 1755 together with the Genoese formed 50% of the civilian population. In 1888 construction of the new harbour at Gibraltar began to provide an additional coaling station on the British routes to the East.
This resulted in the importation of Maltese labour both to assist in its construction, to replace striking Genoese labour in the old coaling lighter-based industry. Maltese and Portuguese people formed the majority of this new population. Other groups include Menorcans, Sardinians and other Italians and British people. Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until General Francisco Franco closed the border with Gibraltar, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the frontier; the Spanish government reopened the land frontier. For the period of World War II the border was closed, although Spain was nominally neutral, as Franco's regime was allied with Nazi Germany. Research by Fiorenzo Toso in 2000 about the names of Gibraltarian families of Genoese origins found that most of the emigration from the Italian region Liguria was from the areas of Genoa and Savona, some surnames such as Caruana believed to be Maltese, originate from Sicilians who emigrated to Malta during the Italian Renaissance).
The following are the most common Genoese surnames according to Toso's research. The number of Gibraltarian residents who have these surnames, according to Gibraltar's Yellow Pages are provided in parenthesis. Parody, Danino, Robba, Chipolina, Ramagge, Isola, Canepa and Bossano. By 1912 the total number of Maltese living in Gibraltar was not above 700. Many worked in the dockyard and others operated businesses which were ancillary to the dockyard. However, the economy of Gibraltar was not capable of absorbing a large number of immigrants from Malta and by 1912 the number of Maltese was in decline as they returned to the Maltese Islands; those who stayed in Gibraltar became much involved in the economic and social life of the colony, most of them being staunch supporters of links with the UK. Below are a list of the most common list of Maltese surnames in Gibraltar along with the current number of Gibraltarians who possess them. Azzopardi, * Barbara, * Borg, * Bugeja, * Buhagiar, * Buttigieg, * Zammit.
Gibraltarians are British citizens, albeit with a distinct identity of their own. Gibraltar is sometimes referred by the younger generation as "Gib", they are colloquially referred to as Llanitos, both locally and in Spain. Additional nicknames exist for them in English for Gibraltar relating to the Rock of Gibraltar. Statistics for the usually-Resident Population and Persons Present in Gibraltar. A usual resident of Gibraltar, for census purposes, is anyone who, on 12 November 2012: was in Gibraltar and had stayed or intended to stay in Gibraltar for a period of 12 months or more, or. Includes all nationalities different from Gibraltarian, UK and other British and Moroccan; the 2012 census showed a total Usually-Resident population of 32,194. There was a small decrease in the proportion of Gibraltarians, an increase in the ratio of "Other British" and a small increase in the ratio of "Other"; the main religion of Gibraltar is Christianity with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.
Other Christian denominations include the Church of England, the Gibraltar Methodist Church, the Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as a Plymouth Brethren congregation. There is a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses. There are a number of Hindu Indians, a Moroccan Muslim population, members of the Bahá'í Faith and a long-established Jewish community. English and Spanish are the main languages of Gibraltar. Although English is the official language, Gibraltarians are bilingual, speaking Spanish as fluently as Engli
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation is Gibraltar's public service broadcaster. It has provided the community with a radio and television service since 1963. Modelled on the BBC, the Corporation was established in 1963 with the amalgamation of Gibraltar Television, a private company, the Government-owned radio service, Radio Gibraltar which started regular broadcasting in 1958. Unlike the BBC, the majority of GBC's funding comes in the form of a grant from the Government. GBC did receive a small amount of income from the levying of a television licence fee. However, it was announced in Gibraltar's budget speech of 23 June 2006 that the TV licence was to be abolished; the activities of the corporation are controlled and governed by a board consisting of a chairman and not more than seven members appointed by the governor. Subject only to any directions of the Governor-in-Council the board is responsible for the corporation's policy; the corporation appoints a general manager and other staff to carry out its policies and the board is empowered to delegate any of their duties to their employees except responsibility for policy.
Within GBC the board's powers are absolute. The chairman and board thus work through their permanent staff, headed by a general manager, who are responsible to the board. Although the chief concern of the board is undoubtedly broad policy, once laid down it is left to the general manager and senior staff, whom they appoint to carry out as trustees of the public interest in broadcasting. In view of their ultimate responsibility for everything, broadcast, it is the board's duty to take an active interest not only in the programmes, but in the financial and staff policies of the corporation; this is done through a number of sub-committees in which board members and senior staff participate in decisions relating to the treatment of political and public affairs and development, programmes. Only the House of Assembly has the power to change the ordinance and the Governor-in-Council the directions. Radio Gibraltar broadcasts 24 hours a day and its programme format is similar to that of commercial local radio stations in the United Kingdom.
The station operates on both FM and AM, broadcasting a mix of local programming in English and Spanish, retransmissions of the BBC World Service. In December 2005, GBC started internet streaming of its radio service on the Internet, along with an up-to-date programme guide for GBC television and radio, can be found on the website. You can hear Radio Gibraltar live from 7 am to 8 pm on weekdays, after 8 pm the station plays continuous music through the night with only the brief interruption of Radio Gibraltar's jingle. On the station's AM frequencies BBC transmission can be heard through the night. On Weekends the station broadcasts live from 8 am to 9 pm with the same format. Radio Gibraltar's station is located at 18 South Barrack Road in Gibraltar's south district, after moving there in the 1980s from Wellington Front, its old location since its beginning in 1958. On Saturday 16 February 2008 Radio Gibraltar celebrated its 50th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, past presenters were invited to co-host programmes in the slot which they once occupied, amongst them Peter Canessa, David Hoare, Norma Delgado, Gerry Martinez, Christine Dobinson and Richard Cartwright.
During the week leading up to the anniversary, Radio Gibraltar broadcast interviews with former presenters who recalled their memories of Radio Gibraltar as well as on-air jingles from the past. One of the high points of Radio Gibraltar's history was that it served as a communications link between Gibraltar and the neighbouring communities in Spain during the closure of the land frontier, which divided families between 1969 and 1982. A special Roadshow live from Main Street. GBC TV showed a special programme to commemorate Radio Gibraltar's 50th anniversary, celebrated during the week starting 18 February 2008. Radio Gibraltar devotes its daytime hours to local news and current affairs, delivered through the flagship programme Focus, which has an AM, Lunchtime and PM edition. Outside the Focus News programmes, Radio Gibraltar's daytime hours are filled with magazine type shows that feature chat, games and phone-ins, all is sandwiched in between "Classic Hits, Latest Songs" as per the station's slogan.
Programmes include The Morning Show, The Afternoon Show and the long-running Spanish language programme Saludos which has anchored the 2-4 pm slot for over twenty years. The weekend schedule features personality-led shows alongside repeats from Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule, the UK Chart Show and a live transmission of Sunday Mass. Radio Gibraltar's evening schedule is made up of one locally produced programme airing in the 7-8 pm slot. Programmes include; this series is Radio Gibraltar's longest running series. Soundtrack of my life. Radio Gibraltar covers Community events such as National Day, sessions of Parliament, General Elections and others, it is well known for organising Roadshows throughout the entire year organised around Charity events, Awareness Campaigns and similar, culminating in th
History of the Jews in Gibraltar
There has been a Jewish presence in Gibraltar for more than 650 years. There have been periods of persecution, but for the most part the Jews of Gibraltar have prospered and been one of the largest religious minorities in the city, where they have made contributions to the culture and Government of Gibraltar; the Jews of Gibraltar have faced no official anti-Semitism during their time in the city. During Gibraltar's tercentenary celebration, Jonathan Sacks, the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Commonwealth, was quoted as saying, "In the dark times of expulsion and inquisition, Gibraltar lit the beacon of tolerance," and that Gibraltar "is the community where Jews have been the most integrated." The first record of Jews in Gibraltar comes from the year 1356, under Muslim rule, when the community issued an appeal asking for the ransom of Hannah Pike taken captive by barbary pirates. In 1474, twelve years after the Christian takeover, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, sold Gibraltar to a group of Jewish conversos from Cordova and Seville led by Pedro de Herrera in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time the 4,350 Jews were expelled by the Duke.
Their fate is unknown. It is that many returned to Cordova where they had to face the persecution of the Inquisition under the infamous Torquemada from 1488. Jews were expelled from Spain under the Alhambra decree of 1492 and from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497 ending all Jewish activity there, except in the cases of conversos or possible Crypto-Jews. After the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Gibraltar came under the rule of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which made the area a British dependency. In the Treaty, the Spanish added the following clause barring Jews and Moors from the city: However, the British ignored this provision. Although the Jews had been expelled from England in 1290, Oliver Cromwell had consented to their readmission in 1655; the admission of Jews was one of the infractions against the Treaty of Utrecht that the Spanish used to consider that the British had abrogated the Treaty. In 1727, the Spanish unsuccessfully laid siege to the city. In 1729, the British and the Sultan of Morocco reached an agreement whereby the sultan's Jewish subjects were permitted to reside in the colony.
Jews were given the right to permanent settlement in 1749, when Isaac Nieto, the new community's first Rabbi, came to the colony from London and established congregation Sha'ar HaShamayim, the oldest synagogue in Gibraltar, otherwise known as the Great Synagogue. At that date there were 600 Jews in Gibraltar, who constituted one third of the civilian population. Three more synagogues, all of which still function on Shabbat and feast days, were built as years went by: Nefutsot Yehuda and Ets Hayim in 1781, as well as the Abudarham Synagogue in 1820, named after Solomon Abudarham; the Jewish population continued reaching its peak in the mid-19th century. The Jews of Gibraltar preserved some old customs. For example, in 1777, Issac Aboab, a Gibraltarian Jew born in Tetuan, was listed as having two wives, Hannah Aboab and Simah Aboab. Bigamy was illegal in the Kingdom of Great Britain at the time, but the law was not operative in Gibraltar, though polygamy had been banned by Rabbenu Gershom Meor Hagola since 1000 CE, this ban was only accepted by Ashkenazi communities.
During the sieges of the city by the Spanish and during the Peninsular War, Jewish civilians valiantly helped defend Gibraltar from invaders. Tito Benady, a historian on Gibraltar Jewry, noted that when some 200 Jews of the 2000 evacuees from Gibraltar were evacuated as non combatants to Funchal, Madeira, at the start of World War II, they found a Jewish cemetery that belonged to the Abudarham family; the same family after whom the Abudarham Synagogue in Gibraltar was named. On the 28 May 1944 the first repatriation party departed Madeira for Gibraltar and by the end of 1944 only 520 non-priority evacuees remained on the island. In 2008, a monument was made in Gibraltar and shipped to Madeira where it has been erected next to a small chapel at Santa Caterina park, Funchal; the monument is a gift and symbol of ever-lasting thanks given by the people of Gibraltar to the island of Madeira and its inhabitants. The city of Funchal and Gibraltar were twinned on 13 May 2009 by their Mayors, the Mayor of Funchal Miguel Albuquerque and the mayor of Gibraltar, an Evacuee from Gibraltar to Madeira Solomon Levy, respectively.
The mayor of Gibraltar had a meeting with the President of Madeira Alberto João Jardim. Most of Gibraltar's Jews evacuated to the United Kingdom during the Second World War, when the Allies used Gibraltar as a base of operations; some Jews opted to stay in the United Kingdom, but most returned, although there was a slackening in some of their religious practices. The efforts of the Spanish sephardic Italian born Rabbi Josef Pacifici, who assumed the Gibraltar rabbinate and took control of Jewish education in Gibraltar, helped reverse this tendency. In 1984 Rabbi Ron Hassid became Chief Rabbi. Several Gibraltarian Jews have served in important positions in the Government there in the 20th century Sir Joshua Hassan, who served as Chief Minister of Gibraltar for two separate terms before his death. Solomon Levy served in the ceremonial role of Mayor of Gibraltar from 2008 to 2009; the city maintains five kosher institutions, a Jewish primary school and two Jewish secondary schools. In 2004, at a celebration of the 300 years since the British takeover, the congregants at the Great Synagogue (Shaar Hash
Coat of arms of Gibraltar
The coat of arms of Gibraltar was first granted by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile during Gibraltar's Spanish period. The arms consists of an escutcheon and features a three-towered red castle under which hangs a golden key; the arms were described in the Royal Warrant as consisting of: "...an escutcheon on which two thirds of its upper part shall have a white field. The arms consist of a shield parted per fess: 1st Division: Two thirds Argent, a triple-towered castle of Gules and ajouré of Sable. 2nd Division: One third Gules, a key of Or hanging by a chain of Or from the castle. The castle has its roots in the heraldry of the Kingdom of Castile, the largest and most important medieval Spanish kingdom, of which Isabella was Queen; the preamble to the warrant granting the coat of arms to Gibraltar said: "...and we, deeming it right, acknowledging that the said City is strong and by its situation it is the key between these our kingdoms in the Eastern and Western Seas and the sentinel and defence of the Strait of the said Seas through which no ships of peoples of either of these Seas can pass to the other without sighting it or calling at it."
The idea of Gibraltar being the key to Spain or the Mediterranean originated well before the Spanish conquest. The followers of Tariq ibn Ziyad, who invaded Spain via Gibraltar in 711, are said to have adopted the symbol of the key when they settled in Granada; the coat of arms was accompanied by the inscription "Seal of the noble city of Gibraltar, the Key of Spain". Today, the official coat of arms as used by the government of Gibraltar consists of the original coat of arms with the addition of the motto Montis Insignia Calpe, granted by the College of Arms in 1836 to commemorate the 1779-83 Great Siege of Gibraltar, it is the oldest coat of arms in use in an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is unique in that it is the only armorial insignia that dates from before the period of British colonial administration. The arms differ from the seal of Gibraltar, an image of the Rock of Gibraltar with a sailing ship in the forefront. There is no evidence available as to. From 1982, a banner of the arms has been used as the flag of Gibraltar.
The arms appear in the flag of the governor of Gibraltar. The arms of the government of Gibraltar are the same as the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom combined with a badge featuring the coat of arms of Gibraltar. A similar coat of arms is in use by the nearby Spanish municipality of San Roque, using a different version of the same main heraldic elements, with the addition of the old Spanish Royal Crown above the escutcheon; when Gibraltar was captured by an Anglo-Dutch force on behalf of the pretender to the Spanish Throne, the Archduke Charles, in 1704, the city council and much of the population established a new town near the existing chapel of Saint Roch to the west of Gibraltar, The Royal Warrant of 1502 which granted the coat of arms was taken by the city council to San Roque along with Gibraltar's standard and records, is now in the San Roque municipal archives. The establishment became a new town in 1706, addressed by King Philip V of Spain as "My city of Gibraltar resident in its Campo", becoming the Spanish Gibraltar.
Therefore, they kept the old coat of arms granted to Gibraltar in 1502. In 2015, the Commonwealth of the Municipalities of the Campo de Gibraltar adopted a coat of arms and a flag; this new coat of arms shows the elements of the coat of arms of Gibraltar with seven green stars that represent the municipalities of the Commonwealth, two equal horizontal stripes with the colors of this organisation, a bordure Or with its motto PRO GEOGRAPHIA, HISTORIA ET VOLUNTATE CONIVNCTI. The modern Spanish Royal Crown is used as heraldic crest. List of coats of arms of Gibraltar List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies History of Gibraltar Spanish heraldry