Aincille is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aintzildars; the town is part of Cize Country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre. It is located 5 km southeast of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune can be accessed by the D401 road from Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port in the northwest to the village. From the village the D118 road goes north to join the D18 highway. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the northeastern border of the commune is marked by the Laurhibar river, which flows north to join the Nive north of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port. A stream flows to the Laurhibar in the north-east; the Urtchipea rises in the south of the commune and flows northwest gathering many tributaries and joins the Nive de Beherobie at Saint-Michel. The Sassitako erreka rises southwest of the village and flows northwest joining the Laurhibar east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the commune name in basque is Ahintzila meaning Aintzila or Aintzil-Harrieta.
Jean-Baptiste Orpustan wrote the name of the commune in the form Aïncille. He indicated that in Basque the inhabitants are referred to as Aintzildar; the following table details the origins of the commune name. Sources: Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune of Aincille on the Ministry of Culture website Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Intendance: Intendance of Pau Part of Aincille territory next to the communes of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan, Bustince-Iriberry, Çaro, Mendive, Saint-Jean-le-Vieux, Saint-Michel, was taken on 11 June 1842 to form of the commune of Estérençuby. List of Successive Mayors of Aincille The commune belongs to six intercommunal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP association of Ainhice the energy association for Pyrenees-Atlantiques the intercommunal association for the development and management of the slaughterhouse at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the association to support Basque culture.
The town is part of the production area of Irouléguy AOC and the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is agricultural. Aincille had long received saline since the 17th century and had the distinction of being a corporation with ownership of twenty-nine old houses of the town and was reunited with the royal domain in 1683. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Aincille is Eastern Low Navarrese; the commune has several sites that are registered as historical monuments: Houses and Farms The Idiondoa Farmhouse The Ahadoberria Farmhouse The commune has several religious sites that are registered as historical monuments: The Croix de Carrefour Wayside Cross A Cemetery Cross The Parish Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint John the Baptist The church contains two items that are registered as historical objects: A Processional Cross A Statue: Virgin and child Church Picture Gallery Stained Glass Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINTZILLA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aincille on Lion1906 Aincille on the 1750 Cassini Map Aincille on the INSEE website INSEE
Came is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE AKAMARRE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Banca is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre. Banca is part of Pays Quint, an area of pasture area which belongs to Spain but is cultivated by French farmers; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Bankars. Banca is located in the Aldudes valley on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes some 15 km south-west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the western and eastern borders of the commune are the national frontier between Spain. Access to the commune is by the D948 road from Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry in the north which passes through the commune and the village and continues south-west to Aldudes. There are no crossing points in the commune to Spain; the commune is rugged alpine pastures. The Nive des Aldudes flows from Aldudes in the south-west, gathering tributaries such as the Antchignoko Erreka, the Ruisseau d'Hayra, the Latcharrako Erreka, the Belechiko Erreka on the northern border, continues north-east to join the Nive south of Saint-Martin-d'Arrossa.
The Ruisseau d'Hayra rises in the south of the commune and flows north gathering tributaries such as the Lehaltzarteko Erreka, the Caminarteko Erreka, the Legarzuko Erreka to join the Nive des Aldudes near the village. The commune name in Basque is Banka. For John-Baptiste Orpustan, the origin of the name Banca can have two interpretations: one lent from the Spanish banco designating the bench on which money was exchanged or two from bancs de pierre; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Banca owes its origin to the revival in the 18th century of the copper mines which had operated in ancient times. Banca was known as Le Fonderie until the 19th century" and, under the Ancien Régime, it was a hamlet or district under the parish of Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry.
It was not made a commune until 1793 under the same name in 1874 it was renamed "Banca". The remains of a large forge, a steel foundry started in 1828 on the site of the former copper smelter, stands at the entrance of the village on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes; the most visible element is a blast furnace in good condition. The first armed action by Iparretarrak took place in Banca on 11 December 1973. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of four inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri; the joint association for the drainage basin of the Nive. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The copper/silver mines and the associated smelter reached their peak in the middle of the 18th century and the forge, with its blast furnace, was in operation from 1828 to 1861.
Economic activity is now agricultural. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Banca Mine on D948. These remains are at the northern entrance of the village including a blast furnace; the supply canal is fed by the waters of the Nive captured upstream and turn a wheel of a blower machine which injected air at the base of the blast furnace through two nozzles. The adjacent building, still dominated by the canal, housed the forge fires and hammers to make cast iron and a splitting mill for splitting iron bars. Houses and Farms The Redoubt of Lindus; this redoubt was used during the Franco-Spanish War 1813-1814. The Gorria Farmhouse The Gixonaenea Farmhouse The Xangala Farmhouse The Parish Church of Saint Peter is registered as an historical monument; the Petechanea Gallery is one of the locations of the regional conservatory of natural areas of the Pyrenees. Mountain PeaksMount Harrigorry 806 m Munhogain 853 m Otsamunho 901 m Errola 908 m Abraku 1003 m Ichtauz 1024 m Antchola 1119 m Mehatzé 1209 m Lindus 1220 m Mendimotcha 1224 m Aurigna 1278 m The commune has a primary school.
There is a Fronton traversed by a road. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Mines and Metallurgical Establishments of Banca, dir. P. Machot, J&D, Izpegi, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, 1995, 306 p. Pierre Machot and Gilles Parent, "Mines and Metallurgy in the Valley of Baïgorry", in The Valley of Baïgorry, Éditions Izpegi, reprinted in 2002 Gilles Parent, "The handiwork of the Copper Foundry of Banca in the 18th century" in Revue d'Histoire Industrielle des Pyrénées Occidentales, No. 2, 2007, p. 143–222, Éditions Izpegi BANKA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
La Bastide-Clairence is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bastidotes; the village is a member of the Les Plus Beaux Villages de France association. La Bastide-Clairence is located in the former province of Lower Navarre some 20 km east by south-east of Bayonne and 5 km north-east of Hasparren. Access to the commune is by the D10 road which branches from the D936 north of the commune and comes south to the village continuing south to join the D251 just west of Ayherre. Part of the D510 forms the western border of the commune as it goes south to join the D10 near Hasparren; the D123 goes east from the village through the length of the commune to Amorots-Succos to the south-east. The D610 connects the D510 to the D10 in the commune; the commune is farmland interspersed with forest. La Joyeuse stream flows from the south through the village and continues north to become the Aran which joins the Adour at Urt.
The Arbéroue stream flows from the south-east northwards through the eastern part of the commune to join the Lihoury north-east of the commune. Le Bourg la Côte la Chapelle Pessarou The commune name in Basque is Bastida or Bastida Arberoa and in Gascon Occitan is La Bastida Clarença; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Camara: Titles of the Camara of Comptos Navarre: Titles of the Kingdom of Navarre Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume 114 Oloron: Notaries of Oloron Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Register: Register of the States of Navarre Collations: Collations of the Diocese of BayonneLa Bastide-Clairence appears as'LA BASTIDE Clerence on the 1750 Cassini Map and as LA BASTIDE on the 1790 version. A Navarrese fortified village was founded in 1288 by Claire de Rabastens on a hillside next to the Aran river hence its Gascon name Bastida Clarença.
800 refugees from Bigorre, were granted a charter in July 1312 by Louis I of Navarre, the future Louis X of France. The birth of the village corresponds to a need for Navarre to create a strong town in the forested frontier area. La Bastide-Clairence, as its name suggests, was a fortified town; the historian Paul Broca could still see the remains of its ancient fortress in 1875. La Bastide-Clairence accumulated a population of shop-keepers from south-western France from Spanish refugees fleeing the Inquisition, from Basque towns and villages nearby. Another version of the origin of the town exists: it was populated by settlers from diverse backgrounds including pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela called the Francos. By 1700 the population had reached 2,000; the inhabitants lived on the nail industry, woollen garments and knitwear, agriculture. 12-day fairs ensured the prosperity of the town. In the 16th century the locals spoke Gascon. Subsequently they adopted the Basque language and customs; the town has 320 mills from the 17th century.
From 1575 to 1789, La Bastide-Clairence depended on the lords of Gramont. The city had a large Jewish community after the expulsion of Portuguese Jews in the 16th and 17th centuries. Today, its half-timbered houses attract many art craftsmen; the houses are typical of the region - there are two architectural types: the Baserri style with gabled roofs with two slopes, half-timbered façade with red or green colour on overhangs, carved window mullions and lintels. The Navarrese style with roofs of 2 or 4 sides and doors with vaulted Arches; the commune was known as Labastide-Clairence and was renamed La Bastide-Clairence on 25 June 1988. There was a Jewish community for about 200 years from the early 17th century to the end of the 18th century. Refugees who came from Spain and Portugal, the Sephardi Jews, settled in Bayonne at the end of the 16th century from where they spread to the three small towns of Peyrehorade, La Bastide-Clairence which were protected by the Duke of Gramont. Called "Portuguese", there were about 70-80 families in the commune in the 17th century.
They lived in a autonomous community designated by the expression "Jewish Nation" on the municipal records and had their own separate cemetery, opened at the beginning of the 17th century. The inscriptions on the tombs, numbering 62, were found from 1962 to 1964 by Professor Gérard Nahon; the oldest tomb dates from 1620 with the most recent in 1785. On 18 of them, the date of death is expressed in the Hebrew calendar. From 1659 all had biblical names: Jacob, Benjamin, Sarah, Rebecca. Among family names there are: Dacosta, Lopez Nunez, Alvares; the number of Jews decreased in the middle of the 18th century when there were only 15 Jewish families. There remained only 6 in 1798; the cemetery belongs to the Jewish Consistory of Bayonne. List of Successive Mayors The town participates in nine inter-communal associations: the community of communes of Pays d'Hasparren Hazparneko Lurraldea.
Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The people of the commune are known as Ahastarr. Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is part of Cize country, a historical province in Lower Navarre, it includes three former parishes, sometimes counted as four groups of houses in the Middle Ages and with five toponyms: Alciette, Garatehegi and Bascassan located at the confluence of the Laurhibar and Esteneko streams. Alciette is the parish farthest away to the northeast in the combination of the three parishes. Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is located some 6 km south-east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and can be accessed by Highway D18 running from close to there through the heart of the commune southeast to Lecumberry; the village is not on the highway and is left onto the country road Vierge-d'Ahaxe off the D18 heading southeast. There is a country road from Aincille in the west to the village of Bascassin in the commune and there are other country roads entering from the north and the southeast.
The commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune lands are watered by the Laurhibar, a tributary of the Nive, a tributary of that, the Esteneko stream. The Apatéko stream, a tributary of the Arzubiko stream crosses the territory of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan; the commune's name in Basque is Ahatsa-Altzieta Bazkazane. AhaxeThe toponym Ahaxe appears in the forms: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicates that the toponym comes from the Basque oronymic base of aitz meaning "rock" or "height"; the people of the commune are called in Basque Ahatsarr. AlcietteThe toponym Alciette appears in the forms: The Basque name for the people of this area is Alzietarr. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, Alciette is derived from the medieval Alzueta which itself comes from the Basque alzu meaning "place where there are abundant alder trees". BascassanThe name Bascassan appears in the forms: Bazquazen Bascaçen Bascacen ) Bazcacen ) Basquacen ) Bazcacen Vazquacen Vazcazen and Vazaçan Bascassan Its origin is uncertain.
The people of the area are called Bazkazandarr in basque. Ahaxachillo is mentioned in the 1863 dictionary.) Bastida is indicated by Raymond. Errékaldéa is mentioned with the spelling Errecaldia referring to the flowing stream of Bascassan flowing into the Laurhibar. CurutchetCurutchet was a former fief of a vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre. EtcheverriaPaul Raymond mentioned an Etcheberry, a fief located in the parish of Alciette and a vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre. GaratehegiThe name Garatehegi appears in the forms: Garateguia sent jullian et garateheguj la parropie de garatehegi Garatteguy Garatéhéguy Garateguy Garatehegi from Basque means "summit of the high country". GasteluaGastelua appears with the spelling Gastellu in 1863. LibiétaLibiéta is a toponym that appears in the forms: Libiet Libiette LigetaLigeta is mentioned in the forms: Lagueta Ligueta Liguete, 1366, 1413); the origin of this toponym could be the Latin Liger. The Lordship of Ahaxe called the Lordship of Cize, was allied with the Viscounts of Arbéroue in the 11th century as well as the lordships of Guiche and to the Counts of Biscay.
Ahaxe and Alciette-Bascassan were reunited on 11 June 1842. List of Successive Mayors of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan The commune belongs to seven inter-communal structures: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is agricultural; the commune is part of the zone designation of the Ossau-iraty. The 2006 classification by INSEE, indicating the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households classed Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan at a rank of 27,645 with an average income of €13,257. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the Basque dialect spoken in Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is eastern low Navarrese. There is a gaztelu zahar at a place called Gaztalepo, located 550 metres above sea level. There is a lice or a fence surrounding a fortification running at 313 metres above sea level at a place called Gaztelua or Gastellia.
These artifacts represent the ancient past of the commune. There are several buildings and farms in the commune that are listed as historical monuments; these are: Houses and Farms Kapila House Idioinea farm Gohonetxea farm Château Saint-Julien A number of churches and sites in the commune have been classified as historical monuments. These are: Parish Church of Saint Julien of Antioch The cemetery contains a remarkable collection of Hilarri. Hilarri in the Saint Julien Church Cemetery Chapel of Saint-Saveur of Alciette; the chapel contains several historical objects: Pulpit 2 Benches Main Altar, Retable and 4 Candlestic
Amendeuix-Oneix is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Amendüztar. Amendeuix-Oneix is located some 50 km east by south-east of Bayonne and 40 km south-west of Orthez in the Mixe country in the former Basque province of Lower Navarre; the village can be accessed by the D124 road from Garris in the west passing northeast to the village continuing north to join the D29. The D11 road passes through the south of the commune from Garris to Saint-Palais; the small D511 road links the D11 to the D124 within the commune. Located in the Drainage divide of the Adour, the northern part of the eastern border of the commune is the Bidouze which flows north to join the Adour west of Peyrehorade; the southern part of the eastern border consists of the Joyeuse with many tributaries rising in the commune including the Algueruko erreka, the Sallarteko erreka, the Soubiaga erreka. The Aitzeguerris flows into the Bidouze.
The current Basque name is Amendüze-Unaso. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Oneix means the'place of abundant hills'. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval however suggested that Oneix came from the Basque Unanu which means the Asphodelus and signifies a "place where the asphodelus is abundant, she suggested that the origin of Amendeuix was Aquitane-Roman to designate a noble domain. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Pau: Titles of the Chamber of the Counts of Pau Biscay: Martin Biscay In the 16th century, evidence of witchcraft was reported by an admonition to the States of Navarre by the Prosecutor of Mixe, who complained of a lack of prosecution and requesting that each town or district of Lower Navarre elect "two men of good character who are not suspects to find and punish the perpetrators of these crimes of witchcraft and magic: to be joined with the people of Roy and all at the expense of those convicted or, in case of insolvency, to those countries and places which will be instructed".
Part of this admonition followed a request from the inhabitants of Amendeuix dating from 1587 who claimed to have been victims of "spells that were manifested by evil barking". The village of Oneix joined with Amendeuix to form the commune of Amendeuix-Oneix on 27 August 1846. List of Successive Mayors The commune belongs to seven inter-communal structures: the community of communes of Amikuze the AEP Association for Mixe country the sanitation association for Saint-Palais - Luxe-Sumberraute the association for school buses of Amendeuix-Oneix and Gabat the energy association for Pyrénées-Atlantiques; the fiscal census of 1412-1413, made on the orders of Charles III of Navarre, compared with that of 1551 men and weapons that are in this kingdom of Navarre this side of the ports, reveals a demography with strong growth. The first census indicated the presence of 13 fires in Amendeuix with the second showing 40; the same census reported 8 fires in Oneix in 1412-1413 against 17 in 1551. The census of the population of Lower Navarre in 1695 counted 63 fires at 20 at Oneix.
In 2009 the commune had 407 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 From 1793 to 1841 the population includes Oneix although it was still a separate commune at that time; the commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte the dialect of Basque spoken in Amendeuix-Oneix is eastern low Navarrese. Two churches in the commune are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint Peter at Oneix; the Church of Saint John the Baptist at Amendeuix. The commune has a kindergarten. Amendeuix, Gabat and Labets-Biscay have partnered to create an inter-educational grouping.
Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Amendeuix-Oneix on Lion1906 Amenduix and Oneix on the 1750 Cassini Map Amendeuix-Oneix on the INSEE website INSEE
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex