The Media/Elwyn Line is a SEPTA Regional Rail line that runs from Center City Philadelphia west to Elwyn in Delaware County. The line known as the Media/West Chester Branch, offered service to West Chester. On September 19, 1986, service was truncated to the current terminus at Elwyn. SEPTA still calls the infrastructure along the line, but not the train service itself, the West Chester Branch; as of November 2016, most inbound Media-Elwyn line trains continue onto the West Trenton and Manayunk/Norristown lines. At the end of 2021, service is to expand westward to a new station in Wawa. Planning officials, rail proponents and SEPTA have discussed a resumption to the original terminus in West Chester without success. Since 1997, the heritage railway West Chester Railroad has operated on the tracks between Glen Mills and West Chester, where SEPTA no longer runs trains. Amtrak maintenance trains collect track ballast from a quarry near Glen Mills station. Media/Elwyn Line trains use the West Chester Line the Pennsylvania Railroad's West Chester Branch, which diverges from the SEPTA Main Line at 30th Street Station.
At Arsenal Interlocking, just south of University City, there is a junction with Amtrak's Northeast Corridor where Airport and Wilmington/Newark trains diverge. The West Chester branch turns west, curves around the Woodlands Cemetery, heads west towards Elwyn. From University City to Fernwood–Yeadon, the line is grade-separated; the line has four high steel trestle river valley crossings, built between 1891 and 1896 to replace earlier structures. From west to east, the first of these is over Ridley Creek between Elwyn and Media, is 641 feet long and 103 feet high; the second, over Crum Creek between Wallingford and Swarthmore, is the longest of the four, measured 915 feet long and 97 feet tall. The third, 274 feet long, crosses Darby Creek west of Gladstone; the last, 377 feet long, crosses Cobbs Creek between Fernwood-Yeadon and Angora at a height of 56 feet. The Crum Creek Viaduct, which required extensive rebuilding and complete repainting by SEPTA in 1983 after decades of deferred maintenance, will be replaced by September 2016.
The other three trestles, which received attention similar to Crum Creek in the 1980s, are undergoing a comprehensive structural and substructural renewal scheduled for completion in summer 2016. The line is double-tracked from Arsenal Interlocking to Elwyn and single-tracked beyond, with passing sidings at or near Glen Riddle, Glen Mills, Cheyney and West Chester; as of November 2016, all SEPTA trains terminate at Elwyn, although the single-track section near Lenni is used by SEPTA division to train new regional rail operators. The sidings once allowed multiple commuter trains to operate on the single-track section. Passing sidings were marked by the PRR's trademark bowtie catenary poles, while single-track areas used single-pole catenary supports. After regular service ended beyond Elwyn in 1986, vandals stole the copper catenary wire, prompting SEPTA to remove the rest in summer 2005. SEPTA has been aggressively replacing its legacy catenary systemwide; the line was built by the West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad, which opened the Philadelphia-to-Burmont section on November 15, 1853.
The WC&P extended service to Media on October 19, 1854, to West Chester on November 11, 1858. In the early 1880s, the Pennsylvania Railroad gained control of the line, which it renamed its West Chester Branch. One early station, located along a passing siding between the stations of Darlington and Wawa, was removed from service by 1911. Electrified service began December 2, 1928; the line passed to Penn Central in 1968, absorbed by Conrail in 1976. On October 16, 1979, at 8:19 a.m. an inbound train collided with two others plus cars from a fourth train between Angora and 49th Street stations. The accident injured 525 others. Earlier, Train #712, a nine-car train of former PRR MP54E6 cars, had left behind the rear two cars continued on to Suburban Station. Train #716, consisting of nine ex-Reading "Blueliner" heavyweight cars, was detailed to push the empty defective cars out of the way, slowed to a stop in order to couple with them. Train #0714, two Silverliner IVs stopped short of #716, in accordance with signal rules.
The next train, #1718, a four-car consist of three Silverliner IIs and one Silverliner III, neither stopped at the nearest signal nor slowed adequately at the previous signal, nor did the engineer apply the air brake once the rear of #0714 was seen around a curve. Traveling at an estimated 28 mph, #1718 rear-ended #0714, shoving it forward to collide in succession with all the other stopped equipment. Both cars of #0714 derailed, as did some of the other cars. A total of 525 passengers were injured, including a conductor who died a few days from his injuries. Many cars were damaged, including the lead car of #1718, written off and scrapped. In addition to speed and signal rules violations, other causative factors in the accident cited by the National Transportation Safety Board included: inoperative onboard radios in the Silverliners, no radios at all in the heavyweight MUs.
Gladstone station (SEPTA)
Gladstone station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Lansdowne, Pennsylvania. Located at Walsh and Madison Roads, it serves the Media/Elwyn Line. In 2013, it saw 275 alightings on an average weekday; the station includes a 108-space parking lot, additional parking can be found on the opposite side of the tracks off Scottdale Road, which itself runs along Darby Creek, both of which are under a train trestle west of the station. Prior to being named Gladstone, this station was known as Burmont, before that Kellyville. Gladstone has two low-level side platforms with a connecting pathway across the tracks. SEPTA – Gladstone Station Station from Google Maps Street View
The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Class I railroad, established in 1846 and was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was so named; the PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the U. S. for the first half of the 20th century. Over the years, it acquired, merged with or owned part of at least 800 other rail lines and companies. At the end of 1925, it operated 10,515 miles of rail line, its only formidable rival was the New York Central, which carried around three-quarters of PRR's ton-miles. By 1882 it had become the largest railroad, the largest transportation enterprise, the largest corporation in the world. With 30,000 miles of track, it had longer mileage than any other country in the world, except Britain and France, its budget was second only to the U. S. government. The corporation still holds the record for the longest continuous dividend history: it paid out annual dividends to shareholders for more than 100 consecutive years. In 1968, PRR merged with rival NYC to form the Penn Central Transportation Company, which filed for bankruptcy within two years.
The viable parts were transferred in 1976 to Conrail, itself broken up in 1999, with 58 percent of the system going to the Norfolk Southern Railway, including nearly all of the former PRR. Amtrak received the electrified segment of the Main Line east of Harrisburg. With the opening of the Erie Canal and the beginnings of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Philadelphia business interests became concerned that the port of Philadelphia would lose traffic; the state legislature was pressed to build a canal across Pennsylvania and thus the Main Line of Public Works was commissioned in 1826. It soon became evident that a single canal would not be practical and a series of railroads, inclined planes, canals was proposed; the route consisted of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, canals up the Susquehanna and Juniata rivers, an inclined plane railroad and tunnel across the Allegheny Mountains, canals down the Conemaugh and Allegheny rivers to Pittsburgh on the Ohio River. Because freight and passengers had to change cars several times along the route and canals froze in winter, it soon became apparent that the system was cumbersome and a better way was needed.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted a charter to the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1846 to build a private rail line that would connect Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. The Directors chose John Edgar Thomson, an engineer from the Georgia Railroad, to survey and construct the line, he chose a route that followed the west bank of the Susquehanna River northward to the confluence with the Juniata River, following its banks until the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains were reached at a point that would become Altoona, Pennsylvania. To traverse the mountains, the line climbed a moderate grade for 10 miles until it reached a split of two mountain ravines which were cleverly crossed by building a fill and having the tracks ascend a 220-degree curve known as Horseshoe Curve that limited the grade to less than 2 percent; the crest of the mountain was penetrated by the 3,612-foot Gallitzin Tunnels and descended by a more moderate grade to Johnstown. At the end of its first year of operation, it paid a dividend, continued the dividend without interruption until 1946.
The western end of the line was built from Pittsburgh east along the banks of the Allegheny and Conemaugh rivers to Johnstown. PRR was granted trackage rights over the Philadelphia and Columbia and gained control of the three short lines connecting Lancaster and Harrisburg, instituting an all-rail link between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh by 1854. In 1857, the PRR purchased the Main Line of Public Works from the state of Pennsylvania, abandoned most of its canals and inclined planes; the line was double track from its inception, by the end of the century a third and fourth track were added. Over the next 50 years, PRR expanded by gaining control of other railroads by stock purchases and 999-year leases. Thomson was the entrepreneur who led the PRR from 1852 until his death in 1874, making it the largest business enterprise in the world and a world-class model for technological and managerial innovation, he served as PRR's first Chief Engineer and third President. Thomson's sober, technical and non-ideological personality had an important influence on the Pennsylvania Railroad, which in the mid-19th century was on the technical cutting edge of rail development, while nonetheless reflecting Thomson's personality in its conservatism and its steady growth while avoiding financial risks.
His Pennsylvania Railroad was in his day the largest railroad in the world, with 6,000 miles of track, was famous for steady financial dividends, high quality construction improving equipment, technological advances, innovation in management techniques for a large complex organization. In 1861 the PRR gained control of the Northern Central Railway, giving it access to Baltimore, Maryland, as well as points along the Susquehanna River via connections at Columbia, Pennsylvania or Harrisburg. On December 1, 1871, the PRR leased the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company, which included the original Camden and Amboy Railroad from Camden, New Jersey to South Amboy, New Jersey, as well as a newer line from Philadelphia to Jersey City, New Je
A parking lot or car park known as a car lot, is a cleared area, intended for parking vehicles. The term refers to a dedicated area, provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums and similar venues feature parking lots of immense area. See multistorey car park. Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff. Many areas today require minimum landscaping in parking lots to provide shade and help mitigate the extent of which their paved surfaces contribute to heat islands. Many municipalities require a minimum number of parking spaces, depending on the floor area in a store or the number of bedrooms in an apartment complex. In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots.
Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot. Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, retrieve their vehicles, improve their experience. In North America, parking minimums are requirements, as dictated by a municipality's zoning ordinance, for all new developments to provide a set number off-street parking spots; these minimums look to cover the demand for parking generated by said development at the peak times. Thus different land uses, whether they be commercial, residential or industrial, have different requirements to meet when deriving the number of parking spots needed. U. S. urban planners use Parking Generation Rates, a guidebook of statistical data from the Institution of Transportation Engineers, to source parking minimums. In these reports, the ITE define a type of land use's Parking Generation through an observational study. Parking Generation is statistically found by land use's, average generation rate, the range of generation rates, the subsequent standard deviation, the total number of studies.
To determine the parking generation rate of a building the ITE divides the peak parking observed by the floor area per 1000 square feet. This process is done by various studies to find the range. In the case of ITE studies, the observation of a single site multiple times is considered a stand-alone study; the average of the range is used to determine the average parking generation rate of a land use. This handbook is updated every 5 years to determine the demand for parking for specific land uses. Parking Generation Rates provided by the ITE doesn’t explicitly state what parking minimums should be, but rather is just a collection of statistical data for urban planners to interpret and use for at their own volition. Regardless, ITE's Parking Generation has been an influential factor In most North American cities in the adoption parking ratios, according to land use, to determine the minimum spots required by new developments. Parking Generation, regardless of its widespread use in North American cities, is disputed as a tool to determine parking minimums due to its questionable statistical validity.
Statistical significance is a major qualm with Parking Generations due to the oversimplification of how the parking generation rate is derived. Peak parking observed by ITE doesn’t take into account the price of parking in relation to the number of parked cars, thus the demand at any given time for parking is always high because it is oversupplied and underpriced. Thus the calculation for the parking generation rate of a land use. Adoption of parking minimums by municipalities, base on ratios from Parking Generation had a substantial effect on urban form; this can be seen in the lack of density characterized by the suburbanization of North America post-World War II. The growth of the car industry and car culture, in general, has much to do with the mass movement of the middle-class away from urban centers and exterior of the city in single family detached homes; as populations grew and density dissipated automobiles became the main mode of transportation. Thus insuring that new developments insured off-street park became a necessity.
Parking minimums are set for parallel, pull-in, or diagonal parking, depending on what types of vehicles are allowed to park in the lot or a particular section of it. Parking minimums took hold in the middle of the last century, as a way to ensure that traffic to new developments wouldn't use up existing spaces. Big cars may not fit properly in assigned parking spaces, creating issues with entering or leaving the car or blocking adjacent parking spaces. In Europe, parking maximums are more common; as a condition of planning permission for a new development, the development must be designed so that a minimum percentage of visitors arrive by public transport. The number of parking places in the development is limited to a number less than the expected number of visitors; the effect of large scale parking in-city has long been contentious. Elimination of historic structures in favor of garages or lots led to historical preservation movements in many cities; the acreage devoted to parking is seen as disrupting a walkable urban fabric, maximizing convenience to each individual building, but eliminating foot traffic among them.
Large paved areas have been called "parking craters", "parking deserts", similar terms, emphasizing their "depopulated" nature and the barriers they can create to walking movement. Due to a recent trend towards more livable and walkable communities, parking minimums (policies requiring each building to have at least a minimum numbe
Elwyn station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Media, Pennsylvania. It is the southern terminus of the SEPTA Media/Elwyn Line. In 2013, this station saw 496 alightings on an average weekday. Service continued west to West Chester station, but was suspended on September 1986 due to poor track conditions. Plans by SEPTA to restore service as far west as Wawa station have yet to be fulfilled. In 2009, SEPTA added an additional 90 parking spaces to Elwyn station. Prior to being named Elwyn, the station was known as Greenwood. Elwyn has two low-level side platforms with a connecting pathway across the tracks. Elwyn Station Station from Google Maps Street View
SEPTA Regional Rail
The SEPTA Regional Rail system is a commuter rail network serving the Philadelphia Metropolitan area. The system has 13 branches and more than 150 active stations in Philadelphia, its suburbs and satellite towns and cities, it is the fifth-busiest commuter railroad in the United States, the busiest outside of the New York and Chicago metropolitan areas. In 2016, the Regional Rail system had an average of 132,000 daily riders; the core of the Regional Rail system is the Center City Commuter Connection, an underground tunnel linking three Center City stations: the above-ground upper level of 30th Street Station, the underground Suburban Station, Jefferson Station. All trains stop at these Center City stations. Operations are handled by the SEPTA Railroad Division. Of the 13 branches, seven were owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad, six by the Reading Company; the PRR lines terminated at Suburban Station. The Center City Commuter Connection opened in November 1984 to unite the two systems, turning the two terminal stations into through-stations.
Most inbound trains from one line continue on as outbound trains on another line. Service on most lines operates from 5:30 a.m. to midnight. Each PRR line was once paired with a Reading branch and numbered from R1 to R8, so that one route number described two lines, one on the PRR side and one on the Reading side; this was deemed more confusing than helpful, so on July 25, 2010, SEPTA dropped the R-number and color-coded route designators and changed dispatching patterns so fewer trains follow both sides of the same route. Former Pennsylvania Railroad linesAirport Line: terminates at the Philadelphia International Airport. Chestnut Hill West Line: terminates in the Chestnut Hill section of Philadelphia. Cynwyd Line: operates weekdays only; until 1986, trains continued on to Ivy Ridge station in northwestern Philadelphia. Media/Elwyn Line: terminates in Elwyn; until 1986, trains continued on to West Chester. SEPTA is in the process of restoring service to Wawa three miles west of Elwyn by 2020. Paoli/Thorndale Line: trains terminate at Malvern or Thorndale.
Until 1996, trains continued on to Parkesburg. In March 2019, SEPTA announced a plan to extend service to Coatesville three miles west of Thorndale, once a new train station is constructed. Trenton Line: terminates in Trenton, New Jersey; this line uses Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, offers a connection at Trenton to New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor Line for continued service to New York City. Wilmington/Newark Line: terminates in Wilmington, with some weekday trains continuing to Newark, Delaware; the Delaware Department of Transportation subsidizes Delaware service. This line runs on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor. Former Reading Company linesChestnut Hill East Line: terminates in the Chestnut Hill section of Philadelphia. Fox Chase Line: terminates in the Fox Chase section of Philadelphia; until 1983, connecting diesel trains continued to Newtown, Pennsylvania. Lansdale/Doylestown Line: terminates at Doylestown. On weekdays half of the local trains terminate at Lansdale while the remainder of the local trains, some expresses, continue on to Doylestown.
Manayunk/Norristown Line: terminates at Elm Street in Norristown. Warminster Line: terminates in Warminster. West Trenton Line: terminates at the West Trenton station in Ewing, New Jersey. There are 154 active stations on the Regional Rail system, including 51 in the city of Philadelphia, 42 in Montgomery County, 29 in Delaware County, 16 in Bucks County, 10 in Chester County, six outside the state of Pennsylvania. In 2003, passengers boarding in Philadelphia accounted for 61% of trips on a typical weekday, with 45% from the three Center City stations and Temple University station. SEPTA uses a mixed fleet of General Electric and Hyundai Rotem "Silverliner" electric multiple unit cars, used on all Regional Rail lines. SEPTA uses push-pull equipment: coaches built by Bombardier and Pullman Standard, hauled by ACS-64 electric locomotives similar to those used by Amtrak; the push-pull equipment is used for peak express service because it accelerates slower than EMU equipment, making it less suitable for local service with close station spacing and frequent stops and starts.
As of 2012, all cars have a blended red-and-blue SEPTA window logo and "ditch lights" that flash at grade crossings and when "deadheading" through stations, as required by Amtrak for operations on the Northeast and Keystone Corridors. SEPTA's railroad reporting mark SEPA is the official mark for their revenue equipment, though it is seen on external markings. SPAX can be seen on non-revenue work equipment, including boxcars, diesel locomotives, other rolling stock; the Silverliner coaches, built by Budd in Philadelphia and first used by the PRR in 1958 as the Pioneer III for a prototype intercity EMU alternative to the GG1-hauled trains, were purchased by SEPTA in 1963 as Silverliner II units. In 1967, the PRR took delivery of the St. Louis-built Silverliner III cars, which featured left-hand side controls and flush toilets, were used for Harrisb
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an