The Clay Trails are a series of bicycle trails located in mid Cornwall, United Kingdom. The trails pass through the St Austell moorland which for over two centuries has been extensively quarried for china clay, hence the name; the trails are separated into several routes. This trail connects the Eden project 50.361°N 4.745°W / 50.361. This incorporates a short section of trail called the sky spur trail; the trail has views of several disused china clay pits with turquoise water. A feature of the trail is the white pyramid, although it's now green, a disused china clay tip in which the waste sand has been tipped to form a conical hill; the trail drops into the Trenance valley where it crosses its award-winning William Cookworthy bridge. Here it is joined by the St Austell trail. A further kilometre through this historic valley is the Wheal Martyn China clay museum; this connects the town of St Austell 50.338°N 4.793°W / 50.338. At the beginning of the trail, views of the curved viaduct carrying the Cornish main line railway can be seen.
A kilometre from the entrance to the trail is the disused Carlyon Farm china clay dries which are the largest of their type in Europe. This connects the village of Bugle 50.395°N 4.793°W / 50.395. This connects the Eden Project to Par beach via St Blazey 50.362°N 4.717°W / 50.362. Sustrans a charity promoting sustainable transport in the UK, which part-funded the Clay Trails. National Cycle Network Clay trails website Sustrans website
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.
Great Western main line
The Great Western main line is a main line railway in England, that runs westwards from London Paddington to Bristol Temple Meads. Opened in 1841, it was the original route of the pre-1948 Great Western Railway, merged into the Western Region of British Railways and is now a part of the national rail system managed by Network Rail; the line is being electrified. It was electrified from Paddington to Heathrow Airport in the late 1990s. Work to electrify the remainder of the route started in 2011 with an initial aim to complete the work all the way to Bristol by 2016; the programme however has been deferred with no end completion forecast. The four sections deferred are: Didcot Parkway to Oxford, Bristol Parkway to Bristol Temple Meads, Royal Wootton Bassett Junction to Bristol Temple Meads and the Thames Valley branches to Henley and Windsor; the line was built by the Great Western Railway and engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel as a dual track line using a wider 7 ft broad gauge and was opened in stages between 1838 and 1841.
The final section, between Chippenham and Bath, was opened on completion of the Box Tunnel in June 1841. The alignment was so level and straight it was nicknamed "Brunel's billiard table", it was supplemented with a third rail for dual gauge operation, allowing standard gauge 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in trains to operate on the route, in stages between 1854 and 1875. Dual gauge was introduced as follows: London to Reading, Reading to Didcot, Didcot to Swindon, Swindon to Thingley Junction, Thingley Junction to Bathampton, Bathampton to Bristol, Bristol station area; the broad gauge remained in use until 1892. Evidence of the original broad gauge can still be seen at many places where bridges are a bit wider than usual, or where tracks are ten feet apart instead of the usual six; the original dual tracks were widened to four in places in the east half, between 1877 and 1899: Paddington to Southall, Southall to West Drayton, West Drayton to Slough, Slough to east side of Maidenhead Bridge, Maidenhead Bridge to Reading, Reading station, Reading to Pangbourne, Pangbourne to Cholsey and Moulsford and Moulsford to Didcot.
Following the Slough rail accident in 1900 when five passengers were killed, improved vacuum braking systems were used on locomotives and passenger rolling stock and Automatic Train Control was introduced in 1908. Further widenings of the line took place between 1903 and 1910 and more widening work took place between 1931 and 1932. At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Great Western Railway was taken into government control, as were most major railways in Britain and were reorganised after the war into the "big four" companies, of which the Great Western Railway was one; the railways returned to direct government control during World War II before being nationalised to form British Railways in 1948. The line speed was upgraded in the 1970s to support the introduction of the InterCity 125. In 1977 the Parliamentary Select Committee on Nationalised Industries recommended considering electrification of more of Britain's rail network, by 1979 BR presented a range of options that included electrifying the line from Paddington to Swansea by 2000.
Under the 1979–90 Conservative governments that succeeded the 1976–79 Labour government, the proposal was not implemented. In August 2008 it was announced that a number of speed limits on the relief lines between Reading and London had been raised, so that 86% of the line could be used at 90 miles per hour; the route of the GWML includes dozens of listed buildings and structures, including tunnel portals and viaducts, associated hotels. Part of the route passes through and contributes to the Georgian Architecture of the City of Bath World Heritage Site. Grade I listed structures on the line include London Paddington, Wharncliffe Viaduct, the 1839 Tudor gothic River Avon Bridge in Bristol, Bristol Temple Meads station; the communities served by the Great Western main line include: West London. From London to Didcot, the line follows the Thames Valley, crossing the River Thames three times, including on the famous Maidenhead Railway Bridge. After Swindon, trains pass the Swindon Steam Railway Museum.
From Wootton Bassett there are two different routes to Bristol, firstly via Box Tunnel and secondly via Bristol Parkway. It is possible to run via the Wessex Main Line, but this involves a reversal at Bradford Junction, so is only suitable for multiple unit trains or via Reading to Bath via Newbury. Trains on the Great Western main line are sometimes diverted from Reading along the Reading to Taunton line, as far as Westbury, from where they can use the Wessex Main Line to reach either Chippenham, or Bath Spa. Beyond Bristol, some trains continue on the Bristol to Taunton Line to Weston-super-Mare or beyond; the following routes are managed by Network Rail as part of the Great Western main line: Didcot to Oxford and Worcester via the Cherwell Valley Line and Cotswold Line, Swindon to Cheltenham Spa via the Golden Valley Line, Swindon to Cardiff Central and Swansea via the South Wales Main Line, Cross Count
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists. This includes the same network of roads and streets used by motorists, except those roads from which cyclists have been banned, plus additional bikeways that are not available to motor vehicles, such as bike paths, bike lanes, cycle tracks and, where permitted, plus amenities like bike racks for parking and specialized traffic signs and signals. Cycling modal share is associated with the size of local cycling infrastructure; the manner in which the public road network is designed and managed can have a significant effect on the utility and safety of cycling. The cycling network may be able to provide the users with direct, convenient routes minimizing unnecessary delay and effort in reaching their destinations. Settlements with a dense road network of interconnected streets tend to be viable utility cycling environments; the history of cycling infrastructure starts from shortly after the bike boom of the 1880s when the first short stretches of dedicated bicycle infrastructure were built, through to the rise of the automobile from the mid-20th century onwards and the concomitant decline of cycling as a means of transport, to cycling's comeback from the 1970s onwards.
A bikeway is a lane, way or path which in some manner is designed and /or designated for bicycle travel. Bike lanes demarcated by a painted marking are quite common in many cities. Cycle tracks demarcated by barriers, bollards or boulevards are quite common in some European countries such as the Netherlands and Germany, they are increasingly common in other major cities such as New York City, Ottawa and San Francisco. Montreal and Davis, which have had segregated cycling facilities with barriers for several decades, are among the earliest examples in North American cities. Various guides exist to define the different types of bikeway infrastructure, including UK Department for Transport manual The Geometric Design of Pedestrian and Equestrian Routes, Sustrans Design Manual, UK Department of Transport Local Transport Note 2/08: Cycle infrastructure design the Danish Road Authority guide Registration and classification of paths, the Dutch CROW, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Guide to Bikeway Facilities, the Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, the US National Association of City Transportation Officials Urban Bikeway Design Guide.
In the Netherlands, most one way cycle paths are at least 2.5 metres wide. The Netherlands has protected intersection to cyclists crossing roads; some bikeways are separated from motor traffic by physical constraints —bicycle trail, cycle track—but others are separated only by painted markings—bike lane, buffered bike lane, contraflow bike lane. Some share the roadway with motor vehicles—bicycle boulevard, advisory bike lane—or shared with pedestrians—greenway, shared use path; the term bikeway is used in North America to describe all routes that have been designed or updated to encourage more cycling or make cycling safer. In some jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom, segregated cycling facility is sometimes preferred to describe cycling infrastructure which has varying degrees of separation from motorized traffic, or which has excluded pedestrian traffic in the case of exclusive bike paths. There is no single usage of segregation. Thus, it includes bike lanes with solid painted lines but not lanes with dotted lines and advisory bike lanes where motor vehicles are allowed to encroach on the lane.
It includes cycle tracks as physically distinct from the sidewalk. And it includes bike paths in their own right of way exclusive to cycling. Paths which are shared with pedestrians and other non-motorized traffic are not considered segregated and are called shared use path, multi-use path in North America and shared-use footway in the UK. There have been a lot of studies on the safety of all types of bikeways. Proponents say that segregation of cyclists from fast or frequent motorized traffic is necessary to provide a safe and welcoming cycling environment. Opponents point out the increased risk from various types of infrastructure including shared use paths. Different countries have different ways to define and enforce bikeways; some detractors argue that one must be careful in interpreting the operation of dedicated or segregated bikeways/cycle facilities across different designs and contexts. Proponents point out that cycling infrastructure including dedicated bike lanes has been implemented in many cities.
Jurisdictions have guidelines around the selection of the right bikeway treatments in order make routes more comfortable and safer for cycling. Bikeways can fall into these main categories: separated in-roadway bikeways such as bike lanes and buffered bike lanes; the exact categorization changes depending on the jurisdiction and organization, while many just list the types by their used names Bike lanes, or cycle lanes, are on-road lanes
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O54. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet of silica linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina octahedra. Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as china clay; the name "kaolin" is derived from "Gaoling", a Chinese village near Jingdezhen in southeastern China's Jiangxi Province. The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of the word: kaolin, following François Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports on the making of Jingdezhen porcelain. Kaolinite has a low shrink -- a low cation-exchange capacity, it is a soft, earthy white, produced by the chemical weathering of aluminium silicate minerals like feldspar. In many parts of the world it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide, giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield yellow, or light orange colors. Alternating layers are sometimes found, as at Providence Canyon State Park in Georgia, United States.
Commercial grades of kaolin are supplied and transported as dry powder, semi-dry noodle or as liquid slurry. The chemical formula for kaolinite as used in mineralogy is Al2Si2O54, however, in ceramics applications the formula is written in terms of oxides, thus the formula for kaolinite is Al2O3 · 2SiO2 · 2H2O. Kaolinite group clays undergo a series of phase transformations upon thermal treatment in air at atmospheric pressure. Below 100 °C, exposure to dry air will remove liquid water from the kaolin; the end-state for this transformation is referred to as "leather dry". Between 100 °C and about 550 °C, any remaining liquid water is expelled from kaolinite; the end state for this transformation is referred to as "bone dry". Throughout this temperature range, the expulsion of water is reversible: if the kaolin is exposed to liquid water, it will be reabsorbed and disintegrate into its fine particulate form. Subsequent transformations are not reversible, represent permanent chemical changes. Endothermic dehydration of kaolinite begins at 550–600 °C producing disordered metakaolin, but continuous hydroxyl loss is observed up to 900 °C.
Although there was much disagreement concerning the nature of the metakaolin phase, extensive research has led to a general consensus that metakaolin is not a simple mixture of amorphous silica and alumina, but rather a complex amorphous structure that retains some longer-range order due to stacking of its hexagonal layers. Al 2 Si 2 O 5 4 ⟶ Al 2 Si 2 O 7 + 2 H 2 O Further heating to 925–950 °C converts metakaolin to an aluminium-silicon spinel, sometimes referred to as a gamma-alumina type structure: 2 Al 2 Si 2 O 7 ⟶ Si 3 Al 4 O 12 + SiO 2 Upon calcination above 1050 °C, the spinel phase nucleates and transforms to platelet mullite and crystalline cristobalite: 3 Si 3 Al 4 O 12 ⟶ 2 + 5 SiO 2 Finally, at 1400 °C the "needle" form of mullite appears, offering substantial increases in structural strength and heat resistance; this is a structural but not chemical transformation. See stoneware for more information on this form. Kaolinite is one of the most common minerals. Mantles of kaolinitic saprolite are common in Northern Europe.
The ages of these mantles are Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic. Kaolinite clay occurs in abundance in soils that have formed from the chemical weathering of rocks in hot, moist climates—for example in tropical rainforest areas. Comparing soils along a gradient towards progressively cooler or drier climates, the proportion of kaolinite decreases, while the proportion of other clay minerals such as illite or smectite increases; such climatically-related differences in clay mineral content are used to infer changes in climates in the geological past, where ancient soils have been buried and preserved. In the Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique au Congo Belge classification system, soils in which the clay fraction is predominantly kaolinite are called kaolisol. In the US, the main kaolin deposits are found in central Georgia, on a stretch of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line between Augusta and Macon; this area of thirteen counties is called the "white gold" belt. I
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
St Austell is a town in Cornwall, England, 10 miles south of Bodmin and 30 miles west of the border with Devon. St Austell is one of the largest towns in Cornwall. Named after Saint Austol, one of the earliest references to the village of St Austell is in John Leland's Itinerary, where he says "At S. Austelles is nothing notable but the paroch chirch". Not long after William Cookworthy discovered china clay at Tregonning Hill in west Cornwall, the same mineral was found in greater quantity in Hensbarrow downs north of St Austell. Clay mining soon took over from tin and copper mining as the principal industry in the area, this contributed enormously to the growth of the town; the clay industry only came into its own during the mid 19th to early 20th century, at a time when the falling prices of tin and other metals forced many mines to close down or convert to clay mining. The success and high profitability of the industry attracted many families whose breadwinner had been put out of work by the depression in the local metal mining industry, increased the population of the town considerably.
This meant that more businesses took root, providing more jobs and improving trade. This, along with other factors, led to St Austell becoming one of the ten most important commercial centres of Cornwall. Work began in 1963 on a brutalist-style pedestrian precinct which included shops and flats; the design was by Alister MacDonald & Partners and the materials reinforced concrete with some stone facing. In the 2000s this area of the town had become outdated, underwent a £75 million redevelopment process. In August 2007, developers David McLean and demolition team Gilpin moved onto the town centre site to complete the preparation, with the Filmcentre, an Odeon cinema dating back to 1936, being demolished in late September/early October. In October 2007, the South West of England Regional Development Agency announced the new development would be named White River Place, it was announced that 50% of shop units had been leased to High Street stores, with New Look, Bonmarché and Wilko opening new stores.
This would mean New Look relocating from its current premises in Fore Street and the return of Peacocks to St Austell following the demolition of its old store to make way for the new development. Bonmarche has since closed. In October 2008, it was announced that the developer David McLean Developments had gone into administration and concern was expressed that this could jeopardise the completion of the project. In December 2008, the new White River Cinema opened its doors for the first time: the cinema is technically advanced and the first purpose-built cinema in Cornwall for over 60 years; the Torchlight Carnival was revived in November 2009 as a direct result of public demand through a survey conducted with local residents. The Torchlight Procession has become an important event in the town's calendar, heralding in the Winter celebrations and drawing thousands of people from across Cornwall and Devon; the event is run by a small group of non affiliated volunteers. The St Austell and Clay Country Eco-town is a plan for several new settlements around St Austell on old Imerys sites.
It was given outline government approval in July 2009. In July 2011, the Cornwall Council strategic planning committee voted to approve a £250 million beach resort scheme at Carlyon Bay, St Austell; the development was proposed in 2003. The arms of St Austell are Arg. A saltire raguly Gu. St Austell is in the parliamentary constituency of St Austell and Newquay, created in 2010 by the Boundary Commission for England. Before 2010 it was in the St Austell seat; the main local authority is Cornwall Council, the unitary authority created as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. The six former Districts and the former Cornwall County Council were abolished and replaced by Cornwall Council on 1 April 2009. On 1 April 2009, four new parishes were created for the St Austell area, they are: St Austell Town Council covering Bethel, Mount Charles and Holmbush. Carlyon Parish Council covering Carlyon Bay and Tregrehan. St Austell Bay Parish Council covering Charlestown, Duporth and Trenarren.
Pentewan Valley Parish Council covering Tregorrick, London Apprentice and Pentewan. Before this date the area had been an unparished area. St Austell is the main centre of the china clay industry in Cornwall and employs around 2,200 people as of 2006, with sales of £195 million; the St Austell Brewery, which celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2001, supplies cask ale to pubs in Cornwall and other parts of the country. Its flagship beer is St Austell Tribute. St Austell Brewery's first public house, The Seven Stars Inn, purchased in 1863, still stands today on East Hill in the town. Tregonissey House, the site of the company's first steam Brewery, built in 1870, can be seen in Market Hill. A brewery museum and visitor centre is open to the public on the present brewery site in Trevarthian Road; as in much of Cornwall and neighbouring counties, tourism is important to St Austell's economy. Tourists are drawn to the area by nearby beaches and attractions such as the Eden Project, sited in a former clay pit, the Lost Gardens of Heligan.
The China Clay Country Park, in a former china-clay pit two miles north of the town, tells the story of the men and children w