Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee name, the Two Ladies name; the Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the people; the pharaoh thus deputised for the gods. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army. Religiously, the pharaoh chose the sites of new temples, he was responsible for maintaining Maat, or cosmic order and justice, part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.
During the early days prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Deshret or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the Kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the Hedjet, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like the Khat, Atef, Hemhem crown, Khepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these crowns would be worn together; the word pharaoh derives from the Egyptian compound pr ꜥꜣ, /ˌpaɾuwˈʕaʀ/ "great house", written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and ꜥꜣ "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ꜥꜣ "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the Twelfth Dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, May it Live, be in Health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.
Sometime during the era of the New Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period, pharaoh became the form of address for a person, king. The earliest confirmed instance where pr ꜥꜣ is used to address the ruler is in a letter to Akhenaten, addressed to "Great House, L, W, H, the Lord". However, there is a possibility that the title pr ꜥꜣ was applied to Thutmose III, depending on whether an inscription on the Temple of Armant can be confirmed to refer to that king. During the Eighteenth Dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late Twenty-first Dynasty, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as as ḥm, "Majesty"; the term, evolved from a word referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler by the Twenty-Second Dynasty and Twenty-third Dynasty.
For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun; this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the Twenty-second Dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I—the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty—including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives. By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced * whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Koine Greek: Φερων. In the Hebrew Bible, the title occurs as Hebrew: פרעה.
Pharaō, in Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an spells it Arabic: فرعون firʿawn with n; the Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek. In English, it was at first spelled "Pharao", but the translators of the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile, in Egypt itself, * evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ pərro and ərro by mistaking p- as the definite article "the". Other notable epithets are nswt, translated to "king". Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were known to carry a staff, Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff; the scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook. The earli
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, queen Berenice I from Macedon in northern Greece. During Ptolemy II's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height, he promoted the Library of Alexandria. He erected the Great Mendes Stela, he led the Ptolemaic Kingdom against the rival Seleucid Empire in the first of a series of Syrian Wars that witnessed periodic territorial changes between the two powers in West Asia. Ptolemy II was the son of Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice I, he had Arsinoe II and Philotera. He was educated by Philitas of Cos. Ptolemy II had numerous half-siblings. Two of his father's sons by his previous marriage to Eurydice, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, became kings of Macedonia; the children of his mother Berenice's first marriage to Philip included Magas of Cyrene.
Pyrrhus of Epirus became his brother-in-law through marriage to Ptolemy's maternal half-sister Antigone. Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children: Ptolemy III Euergetes, his successor. Lysimachus of Egypt Berenice Phernopherus, who married the Seleucid emperor Antiochus II TheosAfter he repudiated Arsinoe, he married his full sister Arsinoe II, widow of Lysimachus, which brought him her Aegean possessions, he had several concubines. With a woman named Bilistiche he is said to have had an son named Ptolemy Andromachou, he had many mistresses, including Agathoclea, Aglais daughter of Megacles, the cup-bearer Cleino, the Chian harp player Glauce, the flautist Mnesis, the actress Myrtion, the flautist Pothine and Stratonice. His court and dissolute, intellectual and artificial, has been compared with the Palace of Versailles of Louis XIV of France. Ptolemy deified his sister-wife after their deaths. Ptolemy II began his reign as co-regent with his father, Ptolemy Soter, from c. 285 to c. 283 BCE, maintained a splendid court in Alexandria.
Egypt was involved in several wars during his reign. His maternal half-brother Magas had declared himself king of Cyrene in 276 and began a war against Ptolemy's government in 274 BCE. Magas managed to keep Cyrenaica independent of the Ptolemies until his death in 250 BCE. Magas' attack on the Ptolemies began. Two or three years of war followed. Egypt's victories solidified the kingdom's position as the undisputed naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; the Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea, Pamphylia and Caria. In 275/4, Ptolemaic forces annexed the Triakontaschoinos. In 270, Ptolemy hired 4000 Gallic mercenaries. According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted "to seize Egypt," and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”The victory won by Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, over the Egyptian fleet at Kos did not long interrupt Ptolemy's command of the Aegean Sea.
In the Second Syrian War with the Seleucid Empire of Antiochus II Theos, Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Anatolia and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice Phernopherus. Ptolemy was of a delicate constitution. Elias Joseph Bickerman gives the date of his death as 29 January; the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Pomp and splendor flourished, he had exotic animals of far off lands sent to Alexandria, staged a procession in Alexandria in honor of Dionysus led by 24 chariots drawn by elephants and a procession of lions, panthers, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. According to scholars, most of the animals were in pairs - as many as eight pairs of ostriches - and although the ordinary chariots were led by a single elephant, others which carried a 7-foot-tall golden statue may have been led by four. Although an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he adopted Egyptian religious concepts, which helped to bolster his image as a sovereign.
Callimachus, keeper of the library, a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to patronize scientific research, he is thought to be the patron. The tradition preserved in the pseudepigraphical Letter of Aristeas which connects the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek with his patronage is overdrawn. However, Walter Kaiser says, "There can be little doubt that the Law was translated in Philadelphus's time since Greek quotations from Genesis and Exodus appear in Greek literature before 200 BCE The language of the Septuagint is more like Egyptian Greek than it is like Jerusalemite Greek, according to some." Ptolemy is recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India to Emperor Ashoka: "But has been treated of by several other Greek writers who resided at the
Attalus I, surnamed Soter ruled Pergamon, an Ionian Greek polis, first as dynast as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the first cousin once removed and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC, he was the son of his wife Antiochis. Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians, newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace, who had been, for more than a generation and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check; this victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", the title of "king". A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, waged against Philip V of Macedon, he conducted numerous naval operations, harassing Macedonian interests throughout the Aegean, winning honors, collecting spoils, gaining for Pergamon possession of the Greek islands of Aegina during the first war, Andros during the second, twice narrowly escaping capture at the hands of Philip.
Attalus was a protector of the Greek cities of Anatolia and viewed himself as the champion of Greeks against barbarians. During his reign he established Pergamon as a considerable power in the Greek East, he died in 197 BC, shortly before the end of the second war, at the age of 72, having suffered an apparent stroke while addressing a Boeotian war council some months before. He and his wife were admired for their rearing of their four sons, he was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II. Little is known about Attalus' early life, he was born a Greek, the son of Attalus, Antiochis. The elder Attalus was the son of a brother of both Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, Eumenes, the father of Eumenes I, Philetaerus' successor. Attalus was a young child when his father died, sometime before 241 BC, after which he was adopted by Eumenes I, the incumbent dynast. Attalus' mother, was related to the Seleucid royal family with her marriage to Attalus' father arranged by Philetaerus to solidify his power.
This would be consistent with the conjecture that Attalus' father had been Philetaerus' heir designate, but was succeeded by Eumenes, since Attalus I was too young when his father died. According to the 2nd century AD Greek writer Pausanias, "the greatest of his achievements" was the defeat of the "Gauls". Pausanias was referring to the Galatians, immigrant Celts from Thrace, who had settled in Galatia in central Asia Minor, whom the Romans and Greeks called Gauls, associating them with the Celts of what is now France and northern Italy. Since the time of Philetaerus, the first Attalid ruler, the Galatians had posed a problem for Pergamon, indeed for all of Asia Minor, by exacting tributes to avoid war or other repercussions. Eumenes I had, along with other rulers, dealt with the Galatians by paying these tributes. Attalus however refused being the first such ruler to do so; as a consequence, the Galatians set out to attack Pergamon. Attalus met them near the sources of the river Caïcus and won a decisive victory, after which, following the example of Antiochus I, Attalus took the name of Soter, which means "savior", claimed the title of king.
The victory brought Attalus legendary fame. A story arose, related by Pausanias, of an oracle who had foretold these events a generation earlier: Then verily, having crossed the narrow strait of the Hellespont, The devastating host of the Gauls shall pipe. For right soon the son of Cronos Shall raise a helper, the dear son of a bull reared by Zeus Who on all the Gauls shall bring a day of destruction. Pausanias adds that by "son of a bull" the oracle "meant Attalus, king of Pergamon, styled bull-horned". On the acropolis of Pergamon was erected a triumphal monument, which included the famous sculpture the Dying Gaul, commemorating this battle. Several years after the first victory over the Gauls, Pergamon was again attacked by the Gauls together with their ally Antiochus Hierax, the younger brother of Seleucus II Callinicus, ruler of Seleucid Asia Minor from his capital at Sardis. Attalus defeated the Gauls and Antiochus at the battle of Aphrodisium and again at a second battle in the east. Subsequent battles were fought and won against Antiochus alone: in Hellespontine Phrygia, where Antiochus was seeking refuge with his father-in law, Ziaelas the king of Bithynia.
As a result of these victories, Attalus gained control over all of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains. He was able to hold on to these gains in the face of repeated attempts by Seleucus III Ceraunus, eldest son and successor of Seleucus II, to recover the lost territory, culminating in Seleucus III himself crossing the Taurus, only to be assassinated by members of his army in 223 BC. Achaeus, who had accompanied Seleucus III, assumed control of the army, he was offered and refused the kingship in favor of Seleucus III's younger brother Antiochus III the Great, who made Achaeus governor of Seleucid Asia Minor north of the Taurus
Pergamon, Pergamos or Pergamum, was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. Pergamon was the northernmost of the seven churches of Asia cited in the New Testament Book of Revelation; the city centres around a 335 metre high mesa of andesite. This mesa falls away on the north and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus river flows through the city, while the Cetius passes by to the east. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey.
The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level; the site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon; the climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. The Caicus valley is composed of volcanic rock andesite and the Pergamon massif is an intrusive stock of andesite; the massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a small peak - the upper city; the side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough.
On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, known as the'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off immediately to the east; the upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and descends to the plain towards the southwest. Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds fragments of pottery imported from the west eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area; the earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops to Thibron, planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC.
At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. In 362 BC, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. Only with Alexander the Great was the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founder of the Attalid dynasty.
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland; the city thus became the centre of a territorial realm. This final step was only taken by his successor Attalus I, after he defeated the Galatians in 238, whom Pergamon had paid tribute to under Eumenes I. Only at this point did an independent Pergamene kingdom come into existence, which would reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC; the Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt. These conflicts drained the material and manpower of both parties and led to their eventual destruction and conquest by Rome and Parthia, they are mentioned in the biblical Books of the Maccabees. In the Wars of the Diadochi following Alexander's death, Coele-Syria came under the rule of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 301 BC Ptolemy I Soter, who four years earlier had crowned himself King of Egypt, exploited events surrounding the Battle of Ipsus to take control of the region; the victors at Ipsus, had allocated Coele-Syria to Ptolemy's former ally Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. Seleucus, aided by Ptolemy during his ascent to power, did not take any military action to reclaim the region. Once both were dead, their successors became embroiled in war.
A decade into his rule, Ptolemy II faced Antiochus I, the Seleucid king, trying to expand his empire's holdings in Syria and Anatolia. Ptolemy proved to be skilled general. In addition, his recent marriage to his court-wise sister Arsinoe II of Egypt had stabilized the volatile Egyptian court, allowing Ptolemy to carry out the campaign; the First Syrian War was a major victory for the Ptolemies. Antiochus took the Ptolemaic controlled areas in coastal Syria and southern Anatolia in his initial rush. Ptolemy reconquered these territories by 271 BC, extending Ptolemaic rule as far as Caria and into most of Cilicia. With Ptolemy's eye focused eastward, his half-brother Magas declared his province of Cyrenaica to be independent, it would remain independent until 250 BC, when it was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic Kingdom: but not before having triggered a sequence of Ptolemaic and Seleucid court intrigues and leading to the marriage of Theos and Berenice. Antiochus II succeeded his father in 261 BC, thus began a new war for Syria.
He reached an agreement with the current Antigonid king in Macedon, Antigonus II Gonatas, interested in pushing Ptolemy II out of the Aegean. With Macedon's support, Antiochus II launched an attack on Ptolemaic outposts in Asia. Most of the information about the Second Syrian War has been lost, it is clear that Antigonus' fleet defeated Ptolemy's at the Battle of Cos in 261, diminishing Ptolemaic naval power. Ptolemy appears to have lost ground in Cilicia and Ionia, while Antiochus regained Miletus and Ephesus. Macedon's involvement in the war ceased when Antigonus became preoccupied by the rebellion of Corinth and Chalcis in 253 BC instigated by Ptolemy, as well as an increase in enemy activity along Macedon's northern frontier; the war was concluded around 253 BC with the marriage of Antiochus to Ptolemy's daughter, Berenice Syra. Antiochus repudiated his previous wife and turned over substantial domain to her, he died in Ephesus in 246 BC. Ptolemy II died in the same year. Known as the Laodicean War, the Third Syrian War began with one of the many succession crises that plagued the Hellenistic states.
Antiochus II left two ambitious mothers, his repudiated wife Laodice and Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice Syra, in a competition to put their respective sons on the throne. Laodice claimed that Antiochus had named her son heir while on his deathbed, but Berenice argued that her newly born son was the legitimate heir. Berenice asked her brother Ptolemy III, the new Ptolemaic king, to come to Antioch and help place her son on the throne; when Ptolemy arrived and her child had been assassinated. Ptolemy declared war on Laodice's newly crowned son, Seleucus II, in 246 BC, campaigned with great success, he won major victories over Seleucus in Syria and Anatolia occupied Antioch and, as a recent cuneiform discovery proves reached Babylon. These victories were marred by the loss of the Cyclades to Antigonus Gonatas in the Battle of Andros. Seleucus had his own difficulties, his domineering mother asked him to grant co-regency to his younger brother, Antiochus Hierax, as well as rule over Seleucid territories in Anatolia.
Antiochus promptly declared independence. In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch; the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power. Upon taking the Seleucid throne in 223 BC, Antiochus III the Great set himself the task of restoring the lost imperial possessions of Seleucus I Nicator, which extended from Greco-Bactrian Kingdom in the east, the Hellespont in the north, Syria in the south. By 221 BC, he had re-established Seleucid control over Media and Persia, in rebellion; the ambitious king turned his eyes toward Egypt. Egypt had been weakened by court intrigue and public unrest; the rule of the newly inaugurated Ptolemy IV Philopator began with the murder of queen-mother Berenice II. The young king fell under the absolute influence of imperial courtiers, his ministers used their absolute power to the people's great chagrin. Antiochus sought to take advantage of this chaotic situation.
After an invasion in 221 BC failed to launch, he began the Fourth Syrian War in 219 BC. He recaptured Seleucia Pieria as well as cities in Phoenicia, amon
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Seleucus received Babylonia and from there expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories. At the height of its power, the Empire included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan; the Seleucid Empire became a major center of Hellenistic culture – it maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece halted abruptly in the early 2nd century BC after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Seleucid attempts to defeat their old enemy. Having come into conflict in the East with Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, Seleucus I entered into an agreement with Chandragupta whereby he ceded vast territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern-day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and offered his daughter in marriage to the Maurya Emperor to formalize the alliance.
Antiochus III the Great attempted to project Seleucid power and authority into Hellenistic Greece, but his attempts were thwarted by the Roman Republic and by Greek allies such as the Kingdom of Pergamon, culminating in a Seleucid defeat at the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains; the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast. However, the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great in 83 BC and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC. Contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom.
Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia. Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria, Lord of Asia, other designations, he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of Hellenised culture without an adult heir; the empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas, the territories were divided among Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon, all in that same year. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, "Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry" and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly.
Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The rise of Seleucus in Babylon threatened the eastern extent of Antigonus I territory in Asia. Antigonus, along with his son Demetrius I of Macedon, unsuccessfully led a campaign to annex Babylon; the victory of Seleucus ensured his claim of legitimacy. He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia, Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. In the region of Punjab, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha, relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.
Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by 317 BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9,000 war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian: He [Sel