Tuscan is an Italo-Dalmatian variety mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy. It would become the language of all the Italian states. Tuscan is a complex composed of many local variants, with minor differences among them. The main subdivision is between Northern Tuscan dialects and Southern Tuscan dialects, the Northern Tuscan dialects are, the main dialect of Florence and the Mugello region, spoken in Prato and along the river Arno as far as the city of Fucecchio. Pistoiese, spoken in the city of Pistoia and nearest zones, pesciatino or Valdinievolese, spoken in the Valdinievole zone, in the cities of Pescia and Montecatini Terme. Lucchese, spoken in Lucca and nearby hills, spoken in the historical area of Versilia. Viareggino, spoken in Viareggio and vicinity, pisano-Livornese, spoken in Pisa and in Livorno and the vicinity, and along the southern coast as far as the city of Piombino. The Southern Tuscan dialects are, Aretino-Chianaiolo, spoken in Arezzo, spoken in the city and province of Siena. Grossetano, spoken in the city and province of Grosseto and Gallurese, Corsican on the island of Corsica, and its variety spoken in Sardinia, are classified by scholars as a direct offshoot from medieval Tuscan.
Excluding the inhabitants of Province of Massa and Carrara, who speak an Emilian variety of a Gallo-Italic language, the Tuscan dialect as a whole has certain defining features, with subdialects that are distinguished by minor details. The Tuscan gorgia affects the voiceless stop consonants /k/ /t/ and /p/, between vowels, the voiced post-alveolar affricate consonant is realized as voiced post-alveolar fricative, /dʒ/ →. This phenomenon is evident in daily speech, the phrase la gente, the people, in standard Italian is pronounced. Similarly, the voiceless affricate is pronounced as a voiceless post-alveolar fricative between two vowels, /tʃ/ →. The sequence /la ˈtʃena/ la cena, the dinner, in standard Italian is pronounced, as a result of this weakening rule, there are a few minimal pairs distinguished only by length of the voiceless fricative. A less common phenomenon is the transformation of voiceless s or voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ into the voiceless alveolar affricate when preceded by /r/, /l/.
For example, il sole, pronounced in standard Italian as, since assimilation of the final consonant of the article to the following consonant tends to occur in exactly such cases the actual pronunciation will be usually. Affrication of /s/ can more commonly be heard word-internally, as in falso /ˈfalso/ → and this is a common phenomenon in Central Italy, but it is not exclusive to that area, for example it happens in Switzerland. There are two Tuscan historical outcomes of Latin ŏ in stressed open syllables, passing first through a stage, the vowel develops as a diphthong /wɔ/
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Acta Apostolicae Sedis, often cited as AAS, is the official gazette of the Holy See, appearing about twelve times a year. It was established by Pope Pius X on 29 September 1908 with the decree Promulgandi Pontificias Constitutiones and it contains all the principal decrees, encyclical letters, decisions of Roman congregations, and notices of ecclesiastical appointments. The laws contained in it are to be considered promulgated when published and it replaced a similar publication that had existed since 1865, under the title of Acta Sanctae Sedis. As indicated above, the Acta Sanctae Sedis ceased publication four years later, Acta Apostolicae Sedis is published in Latin. In accordance with paragraph 2 of the Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, index of Vatican City-related articles Acta Apostolicae Sedis
The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City. Originally known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both religious and functionary papal activity. Today it is the site of the Papal conclave, the process by which a new pope is selected, the fame of the Sistine Chapel lies mainly in the frescos that decorate the interior, and most particularly the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo. In a different climate after the Sack of Rome, he returned, the fame of Michelangelos paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel ever since they were revealed five hundred years ago. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, there were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet. Of these 50 occasions,35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, in general St.
Peters and these included the Christmas Day and Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, the Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV, this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, the Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original. The first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on 15 August 1483, the Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, and continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir, the Sistine Chapel Choir, for whom much original music has been written, one of the functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals.
On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, if white smoke appears, created by burning the ballots of the election, a new Pope has been elected. The conclave provided for the cardinals a space in which they can hear mass, and in which they can eat and pass time attended by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican, until the Great Schism, canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity. After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name, at this time, until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Its exterior is unadorned by architectural or decorative details, as is common in many Italian churches of the Medieval and cracking of masonry such as must have affected the Cappella Maggiore has necessitated the building of very large buttresses to brace the exterior walls. The accretion of other buildings has further altered the appearance of the Chapel.
The building is divided into three stories of which the lowest is a tall basement level with several utilitarian windows
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the Pope, which is located in Vatican City. It is known as the Papal Palace, Palace of the Vatican and Vatican Palace, the Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V in honor of Pope Sixtus V. The modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, the Scala Regia can be seen into from one end but not entered. In the fifth century, Pope Symmachus built a palace close to the Old St. Peters Basilica which served an alternative residence to the Lateran Palace. The construction of a fortified palace was sponsored by Pope Eugene III. The Vatican Palace had fallen into disrepair from lack of upkeep, in 1447, Pope Nicholas V razed the ancient fortified palace of Eugene III to erect a new building, the current Apostolic Palace. In the 15th century, the Palace was placed under the authority of a prefect and this position of Apostolic Prefect lasted from the 15th century till the 1800s, when the Papal States fell into economic difficulties.
In 1884, when this post was reviewed in light of saving money, the major additions and decorations of the palace are the work of the following popes for 150 years. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built an art gallery. Construction of the Papal Palace at the Vatican in Vatican City, covering 162, 000m squared, it contains the Papal Apartments, offices of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy See, Vatican Library and art galleries. The Apostolic Palace is run by the Prefecture of the Pontifical Household, the palace is more accurately a series of self-contained buildings within the well-recognized outer structure which is arranged around the Courtyard of Sixtus V. It is located northeast of St Peters Basilica and adjacent to the Bastion of Nicholas V, the Apostolic Palace houses both residential and support offices of various functions as well as administrative offices not focused on the life and functions of the Pope himself. Perhaps the best known of the Palace chapels is the Sistine Chapel named in honor of Sixtus IV and it is famous for its decoration that was frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and others.
One of the functions of the chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive Pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. In this closed-door election, the cardinals choose a successor to the first pope, St. Peter and this suite of rooms is famous for its frescos by a large team of artists working under Raphael. They were originally intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II and he commissioned Raphael, a relatively young artist from Urbino, and his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was possibly Julius intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI and they are on the third floor, overlooking the south side of the Belvedere Courtyard. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program, following Raphaels death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino
The four Raphael Rooms form a suite of reception rooms in the palace, the public part of the papal apartments in the Palace of the Vatican. They are famous for their frescoes, painted by Raphael and his workshop, together with Michelangelos ceiling frescoes in the Sistine Chapel, they are the grand fresco sequences that mark the High Renaissance in Rome. The Stanze, as they are called, were originally intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II. He commissioned Raphael, a young artist from Urbino. It was possibly Julius intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI and they are on the third floor, overlooking the south side of the Belvedere Courtyard. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program, following Raphaels death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino. The scheme of the works is as follows, The largest of the rooms is the Sala di Costantino.
Its paintings were not begun until Pope Julius and, indeed Raphael himself, had died, the room is dedicated to the victory of Christianity over paganism. Its frescoes represent this struggle from the life of the Roman Emperor Constantine, because they are not by the master himself, the frescos are less famous than works in the neighboring rooms. Continuing a long tradition of flattery, Raphaels assistants gave the features of the current pontiff, Clement VII, the fresco of The Vision of the Cross depicts the legendary story of a great cross appearing to Constantine as he marched to confront his rival Maxentius. The vision in the sky is painted with the words in Greek Εν τούτω νίκα written next to it, the Battle of Milvian Bridge shows the battle that took place on October 28,312, following Constantines vision. The next room, going from East to West, is the Stanza di Eliodoro, painted between 1511 and 1514, it takes its name from one of the paintings. The theme of this private chamber – probably an audience room – was the protection granted by Christ to the Church.
The four paintings are, The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, The Mass at Bolsena, The Meeting of Pope Leo I and Attila, Raphaels style changed here from the Stanza della Segnatura. Instead of the images of the Popes library, he had dramatic narratives to portray. The composition is more dramatic than Raphaels earlier frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura. Although the focal point is the figure of the priest at prayer, Heliodorus. At the left Julius II, carried by the Swiss Guard in a chair and his inclusion here refers to his battles to prevent secular leaders from usurping papal territories
Donation of Pepin
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome. In 751, king of the Lombards, conquered what remained of the exarchate of Ravenna, in 752, Aistulf demanded the submission of Rome and a tribute of one gold solidus per capita. Pope Stephen II and a Roman envoy, John the Silentiary, tried by negotiations and bribes to convince Aistulf to back down. When this failed, Stephen sent envoys to Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, with a letter requesting his support, at the time, the Franks were on good terms with the Lombards. In 753, John the Silentiary returned to Rome with an order that Pope Stephen accompany him to meet Aistulf in the Lombard capital of Pavia. The pope duly requested and received a safe-conduct from the Lombards, with the Frankish envoys who had by arrived, the pope and the imperial envoy set out for Pavia on 14 October 753. The Roman magnates did not accompany them past the border, John the Silentiary did not accompany them.
This was the first time a pope had crossed the Alps, Pope Stephen met Pepin the Short at Quierzy-sur-Oise in 753. The Pope was first met by Pepins eleven-year-old son, Charles, at Quierzy the Frankish nobles finally gave their consent to a campaign in Lombardy. Roman Catholic tradition asserts that it was and there that Pepin executed in writing a promise to convey to the Papacy certain territories that were going to be wrested from the Lombards. No original document has been preserved, but 8th century sources quote from it, the gift included Lombard conquests in the Romagna and in the Duchy of Spoleto and Benevento, and the Pentapolis in the Marche. The Donations made the Pope for the first time as a temporal ruler and this strip of territory extended diagonally across Italy from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic. Pepin confirmed his Donations in Rome in 756, and in 774 his son Charlemagne again confirmed and reasserted the Donation
The Holy See, referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates, as an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church and it is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic, in Greek, the adjective holy or sacred is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. The word see comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning seat, while Saint Peters basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the church of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome.
The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia, the Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin, is the Sees equivalent of a prime minister, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy Sees minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013, mamberti was named in his role by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006. The Secretariat of State is the body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have rights similar to those of embassies. The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage and it oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture of the Papal Household is responsible for the organization of the papal household and ceremonies.
The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Popes death or resignation and it instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire, the Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner. Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the popes merchant banker, Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the patrimony of the Holy See. The Holy See has been recognized, both in practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights
It is classified as a semi-official newspaper of the Holy See, but is not an official newspaper. The publication prints two Latin mottoes under the masthead of each edition, Unicuique suum and Non praevalebunt, the current editor-in-chief is Giovanni Maria Vian. He further described the publication as an instrument for spreading the teachings of the successor of Peter, the weekly English edition is distributed in more than 129 countries, including both English-speaking countries and locales where English is used as the general means of communication. The first issue of LOsservatore Romano was published in Rome on 1 July 1861 and this agenda supported the notion of a daily publication to champion the opinions of the Holy See. By July 1860, the deputy Minister of the Interior, Marcantonio Pacelli, had plans to supplement the official bulletin Giornale di Roma with a semi-official rhetorical publication, in early 1861, controversialist Nicola Zanchini and journalist Giuseppe Bastia were granted editorial direction of Pacellis newspaper.
Official permission to publish was sought on 22 June 1861, and four days later, on 26 June, the first edition was entitled LOsservatore Romano – a political and moral paper and cost five baiocchi. The political and moral paper epithet was dropped before 1862, adding instead the two Latin mottoes that still appear under the masthead today, the editors of the paper initially met in the Salviucci Press on the Piazza de Santi Apostoli, where the paper was printed. Only when the staff was established on the Palazzo Petri in Piazza dei Crociferi. Soon after, LOsservatore began to replace the Giornale di Roma as the organ of the Pontifical State. This development was obvious during the pontificate of Pope Leo XIII, the English weekly edition was first published on 4 April 1968. On 7 January 1998, that became the first to be printed outside of Rome. The edition was printed by the Cathedral Foundation, publishers of The Catholic Review, for instance, a 2008 article expressed the wish that the debate on brain death be re‑opened because of new developments in the medical world.
An official spokesman said that the article presented an opinion of the author. Index of Vatican City-related articles Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher, the worlds great dailies, profiles of fifty newspapers pp 230–37 The Holy See – LOsservatore Romano LOsservatore Romano site index The origins of LOsservatore Romano
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares, and a population of 842, formally it is not sovereign, with sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world. It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope, the highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has full ownership, exclusive dominion, within Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peters Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the worlds most famous paintings and sculptures, the unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, the name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. Vatican is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the area the Romans called vaticanus ager. The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City officially uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ, this is used in documents by not just the Holy See. The name Vatican was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for an area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers that was completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply.
Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome had long considered sacred. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby, the particularly low quality of Vatican water, even after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial. The Vatican Obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant and this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down, opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Peters in the first half of the 4th century, the Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery
Geography of Vatican City
The geography of Vatican City is unique due to the countrys position as an urban, landlocked enclave of Rome, Italy. With an area of 0.17 sq mi, it is the worlds smallest independent state, outside the Vatican City, thirteen buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo enjoy extraterritorial rights. The country contains no natural resources, and no known natural hazards other than those that affect Rome in general. The city state has the climate as Rome, mild, rainy winters with hot. Vatican City sits on a low hill, the hill has been called the Vatican Hill since long before Christianity existed. This is a list of the points of Vatican City. The highest point is another unnamed location at 250 feet, the tallest building is St. Peters Basilica, at 452 feet. The nature of the estate is fundamentally urban and none of the land is reserved for significant agriculture or other exploitation of natural resources, the city state displays an impressive degree of land economy, born of necessity due to its extremely limited territory.
Thus, the development is optimized to occupy less than 50% of the total area, while the rest is reserved for open space. In July 2007, the Vatican accepted an offer that would make it the only carbon neutral state for the year, the forest was to be sized to offset the years carbon dioxide emissions. This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https, //www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index. html
Fundamental Law of Vatican City State
The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State, promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 26 November 2000, is the main governing document of the Vaticans civil entities. It obtained the force of law of 22 February 2001, Feast of the Chair of St. Peter, the law consists of 20 Articles. 1 §1 declares that “The Supreme Pontiff, Sovereign of Vatican City State, has the fullness of legislative and judicial powers. ”3 §2 provides for the case of absence or impedance of the President, and decrees that the Commission would be presided over by the first of the Cardinal Members. 3 §3 describes who convokes and presides over the meetings of the Commission and says that “the Secretary General and the Vice Secretary General participate in them with a consultative vote. ”4 §1 demands that the Commission exercise its power within the limits of the law concerning the sources of law, according to the indications to be given in future Articles and its proper Regulations. §3 says “The draft laws are submitted in advance, through the Secretariat of State, for the consideration of the Supreme Pontiff.
”5 §1 gives executive power to the President of the Commission, in conformity with the Fundamental Law and with the other normative dispositions in force at Vatican City State. §2 gives the President the assistance of the Secretary General and the Vice Secretary General in the exercise of Executive power. §3 says that “Questions of greater importance are submitted by the President to the Commission for its study. ”6 declares that “Matters of greater importance are dealt with together with the Secretariat of State. ”7 §1 gives the President of the Commission the power to issue Ordinances, putting into effect legislative and regulatory norms. §3 reserves the power to issue general Regulations to the Commission,8 §1 declares that, without prejudice to the primacy of the Supreme Pontiff, and what is established in Art. 2 regarding the Secretariat of State, the President of the Commission represents the State, §2 provides for the President to delegate legal representation to the General Secretary for ordinary administrative activity.
9 §1 states the responsibilities of the Secretary General,1 and he assists the President of the Commission in his functions. §2 gives the Secretary General the right to take the place of the President of the Commission when the President is absent or impeded, §2 gives the Vice Secretary General the right to take the place of the Secretary General when the Secretary General is absent or impeded. §2 grants the Secretary General and the Vice Secretary General the right to part in the Council. 12 prescribes that the budgets and reports of the Vatican. §2 provides for the consultation of the Councillors both individually and collegially,14 gives the President of the Commission the right, in addition to using the Corps of Vigilance, to request the assistance of the Pontifical Swiss Guard for the purpose of security and policing. 15 §1 asserts that, in the name of the Pope, §2 gives the power of regulation of the competence of the individual organs to the Civil Laws of Vatican City State. §3 demands that acts of jurisdiction must be carried out within the territory of the Vatican.
§2 states that “Hierarchical recourse precludes a judicial action in the matter, unless the Supreme Pontiff authorizes it in the individual case. ”§2 gives the Court of Appeal the faculty to hear cases of recourse against disciplinary provisions taken in regard to the employees of the State. 19 reserves the faculty to grant amnesties, remissions,20 §1 enumerates the design of the flag of Vatican City State