The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. Based on Henry VIIIs desire for an annulment of his marriage, the reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the fore. Until the break with Rome, it was the Pope and general councils of the Church that decided doctrine, Church law was governed by the code of canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, and the Pope had the word in the appointment of bishops. Final authority in doctrinal and legal disputes now rested with the monarch, and the papacy was deprived of revenue, the theology and liturgy of the Church of England became markedly Protestant during the reign of Henrys son Edward VI largely along lines laid down by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Under Mary, the process was reversed and the Church of England was again placed under papal jurisdiction.
Soon after, Elizabeth reintroduced the Protestant faith but in a moderate manner. The structure and theology of the church was a matter of dispute for generations. The legacy of the past Roman Catholic Establishment remained an issue for some time, a substantial minority remained Roman Catholic in England, and in an effort to disestablish it from British systems, their church organisation remained illegal until the 19th century. Henry VIII ascended the English throne in 1509 at the age of 17 and he made a dynastic marriage with Catherine of Aragon, widow of his brother Arthur, in June 1509, just before his coronation on Midsummers Day. Unlike his father, who was secretive and conservative, the young Henry appeared the epitome of chivalry and sociability. An observant Roman Catholic, he heard up to five masses a day, of powerful but unoriginal mind, he let himself be influenced by his advisors from whom he was never apart and he was thus susceptible to whoever had his ear. This contributed to a state of hostility between his young contemporaries and the Lord Chancellor, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, wolseys enemies at court included those who had been influenced by Lutheran ideas, among whom was the attractive, charismatic Anne Boleyn.
By the late 1520s, Henry wanted his marriage to Catherine annulled and she had not produced a male heir who survived longer than two months, and Henry wanted a son to secure the Tudor dynasty. Before Henrys father ascended the throne, England had been beset by civil warfare over rival claims to the English crown, Henry wanted to avoid a similar uncertainty over the succession. Catherine of Aragons only surviving child was Princess Mary, Henry claimed that this lack of a male heir was because his marriage was blighted in the eyes of God. Henry argued that this had been wrong and that his marriage had never been valid, in 1527 Henry asked Pope Clement VII to annul the marriage, but the Pope refused. According to Canon Law the Pope cannot annul a marriage on the basis of a canonical impediment previously dispensed, Clement feared the wrath of Catherines nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, whose troops earlier that year had sacked Rome and briefly taken the Pope prisoner
Auvergne is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and it comprises four departments, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal and Haute-Loire. The administrative region of Auvergne is larger than the province of Auvergne. The Auvergne region is composed of the old provinces, departments of Puy-de-Dôme, northwest of Haute-Loire. The province of Auvergne is entirely contained inside the Auvergne region Bourbonnais, a small part of Bourbonnais is contained inside the Centre-Val de Loire region. Velay and southeast of department of Haute-Loire, velay is entirely contained inside the Auvergne region. A small part of Gévaudan, extreme southwest of Haute-Loire, Gévaudan is essentially inside the Languedoc-Roussillon region. A small part of Vivarais, extreme southeast of Haute-Loire, Vivarais is essentially inside the Rhône-Alpes region. A small part of Forez, extreme northeast of Haute-Loire, Forez is essentially inside the Rhône-Alpes region. Velay, Gévaudan, and Vivarais are often considered to be sub-provinces of the old province of Languedoc, Forez is often considered to be a sub-province of Lyonnais.
Therefore, the region of Auvergne is composed of the provinces of Auvergne, major part of Bourbonnais. The region is home to a chain of volcanoes known collectively as the chaîne des Puys, the last confirmed eruption was around 4040 BCE. The volcanoes began forming some 70,000 years ago, and most have eroded, Auvergne has a surface area of 26,013 square kilometres equivalent to 4. 8% of Frances total surface area. Auvergne is one of the smallest regions in France, Auvergne is known for its mountain ranges and dormant volcanoes. Together the Monts Dore and the Chaîne des Puys include 80 volcanoes, the Puy de Dôme is the tallest volcano in the region, with an altitude of 1,465 metres. The Sancy Massif in the Monts Dore is the highest point in Auvergne, the northern region is covered in hills while the southern portion is mountainous and dotted with pastures. The Forest of Tronçais covers nearly 11,000 hectares and is the largest oak forest in Europe, the Loire runs through the southeast and borders the northeast, and the Allier runs from north to south down the center of Auvergne, with branches going east and west.
Over many years the Allier river has created what are known as the Allier gorges, Auvergne has about 50 freshwater ponds and lakes
Saint John's Co-Cathedral
St Johns Co-Cathedral is a Roman Catholic co-cathedral in Valletta, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. It was built by the Order of St. John between 1572 and 1577, having been commissioned by Grand Master Jean de la Cassière as the Conventual Church of Saint John. The church was designed by the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, who designed several of the prominent buildings in Valletta. In the 17th century, its interior was redecorated in the Baroque style by Mattia Preti, the interior of the church is considered to be one of the finest examples of high Baroque architecture in Europe. St. Johns Co-Cathedral was commissioned in 1572 by Jean de la Cassière and it was initially named, in the Italian common language of the time, as Chiesa Conventuale di San Giovanni Battista. The church was designed by the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, who was responsible for the construction of many important buildings in Valletta. However Cassar still took decisions over the design and made modifications.
Once St. Johns was completed in 1577, it became the new church of the Order instead of St. Lawrences Church in the Orders former headquarters Birgu. Construction of the oratory and sacristy began in 1598, during the magistracy of Martin Garzez, for the first century of its existence, the churchs interior was modestly decorated. However, in the 1660s, Grand Master Raphael Cotoner ordered the redecoration of the interior so as to rival the churches of Rome, Calabrian artist Mattia Preti was in charge of the embellishment, and effectively completely transformed the interior in the Baroque style. In 1748, Grand Master António Manoel de Vilhena built annexes on the side of the cathedral, St. Johns remained the conventual church of the Order until the latter was expelled from Malta with the French occupation in 1798. Over time, the church grew to prominence with the archbishops cathedral at Mdina. In the 1820s, the Bishop of Malta was allowed to use St Johns as an alternative see, in 1831, Sir Walter Scott called the cathedral a magnificent church, the most striking interior ever seen.
Later on in the 19th century, Giuseppe Hyzler, a leader of the Nazarene movement, removed some of the Baroque art of the cathedral, the cathedrals exterior was slightly damaged by aerial bombardment in 1941, during World War II, barely escaping total destruction. The contents of the cathedral had been transferred elsewhere before the bombardment, the cathedral was restored between the late 1980s and the early 1990s. In 2001, the St. Johns Co-Cathedral Foundation was set up to administer and conserve the cathedral, the sides of the cathedral were restored between 2008 and 2010, and a complete restoration of the exterior began to be carried out in July 2014. This restoration is being directed by architect Jean Frendo and eight restorers, restoration of the central part of the façade was completed in September 2015, and the project is expected to be ready in 2017. Today, the cathedral is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Malta, the cathedrals exterior is built in the Mannerist style typical of its architect Girolamo Cassar
It was headquartered variously in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Malta, until it became known by its current name. Some scholars, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thoms order and it regained strength during the early 19th century as it redirected itself toward religious and humanitarian causes. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, acquired new headquarters in Rome, in 800, Emperor Charlemagne enlarged Probus hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital, in 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, which was built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist and it was served by the Order of Saint Benedict. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem, under his successor, Raymond du Puy de Provence, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Initially the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character. Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the orders members, in 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order its coat of arms, a silver cross in a field of red. The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land, frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185. The statutes of Roger de Moulins deal only with the service of the sick, the order numbered three distinct classes of membership, the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, and the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service. In 1248 Pope Innocent IV approved a military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle.
Instead of a closed cape over their armour, they wore a red surcoat with a cross emblazoned on it. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars, at the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers, the property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies. As early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England, as a result, buildings such as St Johns Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington in England were built on land donated to the order by local nobility. An Irish house was established at Kilmainham, near Dublin, after the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291, the Knights were confined to the County of Tripoli and, when Acre was captured in 1291, the order sought refuge in the Kingdom of Cyprus.
His successor, Foulques de Villaret, executed the plan, and on 15 August 1310, after four years of campaigning
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging and, usually and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway, Inns in Europe were possibly first established when the Romans built their system of Roman roads two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are several centuries old, in addition to providing for the needs of travelers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. Historically, inns in Europe provided not only food and lodging, famous London examples of inns include the George and the Tabard. There is however no longer a distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use the name inn, either because they are established and may have been formerly coaching inns. Inns were like bed and breakfasts, with a community dining room which was used for town meetings or rented for wedding parties. The front, facing the road was ornamental and welcoming for travelers, the back usually had at least one livery barn for travelers to keep their horses.
There were not lobbies as in modern inns, but the innkeeper would answer the door for each visitor, many inns were simply large estates that had extra rooms for renting. During the 19th century the inn played a role in the growing transportation system of England. Industry was on the rise and people were traveling more in order to keep, the English Inn was considered an important part of English infrastructure as it helped maintain a smooth flow of travel throughout the country. As modes of transport have evolved, tourist lodging has adapted to each generation of traveller. A stagecoach made frequent stops at roadside coaching inns for water, food, a passenger train stops only at designated stations in the city centre, around which were built grand railway hotels. The lodging aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, the Inns of Court in London were once accommodations for members of the legal profession. Other forms of inn exist throughout the world, among them are the honjin and ryokan of Japan, and caravanserai of the Ottoman Empire.
In Asia Minor, during the periods of rule by the Seljuq and Ottoman Turks and these inns provided accommodation for people and their vehicles or animals and served as a resting place for people, whether travelling on foot or by other means. These inns were built between towns if the distance between them was too far for one days travel and these structures were called caravansarais which were inns with large courtyards with ample supplies of water for both drinking and other uses. They would contain a café in addition to supplies of food
French occupation of Malta
The French occupation of Malta lasted from 1798 to 1800. It was established when the Order of Saint John surrendered to Napoleon Bonaparte following the French landing in June 1798, the most aesthetic feature of the French occupation is probably the defacement of most coat-of-arms on the façades of buildings of the knights. On 19 May 1798, a French fleet sailed from Toulon, the force was destined for Egypt, Bonaparte seeking to expand French influence in Asia and force Britain to make peace in the French Revolutionary Wars, which had begun in 1792. Sailing southeast, the convoy collected additional transports from Italian ports, at this time and its neighbouring islands were ruled by the Order of Saint John, an old and influential feudal order weakened by the loss of most of their revenue during the French Revolution. The French Knights deserted the order, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a meaningful resistance, approximately 2,000 native Maltese militia resisted for 24 hours, retreating to Valletta once the city of Mdina fell to General Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois.
Bonaparte established a French garrison on the islands, leaving 4,000 men under Vaubois while he, during Napoleons short stay in Malta, he stayed in Palazzo Parisio in Valletta. He implemented a number of reforms which were based on the principles of the French Revolution and these reforms could be divided into four main categories, The people of Malta were granted equality before the law, and they were regarded as French citizens. The Maltese nobility was abolished, and slaves were freed, freedom of speech and the press were granted, although the only newspaper was Journal de Malta, which was published by the government. Political prisoners including Mikiel Anton Vassalli and those who took part in the Rising of the Priests were released, all of the Orders property was surrendered to the French Government. A Commission of Government was set up to rule the islands, each was run by a president and four members, A National Guard was set up, with 900 men. Primary schools were to be set up in the towns and villages.
The University of Malta was to be renamed Polytecnique, and scientific subjects were to be taught there, none of these reforms were actually implemented due to the short duration of French rule. The churchs extensive property on Malta was taken over by the Government, the Inquisition was abolished, and the last inquisitor was expelled from the islands. Later on, French troops began to loot church property, the French rapidly dismantled the institutions of the Knights of St. John, including the Roman Catholic Church, and the Maltese people were not happy about this. There were economic problems and the French government did not pay wages or pensions anymore, Church property was looted and seized to pay for the expedition to Egypt, an act that generated considerable anger among the deeply religious Maltese population. Valletta was surrounded by approximately 10,000 irregular Maltese soldiers led by Emmanuele Vitale and Canon Francesco Saverio Caruana, the Maltese built siege fortifications surrounding the harbour area to bombard French positions.
Help from Britain arrived in the year and, in 1799, the French garrison in Valletta finally capitulated to the British on 4 September 1800, and Malta became a British Protectorate. The French surrendered on 5 September of that year, the British transferred the island to the locals that day, and it was administered by Archpriest Saverio Cassar on behalf of Ferdinand III of Sicily
Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc
Fra Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc was a member of the wealthy and influential Rohan family of France, and 70th Prince and Grand Master of the Order of St. John from 1775 to 1797. De Rohan was born in la Mancha, Spain on 18 April 1725 and his father was French, but had been banished to Spain. He served in the courts of Madrid and Parma, before becoming an ambassador to Francis I and he eventually joined the Order of St. John, and served in several posts. He was considered as a successor to Grand Master Manuel Pinto da Fonseca following his death in 1773. Ximenes magistracy was unpopular due to the Orders bankruptcy and he died in 1775, and was succeeded by De Rohan. De Rohan sought to win the respect of the people, on 21 June 1777, he elevated the village of Żebbuġ to the status of city, naming it Città Rohan. An archway commemorating this event was constructed in 1798, the coat of arms of Żebbuġ contains the arms of the House of Rohan, in honour of the Grand Master. De Rohan authored the Code de Rohan, a law book published in two volumes titled Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes of Malta in 1782.
This Grand Master was responsible for the publication of the Diritto Municipale in 1784, De Rohan instituted the Anglo-Bavarian langue, which was housed in the former Palazzo Carniero. In 1797, he established the Russian Grand Priory, which evolved into the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller. In 1792, he commissioned and partially financed the construction of Fort Tigné, St. Lucian Tower & Battery were upgraded during De Rohans magistracy, and the complex was renamed Fort Rohan in 1795 after the Grand Master. It was rebuilt as Fort San Lucian in the 1870s, the last few years of De Rohans magistracy were troublesome, due to the decline of the Order because of the French Revolution. De Rohan suffered a stroke in 1792, and his health began to deteriorate and he died on 14 July 1797, and was buried at St. Johns Co-Cathedral in Valletta. His last words were I, at any rate, am the last grandmaster, at least of an order illustrious and he was proven correct, since less than a year after his death, the French invaded Malta and expelled the Order from the island.
Coins of Grandmaster Emmanuel de Rohan
The Auberge dAragon is an auberge in Valletta, Malta. It was built in 1571 to house knights of the Order of Saint John from the langue of Aragon, Navarre and it is the only surviving auberge in Valletta which retains its original Mannerist design by the architect Girolamo Cassar. In the early 19th century, the building was requisitioned by the British military, at this point, a neoclassical portico was added to the façade, the only alteration to the building since the 16th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the auberge was used as a printing press and it housed the Office of the Prime Minister in 1921–33 and 1947–72. Since then, various government ministries have used the building, as of 2016, it houses the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the Parliamentary Secretary for the EU Presidency 2017 and EU Funds. Auberge dAragon was designed by the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar in 1566, the plot of land on which it was built was purchased on 20 September 1569 for the sum of 80 scudi and 8 tari.
In 1674, the Langue of Aragon built the Church of Our Lady of Pilar adjacent to the auberge, the 1693 Sicily earthquake caused serious damage to the façade and the southeast face of the auberge, but the damage was repaired. The church was damaged, and it was rebuilt in a new design. The Order of St. John was expelled from Malta with the French invasion and occupation in 1798, two years later, the Maltese Islands became a British protectorate, and the auberge was requisitioned by the Quartermaster. From 1822 to 1824, the building housed the government printing press, in the late 1830s, the building was the residence of the Chief Secretary to Government. In 1842, the auberge was leased to George Tomlinson, the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar, the only alteration to the auberge, a Doric portico leading to the main doorway, was probably built at this point. After Malta was granted self-government in 1921, the auberge was converted into a school, in 1924, upon Ugo Pasquale Mifsuds election as Prime Minister of Malta, the building became the Office of the Prime Minister.
In 1931, there were plans to move the parliament from the Grandmasters Palace into the auberge, the building continued to house the OPM until the office was abolished upon the suspension of the constitution in 1933. In 1939, the auberge was given to the British Institute, a new constitution was granted in 1947, restoring self-government and reestablishing the position of Prime Minister. The auberge was once used as the OPM, with Paul Boffa being the first Prime Minister to use it as his office. The islands became independent as the State of Malta in 1964, Auberge dAragon continued to house the OPM until 1972, when Dom Mintoff moved the Office to Auberge de Castille, where it remains to this day. The building subsequently housed the Ministry of Education and Culture, which was led by Minister Agatha Barbara. After the 1987 elections, Parliamentary Secretary for Industry John Dalli took up his offices in the auberge and this was renamed the Ministry of Economic Services, and after 2003 the Ministry of Finance and Economic Services