The Alapaha River is a 202-mile-long river in southern Georgia and northern Florida in the United States. It is a tributary of the Suwannee River; the Hernando de Soto expedition narrative records mention a "Yupaha" village they encountered after they left Apalachee, "the sound of, suggestive of the Alapaha, a tributary of the Suwanee." Another reference to a village of "Atapaha" "so resembles Alapaha that it is reasonable to suppose they are the same, that the town was on the river of that name." John Reed Swanton's landmark Indian Tribes of North America places the Indian village of Alapaha near where the Alapaha River met the Suwanee, noted that an Indian village of "Arapaja" was 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Florida on the Alapaha River. In the 1840s a German travel writer, Friedrich Gerstäcker wrote a dime novel called Alapaha, or the Renegades of the Border, giving the name to a noble Cherokee "squaw." A translation of this novel was published in the 1870s as #67 in a series of American narratives published by Beadle.
During the American Civil War, the swamps along the Alapaha River in Berrien and Echols counties became a refuge for a number of gangs of Confederate deserters. The Alapaha River rises in southeastern Dooly County and flows southeastwardly through or along the boundaries of Crisp, Turner, Ben Hill, Tift, Atkinson, Lanier and Echols Counties in Georgia, Hamilton County in Florida, where it flows into the Suwannee River 10 miles southwest of Jasper. Along its course it passes the Georgia towns of Rebecca, Willacoochee and Statenville. Near Willacoochee, the Alapaha collects the Willacoochee River. In Florida, it collects the Alapahoochee River and the short Little Alapaha River, which rises in Echols County and flows southwestward; the Alapaha River is an intermittent river for part of its course. During periods of low volume, the river becomes a subterranean river. At 2.3 miles downstream from Jennings, Florida the Dead River enters the Alapaha River. It is a dry river bed with a number of sinkholes, including the Dead River Sink.
During periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River downstream from the confluence of the Dead River and the Alapaha River flows upstream into the Dead River. A few more miles downstream is a second sinkhole variously known as the Alapaha River Sink, Suck Hole, or the Devil's Den on the western bank of the river. At the latter point during the periods of low water flow, the Alapaha River disappears underground leaving a dry bank for much of the remainder of its course; the Alapaha River reappears at the Alapaha River Rise, about a half mile upstream from the confluence of the Alapaha River and the Suwanee River. During a period of low rainfall over 11 miles of the riverbed can be dry as the river goes underground; the United States Board on Geographic Names settled on "Alapaha River" as the stream's name in 1891. According to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known as: Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Georgia Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-253-6.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Alapaha River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little Alapaha River Underground: The Alapaha River as an Intermittent River
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Moody Air Force Base
Moody Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation near Valdosta, Georgia. The 29th Training Wing was established at Moody Field in 1941 for primary flight training. On 1 May 1945 Moody was transferred to the First Air Force. On 1 November 1945 Moody was transferred to Army Air Forces Training Command. On 1 September 1947 Moody was transferred to Tactical Air Command. On 13 January 1948 the base was redesignated Moody Air Force Base. On 1 December 1948 the base was transferred to Continental Air Command. On 1 April 1951 Moody AFB was transferred to Strategic Air Command. On 1 September 1951 Moody AFB was transferred from SAC to Air Training Command and the 3550th Training Wing was established there. In 1952 Moody was assigned to undertake combat crew training. In July 1957 following the cessation of interceptor training at Tyndall Air Force Base, advanced interceptor training and Tyndall's F-86D Sabres were transferred to Moody, while Moody's F-89Ds were transferred to James Connally Air Force Base.
On 3 November 1960 Moody stopped interceptor training and became a consolidated pilot training school. In 1961 following the closure of Graham Air Base, Moody became responsible for foreign pilot training. From 1962 onwards, increasing numbers of Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots were trained on Moody's 30 T-28 Trojans. In 1963 foreign pilot training was moved to Randolph Air Force Base. On 1 December 1973 the 3550th Training Wing was inactivated and replaced by the new 38th Flying Training Wing. On 1 December 1975 Moody AFB was transferred from Air Training Command to Tactical Air Command and the 38th Flying Training Wing was inactivated. On 30 September 1975 the 347th Tactical Fighter Wing moved to Moody AFB from Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base. On 1 October 1991 the 347th Tactical Fighter Wing was redesignated the 347th Fighter Wing. On 1 July 1994 was redesignated the 347th Wing, a composite wing with fighter, close air support and airlift elements. On 1 April 1997 the 41st Rescue Squadron and the 71st Rescue Squadron moved to Moody from Patrick Air Force Base and the 23d Wing was assigned to the 347th Wing.
On 30 June 2000 the 70th Fighter Squadron was inactivated at Moody. On 2 February 2001 the 69th Fighter Squadron was inactivated at Moody. On 30 April 2001 the 68th Fighter Squadron was inactivated at Moody. On 1 May 2001 the 38th Rescue Squadron was activated at Moody and the 347th Wing was redesignated the 347th Rescue Wing. On 31 July 2000 the 479th Flying Training Group was reactivated at Moody to conduct primary Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training and Introduction to Fighter Fundamentals training. On 2 April 2001 the 39th Flying Training Squadron was activated at Moody and it was joined by the 3d Flying Training Squadron. On 1 October 2001 the 435th Flying Training Squadron moved to Moody. On 21 July 2007 the 479th Flying Training Group was inactivated and its aircraft and equipment were redistributed to other AETC units. On 1 October 2003 the 347th Rescue Wing was assigned to Air Force Special Operations Command. On 1 October 2006 the 23rd Fighter Group was redesignated as the 23d Wing and activated at Moody AFB.
On the same date the 347th Rescue Wing was inactivated and the 347th Operations Group was redesignated the 347th Rescue Group which became a subordinate element of the 23d Wing. This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Moody Air Force Base official website
Ray City, Georgia
Ray City is a city in Berrien County, United States. The population was 1,090 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 746 people, 296 households, 203 families residing in the city; the population density was 936.3 people per square mile. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 428.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.41% White, 20.78% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.94% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.61% of the population. There were 296 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder, 31.1% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the city, the population was spread out with 30.4% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 15.3% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,769, the median income for a family was $32,614. Males had a median income of $26,354 versus $17,054 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,788. About 25.1% of families and 30.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 31.6% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder
Lowndes County, Georgia
Lowndes County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 Census the population was 109,233; the county seat is Valdosta. The county was created December 23, 1825. Lowndes County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located along the Florida border. The county is a major commercial and manufacturing center of south Georgia with considerable forest products including pulpwood and naval stores, such as turpentine and rosin. Part of Grand Bay, a 13,000-acre swamp, is located in Lowndes County; the land that became Lowndes County had been inhabited by the Timucua. During most the age of European colonization, the area of modern Lowndes County was part of the colony of Spanish Florida. From 1625 to 1657, the Spanish Empire maintained a Catholic mission to the Timucua, dubbed Mission Santa Cruz de Cachipile, in the southern portion of Lowndes County near present-day Lake Park. In the centuries that followed, Timucua civilization collapsed due to slave disease; the Creek Nation peoples moved into the area and, by the early 19th century, they were well established here.
On December 15, 1818, European Americans organized what they called Irwin County, settled by pushing out the Creek people. In the 1830s Georgia and the federal government completed Indian Removal of most of the Native Americans from what became the state. Lowndes County was established by an act passed by the Georgia legislature on December 23, 1825, it was formed out of the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 15th, 16th land districts of Irwin County, Georgia. The county was named for a prominent South Carolina lawyer and Congressman, his father Rawlins Lowndes had been a Revolutionary War leader and was elected as South Carolina Governor. The Coffee Road was an improved trail first cut by Georgia militia to supply federal troops in Florida during the Creek Wars, it opened up the area to white settlers. During the first few years after Lowndes County was organized, its courts met at the tavern owned by Sion Hall on the Coffee Road, near what is now Morven, Georgia in Brooks County, on the west side of the Little River.
The first county seat was established at Franklinville by the Georgia General Assembly on December 16, 1828. Franklinville was located about 5.6 miles to the east of Hahira in the eastern half of land lot 50 in the 11th land district. At the time of the 1830 federal census, Lowndes County had 1,072 white males, 1,044 white females, 156 male slaves, 179 female slaves, 4 free people of color, for a total population of 2,455; the introduction of steam-powered ships on the Withlacoochee and Little rivers led to a shift in the population toward the rivers. In December 1833 the state legislature passed a law establishing a new county seat at a place to be called Lowndesville; the law called for a courthouse, a jail, a town to be laid out within land lot 109 in the 12th land district. This land lot is near the present Timber Ridge Road in Lowndes County, it is uncertain why the plans for Lowndesville were abandoned, but in December 1834, the state legislature authorized commissioners to select a suitable site for a courthouse so that the county seat could be moved away from Franklinville.
In October 1836, another group of commissioners was advertising for contracting proposals for the construction of a brick courthouse at Troupville. By Summer 1837, Troupville and Franklinville were both serving as courthouse sites; this continued until at least 1838. In December 1837 Troupville was incorporated. Rumors of the coming of the Brunswick and Chattahoochee Railroad, the opening up of Florida, the prosperity of the surrounding farmland led to the growth of Troupville and Lowndes County in general. In 1845, the remaining county-owned land at Franklinville was sold at the courthouse in Troupville; the closest battle to Troupville between Native Americans and whites was at Brushy Creek on November 10, 1836 in modern Berrien County. Creek Nation people were passing through Lowndes County to join the Seminole in Florida. General Winfield Scott, commander of United States field forces in the area, intended to stop the Creek movement and did. No Native Americans were left in South Georgia. In February 1850 Lowndes County lost land to the formation of Clinch County.
At that time the eastern border of Lowndes County was defined as the Alapaha River. By the time of the 1850 census, Lowndes County had a free white population of 5,339, a free colored population of 20, a slave population of 2,355. Lowndes County lost additional territory with the establishment of Berrien and Colquitt counties on February 25, 1856. Many residents of Lowndes County were unhappy when the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad announced June 17, 1858 that they had selected a planned route that would bypass Troupville. On June 22 at 3:00 AM, the Lowndes County courthouse at Troupville was set aflame by William B. Crawford, who fled to South Carolina after being released on bond. On August 9, a meeting convened in the academy building in Troupville at which it was decided to create from the area of Lowndes County to the west of the Withlacoochee River a new county to be called Brooks County. Brooks was established on December 11. On December 13, 1858 the Georgia General Assembly passed a bill establishing Georgia.
In December 1859, the Lowndes County board of commissioners were instructed by an act of the Georgia legislature to purchase land for a new county seat. As part of the