Newquay is a town in the south west of England, in the United Kingdom. It is a civil parish, seaside resort, regional centre for aerospace industries, future spaceport and a fishing port on the North Atlantic coast of Cornwall 12 miles north of Truro and 20 miles west of Bodmin; the town is bounded to the south by the River Gannel and its associated salt marsh, to the north-east by the Porth Valley. The western edge of the town meets the Atlantic at Fistral Bay; the town has been expanding inland since the former fishing village of New Quay began to grow in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing to 20,342 at the 2011 census. Recent estimates suggest that the total for the wider Newquay area would rise to 27,862 by 2018 and 30,341 in 2019. There are some pre-historic burial mounds and an embankment on the area now known as The Barrowfields, 400 m from Trevelgue. There were once up to fifteen barrows. Excavations here have revealed charred cooking pots and a coarse pottery burial urn containing remains of a Bronze Age chieftain, buried here up to 3,500 years ago.
In 1987, evidence of a Bronze Age village was found at Trethellan Farm, a site that overlooks the River Gannel. The first signs of settlement in the Newquay region consist of a late Iron Age hill fort/industrial centre which exploited the nearby abundant resources and the superior natural defences provided by Trevelgue Head, it is claimed that occupation of the site was continuous from the 3rd century BC to the 5th or 6th century AD. The curve of the headland around what is now Newquay Harbour provided natural protection from bad weather and a small fishing village grew up in the area; when the village was first occupied is unknown but it is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, although a parcel of land was recorded at Treninnick, now part of suburban Newquay. Treninnick was part of the manor of Coswarth and consisted of one virgate with five sheep. Crantock is the only other recognisable name in the Newquay area recorded in Domesday. By the 15th century, a village referred to as “Keye” existed around the present harbour, near “Tewynblustri”.
"Towan" means dune or sand hill in Cornish. Some sources have suggested in the past that it meant boats, but this claim is not supported by modern authorities and is dismissed by Padel in his dictionary of Cornish place names; the name Towan Blystra, although quoted as the Cornish equivalent of Newquay, was the name of a separate settlement some 200m away from the harbour. There is no record of ‘Newquay’ as a name being rendered in Cornish; the anchorage was exposed to winds from the north east and in 1439 the local burgesses applied to Edmund Lacey, Bishop of Exeter for leave and funds raised through the mechanism of an indulgence, to build a "New quay" from which the town derives its name. The new quay itself did not appear until the early 17th century; the first national British census of 1801 recorded around 1,300 inhabitants in the settlement. The construction of the current harbour started in 1832.. A mansion called the Tower was built for the Molesworth family in 1835: it included a castellated tower and a private chapel as they were practising Roman Catholics and no church for that denomination existed in the area.
The Tower became the golf club house. After the arrival of passenger trains in 1876, the village around the port of Newquay started to grow more quickly. Several major hotels were built around the turn of the 19th century, including the Victoria in East Street, the Atlantic and the Headland, while many others were created around this period by converting former large houses, built by wealthy visitors as holiday homes along Narrowcliff; until the end of the 19th century, the port was famous for pilchards and there is a "Huer's Hut" above the harbour from which a huer would cry "Hevva!" to call out the fishing fleet when pilchard shoals were spotted. The town's present insignia includes four pilchards, while its motto Ro An Mor is Cornish for'from the sea'; the real pilchards now only survive in limited stocks, but a small fleet still catches the local edible crabs and lobsters. The arms of the former urban district council of Newquay were Or on a saltire Azure four herrings respectant Argent.
Three churches were built early in the twentieth century, including the present day parish church of St Michael the Archangel, consecrated in 1911. Growth of the town eastwards soon reached the area around the railway station: Station Road became Cliff Road around 1930, the houses beyond, along Narrowcliff, were converted into hotels. Narrowcliff was known for a while as Narrowcliff Promenade, Narrowcliff Road. On some pre-war maps it is spelt Narrowcliffe. At the time of the First World War the last buildings at the edge of the town were a little further along present-day Narrowcliff, including the Hotel Edgcumbe. Post-war development saw new houses and streets built in the Chester Road area, accompanied by ribbon development along the country lane which led to St Columb Minor, some 2 miles away; this thoroughfare was modernised and named Henver Road some time in the 1930s. Development continued in this direction until the Second World War, by which time much of Henver Road had houses on both sides, with considerable infilling taki
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
Letitia Elizabeth Landon was an English poet and novelist, better known by her initials L. E. L. Letitia Elizabeth Landon was born on 14 August 1802 in Chelsea, London to John Landon and Catherine Jane, née Bishop. A precocious child, Landon learned to read as a toddler. Rowden was an engaging teacher, with a particular enthusiasm for the theatre. Rowden was not only a poet, according to Mary Russell Mitford, "she had a knack of making poetesses of her pupils" This links Landon to other of Rowden's pupils such as Caroline Ponsonby Lady Caroline Lamb; the Landons moved to the country in 1809, so that John Landon could carry out a model farm project, Landon was educated at home by her cousin Elizabeth from that point on. Elizabeth, though older, soon found her knowledge and abilities outstripped by those of her pupil: "When I asked Letitia any question relating either to history, grammar – Plutarch's Lives, or to any book we had been reading, I was pretty certain her answers would be correct. I never knew her to be wrong."When young, Letitia was close to her younger brother, Whittington Henry, born 1804.
Paying for Whittington through university was one of the needs that drove Letitia to publish. She supported his preferment and dedicated her poem "Captain Cook" to their childhood days together. Whittington went on to become a minister and published a book of sermons in 1835. Sadly, he did not show any appreciation for all his sister's financial assistance but spread false rumours about her marriage and death. Letitia had a younger sister, Elizabeth Jane, a frail child and died in 1819, aged just 13. Little is known of Elizabeth but her death may well have left a profound impression on Letitia and it could be Elizabeth, referred to in the poem "The Forgotten One". An agricultural depression soon followed, the family moved back to London in 1815, where John Landon made the acquaintance of William Jerdan, editor of the Literary Gazette. According to 19th-century commentator Mrs A. T. Thomson, Jerdan took notice of the young Landon when he saw her coming down the street, "trundling a hoop with one hand, holding in the other a book of poems, of which she was catching a glimpse between the agitating course of her evolutions".
Jerdan, after examining her work, of which he described her ideas as "original and extraordinary", encouraged Landon's poetic endeavours, her first poem was published under the single initial "L" in the Gazette in 1820, when Landon was 18. The following year, with financial support from her grandmother, Landon published a book of poetry, The Fate of Adelaide, under her full name; the book sold well. The same month that The Fate of Adelaide appeared, Landon published two poems under the initials "L. E. L." in the Gazette. As contemporary critic Laman Blanchard put it, the initials L. E. L. "speedily became a signature of magical interest and curiosity". Bulwer Lytton wrote that, as a young college student, he and his classmates would rush every Saturday afternoon for the Literary Gazette, an impatient anxiety to hasten at once to that corner of the sheet which contained the three magical letters L. E. L, and all of us praised the verse, all of us guessed at the author. We soon learned it was a female, our admiration was doubled, our conjectures tripled.
Landon served as the Gazette's chief reviewer. Landon's father died that year, Landon was forced to use her writing to support both herself and her family. Mary Mitford claimed that the novels of Catherine Stepney were polished by Landon. By 1826, Landon's high reputation began to suffer as rumours circulated that she had had affairs or secretly borne children. Landon continued, however, to publish poetry, in 1831 she published her first novel and Reality, she became engaged to John Forster. Forster became aware of the rumours regarding Landon's sexual activity, asked her to refute them. Landon responded. To him, she wrote: The more I think, the more I feel I ought not – I can not – allow you to unite yourself with one accused of – I can not write it; the mere suspicion is dreadful as death. Were it stated as a fact, that might
Looe is a small coastal town, fishing port and civil parish in south-east Cornwall, with a population of 5,280 at the 2011 census. Looe is 20 miles west of Plymouth and seven miles south of Liskeard, divided in two by the River Looe, East Looe and West Looe being connected by a bridge. Looe developed as two separate towns each with its own mayor; the town centres around a small harbour and along the steep-sided valley of the River Looe which flows between East and West Looe to the sea beside a sandy beach. Offshore to the west, opposite the stonier Hannafore Beach, lies Looe Island. Archeological evidence, such as the so-called Giant's Hedge and the stone circle at Bin Down on a hill above East Looe, indicates that the area around Looe was inhabited as early as 1000 BC. At the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 the manor of Pendrym, which included much of the site of modern-day East Looe, was still held by William the Conqueror, as part of his own demesne, which he devolved to the Bodgrugan family.
Land across the river belonged to the manors of Portbyhan. Shutta, on the steep hillside over East Looe, is recorded as being inhabited by the 12th century. Between 1154 and 1189 Henry II granted a charter in favour of Sir Henry Bodrugan as Mayor of East Looe. West Looe was given free borough status sometime after this and in the 1230s East Looe secured the right to hold a weekly market and a Michaelmas fair. East Looe's layout looks like a "planted borough", a concept similar to modern new towns, since most of its streets form a grid-like pattern. Low-lying parts of Looe continue to suffer frequent flooding when the tides are high. For practical reasons, most fishermen's houses in ancient Looe, like elsewhere along the south coast, were constructed with their living quarters upstairs and a storage area at ground level below: for boats and fishing tackle, etc; some time before 1144, the Order of Saint Benedict occupied Looe Island, building a chapel there, the monks established a rudimentary lighthouse service using beacons.
Another chapel was founded on an opposite hillside just outside West Looe. The parish church of East Looe was at St Martin by Looe but there was a chapel of ease in the town. St Mary's Church, East Looe was dedicated in 1259 by Bishop of Exeter. Despite rebuilding commencing in 1805, it has since fallen into disrepair, although the original Tower still remains. On the centre of the bridge in medieval times stood the Chapel of St Anne: this dedication was attributed to the town chapel by Dr George Oliver and has been adopted since, displacing that of St Mary. West Looe comprised part of the parish of Talland since the early Middle Ages, but a chapel of ease, St Nicholas' Church, West Looe was extant before 1330 when it is recorded as being further endowed and enlarged. After spells as a common hall and a schoolhouse, this building has reverted to its original ecclesiastical use, having been restored in 1852, 1862 and 1915. An early wooden bridge over the Looe River was in place by 1411, which burned down and was replaced by the first stone bridge, completed in 1436 and featured a chapel dedicated to St Anne in the middle.
By this time Looe had become a major port, one of Cornwall's largest, exporting local tin and granite, as well as hosting thriving fishing and boatbuilding industries. The town was able to provide some 20 ships for the Siege of Calais in 1347. With effective civic leadership, Looe thrived in the Middle Ages and Tudor era, being both a busy port and situated with close access to the main road from London to Penzance. By this time the textile industry had come to play an important part in the town's economy, in addition to the traditional boatbuilding and fishing. Trade and transport to and from thriving Newfoundland contributed to the town's success; the Old Guildhall in East Looe is believed to have dated from around 1500. The constituencies of East Looe and West Looe were incorporated as parliamentary boroughs in 1571 and 1553 surviving as rotten boroughs with each returning two MPs to the unreformed House of Commons until the Great Reform Act of 1832. For example, Admiral Sir Charles Wager, a son and grandson of Kentish mariners, held the seat as MP for West Looe early in and at the end of his political career.
The seal of East Looe was blazoned An antique one-mast vessel in it a man and boy against the side of the hulk three escutcheons each charges with three bends, with the legend "Si, comunetatis de Loo". The seal of West Looe was An armed man holding a bow in his right hand and an arrow in his left, with the legend "Por-tu-an vel Wys Westlo". In 1625 Barbary pirates devastated Looe, carrying off around 80 mariners and fishermen, taking them to North Africa to be enslaved. Forewarned of the attack, most of the inhabitants of the town were able to escape, but the town itself was torched. By the start of the 1800s, Looe's fortunes were in decline; the Napoleonic Wars had taken its toll on the country. The blockade of 1808, which prevented the Looe fleet from reaching their pilchard-fishing areas put considerable financial strain on the community. In 1805, the old St. Mary's Chapel (apart
St Austell is a town in Cornwall, England, 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. St Austell is one of the largest towns in Cornwall. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Leland's Itinerary, where he says "At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch". Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning Hill in west Cornwall, the same mineral was found in greater quantity in Hensbarrow downs north of St Austell. Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, this contributed enormously to the growth of the town; the clay industry only came into its own during the mid 19th to early 20th century, at a time when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced many mines to close down or convert to clay mining. The success and high profitability of the industry attracted many families whose breadwinner had been put out of work by the depression in the local metal mining industry, increased the population of the town considerably.
This meant that more businesses took root, providing more jobs and improving trade. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on a brutalist-style pedestrian precinct which included shops and flats; the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners and the materials reinforced concrete with some stone facing. In the 2000s this area of the town had become outdated, underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. In August 2007, developers David McLean and demolition team Gilpin moved onto the town centre site to complete the preparation, with the Filmcentre, an Odeon cinema dating back to 1936, being demolished in late September/early October. In October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency announced the new development would be named White River Place, it was announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to High Street stores, with New Look, Bonmarché and Wilko opening new stores.
This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street and the return of Peacocks to St Austell following the demolition of its old store to make way for the new development. Bonmarche has since closed. In October 2008, it was announced that the developer David McLean Developments had gone into administration and concern was expressed that this could jeopardise the completion of the project. In December 2008, the new White River Cinema opened its doors for the first time: the cinema is technically advanced and the first purpose-built cinema in Cornwall for over 60 years; the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the town's calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall and Devon; the event is run by a small group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for several new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites.
It was given outline government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, St Austell; the development was proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg. A saltire raguly Gu. St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay, created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the St Austell seat; the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. The six former Districts and the former Cornwall County Council were abolished and replaced by Cornwall Council on 1 April 2009. On 1 April 2009, four new parishes were created for the St Austell area, they are: St Austell Town Council covering Bethel, Mount Charles and Holmbush. Carlyon Parish Council covering Carlyon Bay and Tregrehan. St Austell Bay Parish Council covering Charlestown, Duporth and Trenarren.
Pentewan Valley Parish Council covering Tregorrick, London Apprentice and Pentewan. Before this date the area had been an unparished area. St Austell is the main centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall and employs around 2,200 people as of 2006, with sales of £195 million; the St Austell Brewery, which celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2001, supplies cask ale to pubs in Cornwall and other parts of the country. Its flagship beer is St Austell Tribute. St Austell Brewery's first public house, The Seven Stars Inn, purchased in 1863, still stands today on East Hill in the town. Tregonissey House, the site of the company's first steam Brewery, built in 1870, can be seen in Market Hill. A brewery museum and visitor centre is open to the public on the present brewery site in Trevarthian Road; as in much of Cornwall and neighbouring counties, tourism is important to St Austell's economy. Tourists are drawn to the area by nearby beaches and attractions such as the Eden Project, sited in a former clay pit, the Lost Gardens of Heligan.
The China Clay Country Park, in a former china-clay pit two miles north of the town, tells the story of the men and children w
Wardour Castle is located at Wardour, on the boundaries of Tisbury and Donhead St Andrew in the English county of Wiltshire, about 15 miles west of Salisbury. The castle was built in the 1390s and destroyed in 1643 and 1644 during the English Civil War, it is managed by English Heritage who have designated it as a Grade I listed building, is open to the public. The castle was built on land owned by the St Martin family, but when Sir Lawrence de St Martin died in 1385 it was handed over to John, the fifth Baron Lovell for reasons unknown, it was built using locally quarried Tisbury greensand, with William Wynford as the master mason, after Baron Lovell had been granted permission by Richard II in 1392. It was inspired by the hexagonal castles in fashion in parts of the Continent in France. After the fall of the Lovell family following their support of the Lancastrian cause during the Wars of the Roses, the castle was confiscated in 1461 and passed through several owners until bought by Sir Thomas Arundell of Lanherne in 1544.
The Arundells were an ancient and prominent Cornish family, the principal branches of which were seated at the manors of Lanherne, Trerice and Menadarva in Cornwall. The family held several estates in Wiltshire; the castle was confiscated when Sir Thomas — a staunch Roman Catholic — was executed for treason in 1552, but in 1570 was bought back by his son, Sir Matthew Arundell a Sheriff and Custos Rotulorum of Dorset. The Arundells, led by Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, subsequently became known as some of the most active of the Catholic landowners in England at the time of the Reformation. During that conflict, Thomas Arundell, 2nd Baron Arundell of Wardour, was away from home on the King’s business and had asked his wife, Lady Blanche Arundell, aged 61, to defend the castle with a garrison of 25 trained fighting men. On 2 May 1643 Sir Edward Hungerford, with 1,300 men of the Parliamentarian Army, demanded admittance to search for Royalists, he was laid siege, setting about the walls with guns and mines.
After five days the castle was threatened with complete destruction. Lady Arundell agreed to surrender, the castle was placed under the command of Colonel Edmund Ludlow. Lord Arundell had died of his wounds after the Battle of Stratton, his son, Henry 3rd Lord Arundell, next laid siege to his own castle, blew up much of it and obliged the Parliamentary garrison to surrender in March 1644; the family recovered power through the English Commonwealth and the Glorious Revolution, until the eighth Baron, Henry Arundell, borrowed sufficient funds to finance rebuilding. This was done by the prominent Palladian James Paine. Paine left the Wardour Old Castle as an ornamental feature. In stylistic terms the New Castle is not a castle at all, but a symmetrical neoclassical country house with a main block built around a central staircase hall and two flanking wings. Paine integrated the ruins of the Old Castle into the surrounding parkland, intending it to be viewed as a romantic ruin; the castles and new, have been featured in several films.
The Old Castle appeared in the 1991 Kevin Costner feature Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, more was used as a film location for The Journey to Aresmore released in 2016. The New Castle served as the dance school in Billy Elliot; the cover of Sting's album Ten Summoner's Tales was photographed inside Old Wardour Castle. The castle's ground level was altered around the 18th century. In the Middle Ages, it sloped away much more steeply so that the building stood on the end of a low ridge of land; the approach to the main front door is supposed to have been protected by a wide ditch crossed by a drawbridge, with a portcullis, though there have been no surviving remains of these. Between the towers at the level of the battlements are the remains of a projecting gallery or barbican which would have been used to defend the front entrance. Above the portal over the front entrance is the Arundell coat-of-arms and a description of the Arundell's possession of Wardour, erected by Sir Matthew Arundell in 1578 to celebrate his recovery of the property after the family lost it when Sir Thomas Arundell was executed in 1552.
Above the coat of arms is the head of Christ in a niche with the inscription: Sub nomine tuo stet genus et domus. When the south-west side of the castle was blown out in an explosion in the 17th century, the courtyard would have changed from a dark and claustrophobic place to a light, spacious sanctuary, it would have been in the shape of a hexagon, there would have been four or five storeys formed around it on all sides. In the 1570s, most of the original medieval windows and doors would have been replaced. In the centre of this interior courtyard, there is a well. Evidence gathered from other castles from the same era suggests that there would have been an elaborate and impressive roof over the well and painted with the emblems of the Lovells and the Arundells; the grotto of Old Wardour Castle was the last addition to the landscape. It was built in 1792 by Josiah Lane of Tisbury, who at the time was a well-known builder of garden ornaments and other grottos in the area, he was commissioned to build the artificial cave, complete with dripping water and ferns from brick and stone from the ruins of the castle.
The grotto incorporates three standing stones, removed from the stone circle at Tisbury. The Arundells returned to Old Wardour in the 1680s after having been forced to leave the castle in 1644, they built a new, smaller house just outside the castle wall whi
Falmouth is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It has a total resident population of 21,797; the name Falmouth is of English origin. It is claimed that an earlier Celtic name for the place was Peny-cwm-cuic, the same as the anglicised "Pennycomequick" district in Plymouth. Falmouth was where Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle to defend Carrick Roads in 1540; the main town of the district was at Penryn. Sir John Killigrew created the town of Falmouth shortly after 1613. In the late 16th century, under threat from the Spanish Armada, the defences at Pendennis were strengthened by the building of angled ramparts. During the Civil War, Pendennis Castle was the second to last fort to surrender to the Parliamentary Army. After the Civil War, Sir Peter Killigrew received royal patronage when he gave land for the building of the Church of King Charles the Martyr, dedicated to Charles I, "the Martyr"; the seal of Falmouth was blazoned as "An eagle displayed with two heads and on each wing with a tower".
The arms of the borough of Falmouth were "Arg. A double-headed eagle displayed Sa. each wing charged with a tower Or. in base issuant from the water barry wavy a rock Sa. thereon surmounting the tail of the eagle a staff proper flying therefrom a pennant Gu". Being the nearest to the entrance of the English Channel, two Royal Navy squadrons were permanently stationed here. In the 1790s one was under the command of Sir Edward Pellew and the other under the command of Sir John Borlase Warren; each squadron consisted with either 32 or 44 guns. Pellew's flagship was Warren's HMS Révolutionnaire. At the time of the French Revolutionary Wars, battle ships and small vessels were continually arriving with war prizes taken from the French ships and prisoners of war. Near Penryn, at Tregellick and Roscrow, were two large camps for the French prisoners; the Falmouth Packet Service operated out of Falmouth for over 160 years between 1689 and 1851. Its purpose was to carry mail to and from Britain's growing empire.
At the end of the 18th century there were thirty to forty, full rigged, three-masted ships. The crews were hand picked and both officers and men made large fortunes from the private contraband trade they partook, while under the protection of being a Government ship, free from customs and excise searches and therefore payment of duty. Captain John Bullock worked in the Packet Service and built Penmere Manor in 1825. In 1805 news of Britain's victory and Admiral Nelson's death at Trafalgar was landed here from the schooner Pickle and taken to London by stagecoach. On 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle anchored at Falmouth at the end of her noted survey voyage around the world; that evening, Charles Darwin left the ship and took the Mail coach to his family home at The Mount, Shrewsbury. The ship stayed a few days and Captain Robert FitzRoy visited the Fox family at nearby Penjerrick Gardens. Darwin's shipmate Sulivan made his home in the nearby waterside village of Flushing home to many naval officers.
In 1839 Falmouth was the scene of a gold dust robbery when £47,600 worth of gold dust from Brazil was stolen on arrival at the port. The Falmouth Docks were developed from 1858, the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened Falmouth Lifeboat Station nearby in 1867; the present building dates from 1993 and houses Her Majesty's Coastguard. The RNLI operates two lifeboats from Falmouth: Richard Cox Scott, a 17-metre Severn-class all-weather boat, Eve Park, an Atlantic 75 inshore lifeboat. Near the town centre is Kimberley Park; the land pre-dates 1877, is named after the Earl of Kimberley who leased the park's land to the borough of Falmouth. Today the park has exotic and ornate trees; the Cornwall Railway reached Falmouth on 24 August 1863. The railway brought new prosperity to Falmouth, it allowed the swift transport of the goods disembarked from the ships in the port. The town now has three railway stations. Falmouth Docks railway station is the original terminus and is close to Pendennis Castle and Gyllyngvase beach.
Falmouth Town railway station was opened on 7 December 1970 and is convenient for the National Maritime Museum Cornwall, the waterfront, town centre. Penmere railway station opened on 1 July 1925 towards the north of Falmouth and within easy walking distance of the top of The Moor. All three stations are served by regular trains from Truro on the Maritime Line. Penmere Station was renovated in the late 1990s, using materials. During World War II, 31 people were killed in Falmouth by German bombing. An anti-submarine net was laid from Pendennis to St Mawes, to prevent enemy U-boats entering the harbour, it was the launching point for the noted commando raid on Saint-Nazaire in 1942. Between 1943 and 1944, Falmouth was a base for American troops preparing for the D-Day invasions. There are commemoration plaques at Turnaware Point, Falmouth Watersports marina and Trebah gardens. Arwenack, the estate which occupied the site before the development of the town of Falmouth, long the seat of the Killigrew family.
Falmouth Town is a civil parish within Cornwall, formed in 1974 from the historic Falmouth Borough Council. Falmouth received its Order of Charter in 1661; as of 2017, it is governed by sixteen councillors. Each of them serves a four-year term; the major
Bodmin is a civil parish and historic town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor; the extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is urban in character. It is bordered to the east by Cardinham parish, to the southeast by Lanhydrock parish, to the southwest and west by Lanivet parish, to the north by Helland parish. Bodmin had a population of 14,736 as of the 2011 Census, it was the county town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local government reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District; the town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors; each year, the Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor, it has been suggested that the town's name comes from an archaic word in the Cornish language "bod" and a contraction of "menegh".
The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an early monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed to St Goran on the arrival of Petroc; the hamlets of Cooksland and Turfdown are in the parish. St. Petroc founded a monastery in Bodmin in the 6th century and gave the town its alternative name of Petrockstow; the monastery was deprived of some of its lands at the Norman conquest but at the time of Domesday still held eighteen manors, including Bodmin and Rialton. Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, the only large Cornish settlement recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. In the 15th century the Norman church of St Petroc was rebuilt and stands as one of the largest churches in Cornwall. Built at that time was an abbey of canons regular, now ruined. For most of Bodmin's history, the tin industry was a mainstay of the economy; the name of the town derives from the Cornish "Bod-meneghy", meaning "dwelling of or by the sanctuary of monks".
Variant spellings recorded include Botmenei in 1100, Bodmen in 1253, Bodman in 1377 and Bodmyn in 1522. The Bodman spelling appears in sources and maps from the 16th and 17th centuries, most notably in the celebrated map of Cornwall produced by John Speed but engraved by the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius the Elder in Amsterdam in 1610, it is unclear whether the Bodman spelling signifies any historical or monastic connection with the ancient settlement of Bodman at the western end of the Bodensee in the German province of Baden. An inscription on a stone built into the wall of a summer house in Lancarffe furnishes proof of a settlement in Bodmin in the early Middle Ages, it has been dated from the 6th to 8th centuries. Arthur Langdon records three Cornish crosses at Bodmin. There is Carminow Cross at a road junction southeast of the town; the Black Death killed half of Bodmin's population in the mid 14th century. Bodmin was the centre of three Cornish uprisings; the first was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 when a Cornish army, led by Michael An Gof, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer from Bodmin, marched to Blackheath in London where they were defeated by 10,000 men of the King's army under Baron Daubeny.
In the autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII. Warbeck was proclaimed King Richard IV in Bodmin but Henry had little difficulty crushing the uprising. In 1549, allied with other rebels in neighbouring Devon, rose once again in rebellion when the staunchly Protestant Edward VI tried to impose a new Prayer Book; the lower classes of Cornwall and Devon were still attached to the Roman Catholic religion and again a Cornish army was formed in Bodmin which marched across the border into Devon to lay siege to Exeter. This became known as the Prayer Book Rebellion. Proposals to translate the Prayer Book into Cornish were suppressed and in total 4,000 people were killed in the rebellion; the Borough of Bodmin was one of the 178 municipal boroughs which under the auspices of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was mandated to create an electable council and a Police Watch Committee responsible for overseeing a police force in the town. The new system directly replaced the Parish Constables that had policed the borough since time immemorial and brought paid and accountable law enforcement for the first time.
Bodmin Borough Police was the municipal police force for the Borough of Bodmin from 1836 to 1866. The creation of the Cornwall Constabulary in 1857 put pressure on smaller municipal police forces to merge with the county; the two-man force of Bodmin came under threat immediately, but it would take until 1866 for the Mayor of Bodmin and the Chairman of the Police Watch Committee to agree on the terms of amalgamation. After a public enquiry, the force was disbanded in January 1866 and policing of the borough was deferred to the county from thereon; the song "Bodmin Town" was collected from the Cornishman William Nichols at Whitchurch, Devon, in 1891 by Sabine Baring-Gould who published a version in his A Garland of Country Song. The existing church building is