In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Glenside station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station along the SEPTA Main Line, located at the intersection of Easton Road and Glenside Avenue in Glenside, Pennsylvania. It is served by the Warminster Line and the Lansdale/Doylestown Line, both of which split at Carmel Junction west of Glenside station; the station has a ticket office. The first train from the station departs at 4:29 A. M, while the last train arrives at the station at 1:03 A. M; the station is busy with a train arriving at least every 30 minutes at non-peak hours. Glenside is well-served by the Airport Line, as the majority of Warminster Line trains run through to and from Philadelphia International Airport. A few Airport Line trains originate or terminate at Glenside using the siding at the west end of the inbound platform. In FY 2013, the station had 1197 average weekday alightings. There is a ticket office and waiting room at Glenside, open on weekdays and sells tickets until early afternoon. An espresso bar named Elcy's Cafe has been operating in the station since 2001.
Glenside has two low-level side platforms. Media related to Glenside at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA – Glenside Station Glenside RDG Station Easton Road entrance from Google Maps Street View
Warminster station (SEPTA)
Warminster station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Warminster, Pennsylvania. It serves as the north end of the Warminster Line, the station is served by the Fall Foliage trains of the New Hope & Ivyland Railroad, which offers diesel powered excursions between Warminster and New Hope; the station was a replacement for the former Bonair Reading Railroad Station. Original electrification from Hatboro was extended to Warminster in 1974; this station is wheelchair ADA accessible. Warminster station consists of a side platform along the tracks, wheelchair accessible; the station has a ticket office and waiting room, open on weekday mornings. There are four bike racks available. Warminster station has a daily parking lot with 562 spaces that charges $1 a day and a permit parking lot with 238 spaces that charges $25 a month. Train service at Warminster station is provided along the Warminster Line of SEPTA Regional Rail, which begins at the station and runs south to Center City Philadelphia. Warminster station is located in fare zone 3.
Service is provided daily from early morning to late evening. Most Warminster Line trains continue through the Center City Commuter Connection tunnel and become Airport Line trains, providing service to the Philadelphia International Airport. In FY 2013, Warminster station had a weekday average of 666 alightings. Media related to Warminster at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA - Warminster Station Station from Google Maps Street View
U.S. Route 1 in Pennsylvania
U. S. Route 1 is a major north–south U. S. Highway, extending from the Florida Keys in the south to the Canadian border in the north. In the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, US 1 runs for 81 miles from the Maryland state line near Oxford to the New Jersey state line near Trenton, through the southeastern portion of the state. The route runs southwest to northeast, serves as a major arterial road for many of the suburbs in the Delaware Valley area. South of Philadelphia, the road follows the alignment of the old Baltimore Pike. Within Philadelphia, it follows Roosevelt Boulevard. US 1 enters Pennsylvania from Maryland in West Nottingham Township, Chester County, heading northeast as a two-lane undivided road that soon widens into a four-lane divided highway; the road curves north and runs through fields and woods with some development, becoming a four-lane freeway, called the John H. Ware III Memorial Highway; the route runs through rural land with some nearby homes and commercial development, coming to an interchange with PA 272 west of the community of Nottingham.
From here, US 1 curves to the northeast and continues into East Nottingham Township, passing through a mix of farmland and woodland with some residences. The freeway skirts into the western portion of the borough of Oxford and reaches a diamond interchange with PA 472 that serves the borough; the route runs through more rural areas with some nearby development and enters Lower Oxford Township, where it bends to the east-northeast and comes to an interchange with PA 10 that provides access to Oxford. US 1 continues through farm fields and woods and crosses into Upper Oxford Township, where it comes to the PA 896 exit; the freeway crosses the East Branch Big Elk Creek into Penn Township and heads east to a diamond interchange at PA 796 north of the community of Jennersville. The route passes through a mix of fields and residential development ad it continues east into London Grove Township and comes to the PA 841 interchange north of the borough of West Grove. US 1 curves northeast and reaches a diamond interchange serving PA 41 northwest of the borough of Avondale.
The freeway continues through rural land with some development and bends to the east, heading into New Garden Township and coming to an interchange at Newark Road north of the community of Toughkenamon. The route heads through wooded areas with some nearby residential development and skirts into the southern portion of East Marlborough Township, where it has an interchange with PA 82 north of the borough of Kennett Square. From here, US 1 continues east and enters Kennett Township, where it passes near more development and comes to the northern terminus of the freeway at a southbound exit and northbound entrance with Baltimore Pike. At this point, US 1 continues northeast along four-lane divided East Baltimore Pike into East Marlborough Township and passes businesses, widening to six lanes; the road narrows to four lanes and passes near homes and businesses before coming to an interchange that provides access to Longwood Gardens to the north of the road, at which point it crosses back into Kennett Township.
A short distance US 1 comes to an intersection with PA 52, at which point that route heads onto East Baltimore Pike concurrent with US 1. The road heads into wooded areas with some homes and businesses, at which point PA 52 splits to the southeast towards Wilmington, Delaware; the route turns to the northeast and crosses into Pennsbury Township, where the official name becomes Baltimore Pike. The road curves to the east again and passes through more woodland with some residential and commercial development, crossing an East Penn Railroad line before heading across the Brandywine Creek. Upon crossing the Brandywine Creek, US 1 continues into Chadds Ford Township in Delaware County and passes to the north of the Brandywine River Museum; the route intersects Creek Road in a commercial area. The road continues through wooded areas with some development, passing to the south of the Brandywine Battlefield; the route curves northeast and heads into areas of businesses, intersecting US 202/US 322 in Painters Crossing.
Here, US 322 turns east to join US 1 in a concurrency along Baltimore Pike, running past more commercial establishments in Concord Township. In Concordville, US 322 splits to the southeast and US 1 continues along Baltimore Pike, heading into more wooded areas with occasional businesses; the route curves to the east and enters the borough of Chester Heights, passing businesses before heading into forested areas, where it passes the corporate headquarters of Wawa Inc. The road crosses the Chester Creek into Middletown Township; the route passes under SEPTA's West Chester Branch northwest of the site of Wawa station, which will serve as the future terminius of SEPTA's Media/Elwyn Line. US 1 continues into commercial areas, coming to an intersection with PA 452 in the community of Lima. Following this, the route continues east and passes between the Promenade at Granite Run shopping center to the north and Riddle Memorial Hospital to the south, coming to an interchange with PA 352. A short distance US 1 splits from Baltimore Pike at an interchange by heading northeast onto the Media Bypass, a four-lane freeway which bypasses the borough of Media to the north.
The Baltimore Pike interchange is a northbound exit and southbound entrance that features a U-turn ramp from northbound US 1 to southbound US 1. US 1 runs through wooded areas with some nearby homes and crosses Ridley Creek into Upper Providence Township; the freeway continues northeast before it curves to the east and comes to a diamond interchange at PA 252 in the community of Rose Tree. The route runs through more wooded areas with some ho
Temple University station
Temple University station is an above-ground SEPTA Regional Rail station located at the eastern edge of the Temple University campus at 915 West Berks Street between 9th and 10th Streets, in the Cecil B. Moore section of Lower North Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the station is in the Center City fare zone, although the station itself is located in North Philadelphia. There is a small ticket kiosk located at the base of the stairs on the street level. Temple University maintains a security kiosk at street level. Stairways and two elevators lead up to the high-level platforms at track level. There are two island platforms serving four tracks; each platform is 380 feet long, long enough to platform four cars with only the end doors being used. The platforms have a canopy overhead and some wind-breaking walls, but are otherwise exposed to the weather; this station is located 2.6 track miles from Suburban Station. In FY 2005, Temple University station was the fourth busiest station in SEPTA's Regional Rail system, with 2,448 average total weekday boardings and 2,593 average weekday alightings.
The station has two large bicycle racks that both have roofs above them to protect bikes against the weather. The station can accommodate 30+ bicycles; the racks are in full view of the 24-hour security guard. Built in 1911, the old Temple U station achieved infamy in November 1984 when SEPTA was forced to shut down the Reading side of the railroad above North Broad Street Station. A few days after the Center City Commuter Connection and Market East Station opened, some of the girders supporting the tracks in the platform area on the bridge over the avenue were discovered to be in imminent danger of collapse; the emergency repairs, completed early in 1985, included demolishing the station and replacing it with temporary wooden low-level platforms and steel stairs which served until the new station opened. This event helped draw attention to the deterioration of North American railroad and transit infrastructure; the station was opened in 1992 and was built for $37 million as part of SEPTA's RailWorks project to rebuild the Reading Railroad viaduct in North Philadelphia.
The station sits on the Reading side of the system and all trains stop here. The new station replaced the older Temple U station, named Columbia Avenue; the old station, located at 39.977465°N 75.149835°W / 39.977465. Media related to Temple University at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA - Temple University Station Berks Street entrance from Google Maps Street View Norris Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Amtrak's 25 Hz traction power system
Amtrak's 25 Hz traction power system is a traction power grid operated by Amtrak along the southern portion of its Northeast Corridor: the 225 route miles between Washington, D. C. and New York City and the 104 route miles between Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Railroad constructed it between 1915 and 1938. Amtrak inherited the system from Penn Central, the successor to Pennsylvania Railroad, in 1976 along with the Northeast Corridor; this is the reason for using 25 Hz, as opposed to 60 Hz –, the standard for power transmission in North America. In addition to serving the NEC, the system provides power to New Jersey Transit Rail Operations, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority and the Maryland Area Regional Commuter Train. Only about half of the system's electrical capacity is used by Amtrak; the remainder is sold to the commuter railroads. The Pennsylvania Railroad began experimenting with electric traction in 1910, coincident with their completion of the trans-Hudson tunnels and New York Penn Station.
These initial systems were low-voltage direct current third rail systems. While they performed adequately for tunnel service, the PRR determined them to be inadequate for long distance, high-speed electrification. Other railroads had by this time experimented with low frequency alternating current systems; these low-frequency systems had the AC advantage of higher transmission voltages, reducing resistive losses over long distances, as well as the DC advantage of easy motor control as universal motors could be employed with transformer tap changer control gear. Pantograph contact with trolley wire is more tolerant of high speeds and variations in track geometry; the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad had electrified a portion of its Main Line in 1908 at 11 kV AC 25 Hz and this served as a template for the PRR, which installed its own trial main line electrification between Philadelphia and Paoli, Pennsylvania in 1915. Power was transmitted along the tops of the catenary supports using four single phase, 2 wire 44 kV distribution circuits.
Tests on the line using experimental electric locomotives such as the PRR FF1 revealed that the 44 kV distribution lines would be insufficient for heavier loads over longer distances. In the 1920s the PRR decided to electrify major portions of its eastern rail network, because a commercial electric grid did not exist at the time, the railroad constructed its own distribution system to transmit power from generating sites to trains hundreds of miles distant. To accomplish this the PRR implemented a pioneering system of single-phase high voltage transmission lines at 132 kV, stepped down to the 11 kV at spaced substations along the tracks; the first line to be electrified using this new system was between Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware in the late 1920s. By 1930, catenary extended from Philadelphia to Trenton, New Jersey, by 1933 to New York City, by 1935 south to Washington, D. C. In 1939 the main line from Paoli west to Harrisburg was completed along with several freight-only lines. Included were the Trenton Cutoff and the Port Road Branch.
Superimposed on these electrified lines was an independent power grid delivering 25 Hz current from the point of generation to electric locomotives anywhere on nearly 500 route miles of track, all under the control of electric power dispatchers in Harrisburg, Baltimore and New York City. Northeast railroads atrophied in the years following World War II; the infrastructure of the northeast corridor remained unchanged through the series of mergers and bankruptcies which ended in Amtrak's creation and acquisition of the former PRR lines which came to be known as the Northeast Corridor. The circa 1976 Northeast Corridor Improvement Project had planned to convert the PRR's system to the utility grid standard of 60 Hz; this plan was shelved as economically unfeasible and the electrical traction infrastructure was left unchanged with the exception of a general traction power voltage increase to 12 kV and a corresponding transmission voltage increase to 138 kV. During the 1970s, several of the original converter or power stations which supplied power to the system were shut down.
The end of electrified through-freight service on the Main Line to Paoli allowed the original 1915 substations and their 44 kV distribution lines to be decommissioned with that 20-mile section of track being fed from 1930s-era substations on either end. In the decade between 1992 and 2002, several static converter stations were commissioned to replace stations that had or were being shut down. Jericho Park and Sunnyside Yard converters were all installed during this period; this replaced much of the electrical frequency conversion equipment, but the lineside transmission and distribution equipment were unchanged. In 2003, Amtrak commenced a capital improvement plan that involved planned replacement of much of the lineside network including 138/12 kV transformers, circuit breakers, catenary wire. Statistically, this capital improvement has resulted in fewer delays, although dramatic system shutdowns have still occurred; the 25 Hz system was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad with a nominal voltage of 11.0 kV.
The nominal operating voltages were raised in 1948 and are now: Catenary Voltage: 12.0 kV Transmission Voltage: 138 kV Signal Power: 2.2 kV 91⅔ Hz – NY Penn Area. 60 Hz used 1910–1931. 100 Hz installed but changed to avoid interference caused by simultaneous AC and DC electrification. 3.3 kV 100 Hz – Paoli/Chestnut Hill. 60
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania
Montgomery County, locally referred to as Montco, is the third-most populous county in the U. S. state of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the 71st most populous in the United States. As of 2017, the census-estimated population of the county was 826,075, representing a 3.3% increase from the 799,884 residents enumerated in the 2010 census. Montgomery County is located adjacent to and northwest of Philadelphia; the county seat is Norristown. Montgomery County is geographically diverse, ranging from farms and open land in the extreme north of the county to densely populated suburban neighborhoods in the southern and central portions of the county. Montgomery County is included in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, known as the Delaware Valley; the county marks part of the Delaware Valley's northern border with the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. In 2010, Montgomery County was the 51st wealthiest county in the country by median household income. In 2008, the county was named the 9th Best Place to Raise a Family by Forbes.
The county was created on September 10, 1784, out of land part of Philadelphia County. The first courthouse was housed in the Barley Sheaf Inn, it is believed to have been named either for Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, or for the Welsh county of Montgomeryshire, as it was part of the Welsh Tract, an area of Pennsylvania settled by Quakers from Wales. Early histories of the county indicate the origin of the county's name as uncertain. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 487 square miles, of which 483 square miles is land and 4.2 square miles is covered by water. It is in hardiness zones 6b and 7a. Lehigh County Bucks County Philadelphia County Delaware County Chester County Berks County Valley Forge National Historical Park As of the 2010 census, the county was 79.0% White non-Hispanic, 8.7% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American or Alaskan Native, 6.4% Asian, 0.0% native Hawaiian.
About 4.3 % of the population were Latino. As of the census of 2000, 750,097 people, 286,098 households, 197,693 families resided in the county; the population density was 1,553 people per square mile. The 297,434 housing units averaged 238 units/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 86.46% White, 7.46% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. About 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 17.5% were of German, 16.7% Irish, 14.3% Italian, 6.5% English, 5.0% Polish ancestry according to 2000 United States Census. Around 90.5% spoke English, 2.0% Spanish, 1.1% Korean, 1.0% Italian as their first language. Much of western Montgomery County is part of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country, with a great many descendants of German-speaking settlers from the 18th century. Montgomery County is home to large and growing African American, Korean American, Puerto-Rican American, Mexican American, Indian American populations.
The county has the second-largest foreign-born population in the region, after Philadelphia County. Of the 286,098 households, 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were not families. About 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $60,829, for a family was $72,183. Males had a median income of $48,698 versus $35,089 for females; the per capita income for the county was $30,898.
About 2.80% of families and 4.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.60% of those under age 18 and 5.10% of those age 65 or over. The largest townships/boroughs in Montgomery County include:" As of January 2010, there are 577,378 registered voters in Montgomery County. Democratic: 262,204 Republican: 231,531 Other parties: 83,643 Historically, Montgomery County was a stronghold for the Republican Party; the county was the only one carried by Barbara Hafer in the 1990 gubernatorial election over the incumbent governor, Bob Casey. However, the Democratic Party has made substantial gains in the county over the last quarter-century and gained the registration edge early in 2008; as in most of Philadelphia's suburbs, the brand of Republicanism practiced in Montgomery County for much of the 20th century was a moderate one. As the national parties have polarized, the county's voters have supported Democrats at the national level. After voting for the Republican Presidential nominee in all but one election from 1952 to 1988--Lyndon Johnson's landslide in 1964--Montgomery County residents have voted for the Democr