Sign languages are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning. Language is expressed via the manual signstream in combination with non-manual elements. Sign languages are full-fledged natural languages with their own lexicon; this means that sign languages are not universal and they are not mutually intelligible, although there are striking similarities among sign languages. Linguists consider both spoken and signed communication to be types of natural language, meaning that both emerged through an abstract, protracted aging process and evolved over time without meticulous planning. Sign language should not be confused with a type of nonverbal communication. Wherever communities of deaf people exist, sign languages have developed as handy means of communication and they form the core of local deaf cultures. Although signing is used by the deaf and hard of hearing, it is used by hearing individuals, such as those unable to physically speak, those who have trouble with spoken language due to a disability or condition, or those with deaf family members, such as children of deaf adults.
It is unclear how many sign languages exist worldwide. Each country has its own, native sign language, some have more than one; the 2013 edition of Ethnologue lists 137 sign languages. Some sign languages have obtained some form of legal recognition, while others have no status at all. Linguists distinguish natural sign languages from other systems that are precursors to them or derived from them, such as invented manual codes for spoken languages, home sign, "baby sign", signs learned by non-human primates. Groups of deaf people have used sign languages throughout history. One of the earliest written records of a sign language is from the fifth century BC, in Plato's Cratylus, where Socrates says: "If we hadn't a voice or a tongue, wanted to express things to one another, wouldn't we try to make signs by moving our hands and the rest of our body, just as dumb people do at present?"Until the 19th century, most of what is known about historical sign languages is limited to the manual alphabets that were invented to facilitate transfer of words from a spoken language to a sign language, rather than documentation of the language itself.
Pedro Ponce de León is said to have developed the first manual alphabet. In 1620, Juan Pablo Bonet published Reducción de las letras y arte para enseñar a hablar a los mudos in Madrid, it is considered the first modern treatise of sign language phonetics, setting out a method of oral education for deaf people and a manual alphabet. In Britain, manual alphabets were in use for a number of purposes, such as secret communication, public speaking, or communication by deaf people. In 1648, John Bulwer described "Master Babington", a deaf man proficient in the use of a manual alphabet, "contryved on the joynts of his fingers", whose wife could converse with him even in the dark through the use of tactile signing. In 1680, George Dalgarno published Didascalocophus, or, The deaf and dumb mans tutor, in which he presented his own method of deaf education, including an "arthrological" alphabet, where letters are indicated by pointing to different joints of the fingers and palm of the left hand. Arthrological systems had been in use by hearing people for some time.
The vowels of this alphabet have survived in the contemporary alphabets used in British Sign Language and New Zealand Sign Language. The earliest known printed pictures of consonants of the modern two-handed alphabet appeared in 1698 with Digiti Lingua, a pamphlet by an anonymous author, himself unable to speak, he suggested that the manual alphabet could be used by mutes, for silence and secrecy, or purely for entertainment. Nine of its letters can be traced to earlier alphabets, 17 letters of the modern two-handed alphabet can be found among the two sets of 26 handshapes depicted. Charles de La Fin published a book in 1692 describing an alphabetic system where pointing to a body part represented the first letter of the part, vowels were located on the fingertips as with the other British systems, he described such codes for both Latin. By 1720, the British manual alphabet had found less its present form. Descendants of this alphabet have been used by deaf communities in former British colonies India, New Zealand and South Africa, as well as the republics and provinces of the former Yugoslavia, Grand Cayman Island in the Caribbean, Norway and the United States.
Frenchman Charles-Michel de l'Épée published his manual alphabet in the 18th century, which has survived unchanged in France and North America until the present time. In 1755, Abbé de l'Épée founded the first school for deaf children in Paris. Clerc went to the United States with Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet to found the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1817. Gallaudet's son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, founded a school for the deaf in 1857 in Washington, D. C. which in 1864 became the National Deaf-Mute College. Now called Gallaudet University, it is still the only liberal arts university for deaf people in the world. Sign languages do not have any linguistic relation to the spoken languages of the lands in which they arise; the correlation between sign and spoken languages is complex and varies depending on the country more than the spoke
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas and Oceania. It comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not related to any other language in Europe. Gheg and Tosk constitute the major dialects of the Albanian language with Gheg spoken in the north and Tosk spoken in the south of the Shkumbin. Standard Albanian is a standardised form of spoken Albanian based on the Tosk dialect, it is the official language of Albania and North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro and Serbia. Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia, Italy as well as in Romania and Ukraine; the language is spoken by 7 million people in Albania, Greece, North Macedonia and Montenegro. However, due to the large Albanian diaspora, the worldwide total of speakers is much higher than in Southern Europe; the Albanian language is the official language of Albania and Kosovo, co-official in North Macedonia.
Albanian is a recognised minority language in Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and in Serbia. Albanian is spoken by its Minority in Greece in the Thesprotia and Preveza regional units and in a few villages in Ioannina and Florina regional units in Greece, it is spoken by 600,000 Albanian immigrants in Greece. Albanian is the third most spoken language in Italy; this is due to a substantial Albanian immigration to Italy. Italy has a historical Albanian minority of about 500,000, scattered across southern Italy, known as Arbëreshë. 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Germany and Austria. These are refugees from Kosovo who migrated during the Kosovo War. In Switzerland, the Albanian language is the sixth most spoken language with 176,293 native speakers. Albanian became an official language of the Republic of North Macedonia on January 15, 2019. There are large numbers of Albanian speakers in the United States, Chile and Canada; some of the first ethnic Albanians to arrive in the United States were Arbëreshë.
Arbëreshe have a strong sense of identity, are unique in that they speak an archaic dialect of Tosk Albanian called Arbëreshë. In North America there are 250,000 Albanian speakers, it is spoken in the eastern area of the United States in cities like New York City, New Jersey, Philadelphia, Ohio and Detroit. Greater New Orleans has a large Arbëresh community. Oftentimes, wherever there are Italians, there are a few Arbëreshe mixed with them. Arbëreshe Americans, therefore are indistinguishable from Italian Americans due to being assimilated into the Italian American community. In Argentina there are nearly 40,000 Albanian speakers in Buenos Aires. 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry and culture. There are other estimates, that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. However, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the Albanian language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day.
In Egypt there are around 18,000 Albanians Tosk speakers. Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. In addition to the dynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. In addition to the recent emigrants, there are older diasporic communities around the world. Albanian is spoken by Albanian diaspora communities residing in Australia and New Zealand; the Albanian language has two distinct dialects, Tosk, spoken in the south, Gheg spoken in the north. Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect; the Shkumbin river is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Gheg is divided into four sub-dialects, in Northwest Gheg, Northeast Gheg, Central Gheg, Southern Gheg, it is spoken in northern Albania and throughout Montenegro and northwestern North Macedonia. One divergent dialect is the Upper Reka dialect, however classified as Central Gheg.
There is a diaspora dialect in Croatia, the Arbanasi dialect. Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk, Labërisht, Çam, Arbëresh. Tosk is spoken in southwestern North Macedonia and northern and southern Greece. Cham Albanian is spoken in North-western Greece, while Arvanitika is spoken by the Arvanites in southern Greece. In addition Arbëresh is spoken by the Arbëreshë people, descendants of 15th and 16th century migrants who settled in southeastern Italy, in small communities in the regions of Sicily and Calabria; the Albanian language has been written using many different alphabets since the earliest records from the 14th century. The history of Albanian language orthography is related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers; the earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek. The Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script.
Both dialects had been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic
Sport in Greece
Greece has risen to prominence in a number of sporting areas in recent decades. Football in particular has seen a rapid transformation, with the Greek national football team winning the 2004 UEFA European Football Championship. Many Greek athletes have achieved significant success and have won world and olympic titles in numerous sports during the years, such as basketball, water polo, weightlifting, with many of them becoming international stars inside their sports; the successful organisation of the Athens 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games led to the further development of many sports and has led to the creation of many world class sport venues all over Greece and in Athens. Greek athletes have won a total 146 medals for Greece in 15 different Olympic sports at the Summer Olympic Games, including the Intercalated Games, an achievement which makes Greece one of the top nations globally, in the world's rankings of medals per capital. Greece was home of the ancient Olympic Games, first recorded in 776 BC in Olympia, hosted the modern Olympic Games twice, the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics and the 2004 Summer Olympics.
The nation has competed at every Summer Olympic Games, one of the only four countries to have done so, most of the Winter Olympic Games. During the parade of nations Greece is always called first, as the founding nation of the ancient precursor of modern Olympics, its national governing body is the Hellenic Olympic Committee. Having won a total of 110 medals, Greece is ranked 32nd by gold medals in the all-time Summer Olympic medal count, their best performance was in the 1896 Summer Olympics, when Greece finished second in the medal table with 10 gold medals, one less than the United States, the most silver and bronze medals, as well as the most medals overall. After a long period of poor tallies, the 1992 Summer Olympics marked an uptum and Greece made successive medal-winning records in the three following Olympic Games. Greek athletes have won medals in 15 different sports, but the sports in which the Greek team has won most medals are athletics and weightlifting, as well as other sports like wrestling and shooting.
In the 1906 Games, Greece finished third with 8 gold, 14 silver and 13 bronze medals, second in total behind France with 35 medals. Winter sports have not played a major role in Greece, thus the country has not won any medal in the Winter Olympics so far. Despite that, Greece leads the Parade of Nations in the Winter Olympics. Paralympic Sports have grown in Greece since the late 1970s; the first participation of athletes with a disability at Paralympic Games was in 1976. The organisation of the Paralympic Games in Athens led to significant growth; the Hellenic Team won 20 medals. At the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games the Greek Team made its most successful appearance with 24 medals. Greece has won in total 80 medals at the Paralympic Games. Athletics has been another successful individual sport in Greece. Greek athletes have won 29 medals in total, at the Olympic games for Greece and 19 medals in the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, while some Greek athletes have reached world stardom with their achievements such as: Fani Chalkia who won the gold medal in the women's 400m hurdles at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
During the semifinals Halkia set an Olympic record of 52.77 seconds. Niki Bakoyianni won a silver medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics after a tough competition with Stefka Kostadinova, her personal best jump of 2.03 metres is the current Greek record. Periklis Iakovakis who won the gold medal at the World Junior Championships in Annecy, France with 49.82 seconds, five years he won the bronze medal at the 2003 World Championships in Athletics in Paris-Saint-Denis, France. Iakovakis achieved his personal best of 47.82 seconds on 6 May 2006 in Osaka during the IAAF World Athletics Tour. He became European Champion in Sweden finishing at 48.46 seconds in the final. Anastasia Kelesidou is a retired Greek discus thrower best known for winning silver medals at the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics. During her career she set. Konstantinos Kenteris won gold medals in the 200 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics, the 2001 World Championships in Athletics and the 2002 European Championships in Athletics. Kenteris became the first White male to win a 200-meter sprinting medal at the Olympics since Pietro Mennea achieved the feat by winning gold at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
He is one of the few elite runners who have run the 200m distance under 20 seconds, with a personal best 19.85 sec. Haralabos Papadias won the gold medal in 60 metres at the 1997 World Indoor Championships, in a time of 6.50 seconds,the first and only white man to do so until today. Voula Patoulidou became a Greek sporting legend in 1992, when she was the surprise winner of the Women's 100 m hurdles race at the Olympic Games in Barcelona. Ekaterini Thanou won the silver medal in the women's 100 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Although Marion Jones admitted to steroid use prior to and during the Sydney Olympics and had her gold medal withdrawn by the International Olympic Committee, Thanou's silver medal was not upgraded to gold because she committed a doping offense herself in 2004. In 2002 she won the 100 m gold
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, Armenian is spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots. Armenian is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, it is of interest to linguists for its distinctive phonological developments within that family. Armenian exhibits more satemization than centumization, although it is not classified as belonging to either of these subgroups; some linguists tentatively conclude that Armenian and Indo-Iranian were dialectally close to each other. Armenia was a monolingual country by the 2nd century BC at the latest, its language has a long literary history, with a 5th-century Bible translation as its oldest surviving text. Its vocabulary has been influenced by Western Middle Iranian languages Parthian, to a lesser extent by Greek and Syriac.
There are two standardized modern literary forms, Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian, with which most contemporary dialects are mutually intelligible. Although Armenians were known to history much earlier, the oldest surviving Armenian-language text is the 5th century AD Bible translation of Mesrop Mashtots, who created the Armenian alphabet in 405, at which time it had 36 letters, he is credited by some with the creation of the Caucasian Albanian alphabet. In The Anabasis, Xenophon describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the Armenian people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. W. M. Austin concluded that there was an early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations, the common retention of archaisms is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development.
In 1985, Soviet linguist Igor M. Diakonoff noted the presence in Classical Armenian of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the Kartvelian and Northeast Caucasian languages. Noting that Hurro-Urartian-speaking peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonov identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin "slave girl", cov "sea", ułt "camel", xnjor "apple"; some of the terms he gives admittedly have an Akkadian or Sumerian provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo sound changes characteristic of the development of Armenian from Proto-Indo-European, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the Proto-Armenian language stage. Loan words from Iranian languages, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language.
Scholars such as Paul de Lagarde and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Iranian and Armenian were the same language; the distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist Heinrich Hübschmann used the comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian words from the older Armenian vocabulary. He showed that Armenian had 2 morphemes for the one concept, the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent PIE pattern distinct from Iranian, demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages; the hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with Holger Pedersen, who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. Antoine Meillet further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the Proto-Indo-European period.
Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his Esquisse. Georg Renatus Solta does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is the dialect most related to Armenian. Eric P. Hamp supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian". Armenian shares the augment, a negator derived from the set phrase Proto-Indo-European language *ne h₂oyu kʷid, the representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels, other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek; as Fortson comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces". Modern studies show that assertions about the proximity of Greek and Phrygian with Armenian are not confirmed in the language material. Graeco--Aryan is a hypoth
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records, its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Armenian, Coptic and many other writing systems; the Greek language holds an important place in the history of Christianity. Greek is the language in which many of the foundational texts in science astronomy and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
It would become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union; the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Italy, Albania and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or earlier; the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages; the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek.
The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation, it is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation, it was known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek can be traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India.
After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity, it is known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament Greek, sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek, used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
Modern Greek: Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, Katharevousa, meaning'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, used today for all official purposes and in education; the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is emphasised.
Although Greek h