Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Timpendean Tower or Typenden Castle as it was once known, is a ruined 15th-century tower house near Lanton, around 1.5 miles north-west of Jedburgh in the Scottish Borders. It is built on rising ground between the Jed Water, it is a simple tower structure measuring 29 feet by 24 feet with 4-foot-thick walls. It is now a scheduled monument; the land here, once part of the Bonjedward estate, was long owned by the Douglases, passing from father to son, until it was sold off by George, 12th of Timpendean in 1843 to the Scott family, farmers of Bonjedward. Timpendean Tower was burned by the Earl of Hertford's men in 1545, during the War of the Rough Wooing; the tower, surrounded by much older earthworks, consisted of three floors and a vaulted cellar. There is evidence of a previous addition, which has now disappeared, judging by projecting bond stones on two walls; the east door and basement fireplace are additions to the original house. The first floor contained the great hall; those floors were reached by a circular staircase on the east wall.
Part of the nearby earthworks was filled with water for defensive purposes. RCAHMS CANMORE: Timpendean Tower The Douglas Archives List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland Scheduled monuments in the Scottish Borders MacGibbon, David; the Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland: from the 12th to 18th century. Edinburgh: Douglas
The Scottish Borders is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh and Galloway, East Lothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and, to the south-west and east, the English counties of Cumbria and Northumberland; the administrative centre of the area is Newtown St Boswells. The term Scottish Borders is used to designate the areas of southern Scotland and northern England that bound the Anglo-Scottish border; the Scottish Borders are in the eastern part of the Southern Uplands. The region is hilly and rural, with the River Tweed flowing west to east through it. In the east of the region, the area that borders the River Tweed is flat and is known as'The Merse'; the Tweed and its tributaries drain the entire region with the river flowing into the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed, forming the border with England for the last twenty miles or so of its length. The term Central Borders refers to the area in which the majority of the main towns of Galashiels, Hawick, Earlston, Newtown St. Boswells, St Boswells, Peebles and Tweedbank are located.
Two of Scotland's 40 national scenic areas lie within the region: The Eildon and Leaderfoot National Scenic Area covers the scenery surrounding Eildon Hill, extends to include the town of Melrose and Leaderfoot Viaduct. The Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area covers the scenery surrounding the upper part of the River Tweed between Broughton and Peebles. 2011 Galashiels: 14,994 Hawick: 14,294 Peebles: 8,376 Selkirk: 5,784 Kelso: 5,639 Jedburgh: 4,030 Eyemouth: 3,546 Innerleithen: 3,031 Duns: 2,753 Melrose: 2,307 Coldstream: 1,946 Earlston: 1,779 The term Borders has a wider meaning, referring to all of the counties adjoining the English border including Dumfriesshire and Kirkcudbrightshire – as well as Northumberland and Westmorland in England. Roxburghshire and Berwickshire bore the brunt of the conflicts with England, both during declared wars such as the Wars of Scottish Independence, armed raids which took place in the times of the Border Reivers. Thus, across the region are to be seen the ruins of many castles and towns.
The council area was created in 1975, by merging the historic counties of Berwickshire, Peeblesshire and Selkirkshire and part of Midlothian, as a two-tier region with the districts of Berwickshire and Lauderdale, Tweeddale within it. In 1996 the region became the districts were wound up; the region was created with the name Borders. Following the election of a shadow area council in 1995 the name was changed to Scottish Borders with effect from 1996. Although there is evidence of some Scottish Gaelic in the origins of place names such as Innerleithen and Longformacus, which contain identifiably Goidelic rather than Brythonic Celtic elements and are an indication of at least a Gaelic-speaking elite in the area, the main languages in the area since the 5th century appear to have been Brythonic and Old English, the latter of which developed into its modern forms of English and Scots. There are two British Parliamentary constituencies in the Borders. Berwickshire and Selkirk covers most of the region and is represented by John Lamont of the Conservatives.
The western Tweeddale area is included in the Dumfriesshire, Clydesdale & Tweeddale constituency and is represented by David Mundell of the Conservatives. At Scottish Parliament level, there are two seats; the eastern constituency is Ettrick and Berwickshire, represented by Conservative Rachael Hamilton. The western constituency is Midlothian South and Lauderdale and is represented by SNP Christine Grahame. Following the 2012 local elections, the council administration was a coalition of Independents, Scottish National Party and Liberal Democrats. Prior to the election a coalition of Conservatives, Liberal Democrats and Independents ruled; the Conservatives were the biggest party on the council with 10 seats, the Liberal Democrats had six. The SNP had nine seats and the Independents had seven. Two councillors form the Borders Party. Following the 2017 local elections, the council is now a coalition of Independents and Conservatives; the Conservatives became the largest party on the council with 15, an increase of 5.
At the Census held on 27 March 2011, the population of the region was 114,000, an increase of 6.78% from the 106,764 enumerated at the previous Census. The region had until September 2015 no working railway stations. Although the area was well connected to the Victorian railway system, the branch lines that supplied it were closed in the decades following the Second World War. A bill was passed by the Scottish Parliament to extend the Waverley Line, which aimed to re-introduce a commuter service from Edinburgh to Stow and Tweedbank; this section of the route re-opened on 6 September 2015, under the Borders Railway branding. The other railway route running through the region is the East Coast Main Line, with Edinburgh Waverley and Berwick being the nearest stations on that line, all of which are outwith the Borders. Since 2014 there has been discussion of re-opening the station at Reston, within the region and would serve Eyemouth. To the west, Carlisle and Lockerbie are the nearest stations on the West Coast Main Line.
The area is served by buses. Express bus services link the main towns with rail stations at Edinburgh and
Jedburgh is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and the traditional county town of the historic county of Roxburghshire. Jedburgh lies on a tributary of the River Teviot, it is 10 miles from the border with England, is dominated by the substantial ruins of Jedburgh Abbey. Other notable buildings in the town include Queen Mary's House, Jedburgh Castle Jail, now a museum, the Jedburgh Library. Jedburgh began as the "worth" or enclosed settlement on the Jed; the more familiar word "burgh" was substituted for this, though the original name survives as Jeddart/Jethart. Bishop Ecgred of Lindisfarne founded a church at Jedburgh in the 9th century, King David I of Scotland made it a priory between 1118 and 1138, housing Augustinian monks from Beauvais in France; the abbey was founded in 1147. The religious Scottish king Malcolm IV died at Jedburgh in 1165, aged 24, his death is thought to have been caused by Paget's disease of bone. David I built a castle at Jedburgh, in 1174 it was one of five fortresses ceded to England.
It was an occasional royal residence for the Scots. It was demolished in 1409. In 1258, Jedburgh was a focus of royal attention, with negotiations between Scotland's Alexander III and England's Henry III over the succession to the Scottish throne, leaving the Comyn faction dominant. Alexander III was married to Yolande in the abbey in 1285, its proximity to England made it subject to raids and skirmishes by both Scottish and English forces but its strategic position brought the town valuable trade. At various times and at various locations the town supported a horse market, a cattle market, a corn market and a butcher market. Farm workers and servants attended hiring fairs seeking employment. Mary, Queen of Scots, stayed at a certain house in the town in 1566 and that house is now a museum; the title "Lord of Jedburgh Forest" was granted to George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus on his marriage to the Princess Mary, daughter of Robert III in 1397. It is a subsidiary title of the present Earl of the Duke of Hamilton.
The Duke of Douglas was raised to the position of Viscount Jedburgh Forest, but he died without an heir in 1761. In 1745, the Jacobite army led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart passed through the town on its way to England, the Prince stayed there; the Castle Prison opened in 1823. In 1787, the geologist James Hutton noted what is now known as the Hutton Unconformity at Inchbonny, near Jedburgh. Layers of sedimentary rock which are tilted vertically are covered by newer horizontal layers of red sandstone; this was one of the findings that led him to develop his concept of an immensely long geologic time scale with "no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end."The Scots name for the town is part of the expression "Jeddart justice" or "Jethart Justice", in which a man was hanged first, tried afterwards. Several notable people were born in the town, including Rev Dr Thomas Somerville minister of Jedburgh from 1767 to 1830 and his niece, Mary Somerville, the eminent scientist and writer, after whom Somerville College, Oxford is named, appearing on the Royal Bank of Scotland £10 note from 2017.
Others include Conservative MP Michael Ancram in 1945. James Thomson who wrote "Rule Britannia", was born in Ednam, a village only twelve miles away, but he was educated in Jedburgh. David Brewster, mathematician, scientist and inventor of the kaleidoscope, was born in Jedburgh in 1781; the popular preacher Rev. Robert Aitken was born in Crailing near Jedburgh. General Sir Bindon Blood was born nearby in 1842. Alexander Jeffrey was a solicitor in the town and was the county historian, he died in Jedburgh in 1874. The author and broadcaster Lavinia Derwent was born in a farmhouse a few miles outside Jedburgh in 1909; the town's best known rugby sons are Roy Laidlaw and Gary Armstrong. Former Scotland rugby team captain Greig Laidlaw hails from Jedburgh. Douglas Young, fought at Heavyweight at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the abbey is open to the public. Many of the more important finds from excavations are displayed on site in the modern visitor centre attached to the Abbey ruins; the Abbey, though much damaged over the years by invasions from England, is still one of the finest late Norman buildings remaining in Scotland.
Now roofless, part of the church was used as the parish church into the 19th century. Jedburgh Castle Jail, built in the early 19th century on the site of the medieval castle, is open to the public. Borders traditions like the annual Callant's Festival and bands of pipes and drums add local colour, local delicacies include Jethart Snails and Jethart Pears. Another annual event is the Jethart Hand Ba' game; the Canongate Brig dates from the 16th century, there are some fine riverside walks. The Capon Oak Tree is reputed to be 2000 years old, Jedburgh Castle Jail and the town spire are among the town's older buildings; the town's industries included textiles and glove-making, grain mills, electrical engineering. Central to the festival and customs associated with the town of Jedburgh are the Jedforest Instrumental Band who support many civic and social events throughout the year, a service provided since 1854. Free Wi-Fi has be