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Cor de Groot

Cor de Groot was a Dutch pianist and composer. He was born in Amsterdam, he studied piano with Egbert Veen and Ulferts Schults, composition and conducting under Sem Dresden. In 1932 he graduated with highest honours. After becoming a soloist with the Concertgebouw Orchestra, he won the fifth prize at the 1936 international contest for pianists in Vienna, he played all over the world and recordings that exist demonstrate a strong sense of structure, a clean rhythmic attack and precise dynamic shadings. He was a member of the Queen Elisabeth Music Competition's jury in 1956. In 1959 a nervous disorder developed in his right hand but he continued playing repertoire for the left hand, he arranged more than 80 pieces for the left hand. He regained power over his right hand, he became musical director of the Dutch Broadcasting Foundation and promoted Dutch contemporary music. He made many recordings but continued composing, his compositions include music for piano solo such as Variations imaginaires. It has been stated that Dutch composer Gerard Schurmann composed his Bagatelles for de Groot, but this is not, in fact, the case.

He died in Amsterdam in 1993


A branch or tree branch is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree. Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs; the term "twig" refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk. Due to a broad range of species of trees and twigs can be found in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches. A number of mathematical properties are associated with tree branchings: they are natural examples of fractal patterns in nature, and, as observed by Leonardo da Vinci, their cross-sectional areas follow the da Vinci branching rule; because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them. In general however, unspecific words for a branch have been replaced by the word branch itself. A bough can be called a limb or arm, though these are arguably metaphors, both are accepted synonyms for bough.

A crotch or fork is an area. A twig is referred to as a sprig as well when it has been plucked. Other words for twig include branchlet and surcle, as well as the technical terms surculus and ramulus. Branches found under larger branches can be called underbranches; some branches from specific trees have their own names, such as osiers and withes or withies, which come from willows. Trees have certain words which, in English, are collocated, such as holly and mistletoe, which employ the phrase "sprig of"; the branch of a cherry tree is referred to as a "cherry branch", while other such formations carry no such alliance. A good example of this versatility is oak, which could be referred to as variously an "oak branch", an "oaken branch", a "branch of oak", or the "branch of an oak ". Once a branch has been cut or in any other way removed from its source, it is most referred to as a stick, a stick employed for some purpose is called a rod. Thin, flexible sticks are called switches, shrags, or vimina.

In Old English, there are numerous words for branch, including seten, telgor, hrīs. There are numerous descriptive words, such as blēd, bōgincel, ōwæstm, tūdornes. Numerous other words for twigs and boughs abound, including tān, which still survives as the "-toe" in mistletoe. Latin words for branch are cladus; the second term is an affix found in other modern words such as cladodonts or cladogram. Basal shoot Plant stem Root Shoot Stolon Switch Trunk Turion Twig Wand

Wilderness hut

A wilderness hut, backcountry hut, or backcountry shelter is a rent-free, simple shelter or hut for temporary accommodation located in wilderness areas, national parks and along backpacking and hiking routes. They are found in many parts of the world, such as Finland, Sweden and northern Russia, New Zealand and the United States. Huts range from being basic and unmanned, without running water, to furnished and permanently attended. Remote huts sometimes contain emergency food supplies. Similar shelters can be found in remote areas of the Alps. In order to complete some tours, it is necessary to spend the night in such shelters. Though Biwakschachteln are tended to by the Alpine Clubs, they differ markedly from the more accessible mountain huts, which are actual houses suitable for permanent use. Unlike mountain huts, they do not have a permanent resident who tends to the building and sells food to mountaineers. In general, these huts do not have regular maintenance schedules nor paid maintenance staff.

Unofficial rules for use have arisen. Visitors are expected to leave the hut. Fires should never be left unattended, if the firewood supply is used up, the visitors should replace it; some areas are designated fuel stove only, because cooking on a fuel stove can reduce the use of firewood. Some huts contain emergency food stores like canned food and bottled water, meant to consumed in urgent situations. No toilet facilities are present, the general rule requires that toilet waste should be buried away from the nearest watercourse or the hut. No running water is available in the huts, it is recommended when using water from a stream, that the water should be boiled for at least five minutes because of the potential danger of gastroenteritis and giardia. Detergents and soap can harm aquatic life, waterways are damaged; when leaving the hut, visitors are expected to leave it clean and secure, with the fire out, the doors and windows securely closed. Escaping fires can damage the environment. Rubbish should not be buried.

Rubbish like cans, plastic bottles or broken glass are dug out by native animals and may harm them. All waste should be disposed of by taking it away for proper disposal. Rules can differ between Europe, Australia and US. Official wilderness huts are maintained by Metsähallitus, the Finnish state-owned forest management company. Most of the wilderness huts in Finland are situated in the northern and eastern parts of the country, their size can vary greatly: the Lahtinen cottage in the Muotkatunturi Wilderness Area can hold two people, whereas the Luirojärvi cottage in the Urho Kekkonen National Park can hold as many as 16. A wilderness hut need not be reserved beforehand, they are open for everyone tracking by foot, ski or similar means. Commercial stays overnight are prohibited in the wilderness huts owned by Metsähallitus. Unofficial and unmaintained huts exist. For centuries the vast wildernesses of Finland and its resources were divided amongst the Finnish agricultural societies for the purpose of collecting resources.

Areas divided in this way were called erämaa "portion-land,". People from agricultural societies made trips to their erämaas in the summer to trap animals for fur but to hunt game and collect taxes from the local hunter-fisher population. Huts were built in the wilderness for use as base camps for fishermen. Non-agricultural Sami people built huts to help them manage reindeer; the earliest huts were only allowed to be used by people from the communities. Outsiders were not allowed to use the resources of other communities' erämaas. Huts that were free for everyone were first seen in late 18th century Finland, when dwelling places were built along walking routes for passers-by. In the 19th century the authorities started building these huts. In the 20th century they started to be built for travellers. New Zealand has a network of 950 backcountry huts; the huts are maintained by the Department of Conservation, although some of the huts have been adopted and maintained by local hiking and hunting clubs by arrangement.

There are unofficial and owned huts in some places. They vary from small bivouac shelters made of wood to large modern huts that can sleep up to 40 people, with separate cooking areas and gas; some huts were commissioned or built by clubs along walked routes, both for safety reasons as appropriate, sometimes for convenience. The network of back-country huts in New Zealand was extended in the mid-20th-century, when many more were built to serve the deer cullers of the New Zealand Forest Service. Most larger and more modern huts, like some found on the Great Walks, have been purpose designed and built to serve trampers. Many of New Zealand's back-country huts are remote and visited, it is common for recreational trampers to design trips with the idea of reaching and visiting specific huts; some people keep count of which huts they have visited, a practice, informally referred to as hut bagging. Back-country huts in New Zealand were free to use until the early 1990s, when the New Zealand Department of Conservation began charging for their use.

For most back-country huts, nightly hut tickets are purchased via an honesty system by people who use the huts, with an additional option of purchasing an annual pass for people who use huts frequently. Huts on frequen


Haïdra is a municipality in western Tunisia, containing the ruins of Ammaedara, one of the oldest Roman cities in Africa. It is now a Roman Catholic titular see. Ammaedara was on the border between the valleys and the Berber tribes and was part of the Roman province of Byzacena; the Third Augustan Legion was installed in Ammaedara in 30 BC. From here the legion was responsible for the urbanisation of the North African provinces, building roads and other infrastructure, its ruins include Byzantine fortresses, underground baths and a church. Excavation of what has been called the Church of Melleus in the centre of Ammaedara has brought to light the tombs of some bishops of the see. In addition, documentary records survive of Eugenius, a bishop of Ammaedara, who participated in the Council of Carthage, which discussed the question of the lapsi, of Speratus and Crescentianus, representing the Catholics and the Donatists of the city, who took part in the Council of Carthage of 411. Catholic bishops were Hyacinthus and Melleus, both of the second half of the 6th century.

Given the Roman province, it must have been a suffragan of the Metropolitan archbishop of its capital Hadrumetum. No longer a residential bishopric, Ammaedara is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see; the diocese was nominally restored as Ammædæra of Ammædera and renamed Ammædara in 1925. It has had the following incumbents, all of the lowest rank: Mathieu Sislian Joseph Raphael John Crimont, Jesuits Joseph Gerald Holland, Society of African Missions Jacob Abraham Theophilos Kalapurakal Joseph-Rolland-Gustave Prévost-Godard, Société des Missions-Étrangères du Québec Pierre Nguyễn Văn Đệ, Salesians Vincent Nguyen, Auxiliary Bishop of Toronto Pr Ahmed Jdey was a writer and professor. GigaCatholic with titular incumbents biography links

Second Malaysia Plan

The Second Malaysia Plan was an economic development plan introduced by the government of Malaysia with the goal of implementing the Malaysian New Economic Policy. It lasted from 1971 to 1975 and aimed to "restructure" the society of Malaysia and reduce Malaysian Chinese and foreign dominance in the economy of Malaysia so as to improve the economic position of the Malays, it was the successor to the First Malaysia Plan, intended to tackle the problem of poverty among the Malays. However, the First Malaysia Plan had limited success, which may have been a factor in the 13 May Incident in 1969 when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur; the Second Malaysia Plan had been regarded as excessive in its zeal to increase Malay participation in the economy, the government accordingly scaled back the emphasis on restructuring the economy when the plan ended. Although the Malays have nearly always comprised a majority of the Malaysian population, their economic power has been commensurate. In 1970, the Bumiputra controlled only 1.9% of the Malaysian economy, while the non-Malays held 37.4%, with the rest in foreign hands.

Due to this wide disparity, Article 153 of the Constitution requires the government to set quotas for the dispensation of scholarships, employment in the civil service, etc. targeted at improving the economic status of the Malays. However, the First Malaysia Plan—whose approach had been dependent on the Malays "availing themselves of these facilities and services and putting them to good use"—failed in addressing the economic imbalance, its policies resulted in discontent among the non-Malays, who supported the opposition parties that favoured reducing or eliminating affirmative action for the Bumiputra in the 1969 general election. A victory parade held on 12 May 1969 by supporters of the opposition led to a retaliatory rally on 13 May by the United Malays National Organisation, a major party in the governing Alliance coalition. However, the rally soon turned into a riot which lasted two days, an incident known as the 13 May Incident. Around 200 people died—although others have given much larger estimates—with thousands left homeless, the majority of them Chinese.

A state of emergency was declared, Parliament was suspended. The National Operations Council governed until 1971; the Second Malayan Five Year Plan was an economic development plan launched by the government of Malaya, continued by the government of Malaysia. This plan followed the First Malayan Five Year Plan, which ran from 1956 to 1960; the Second Malayan Five Year Plan increased expenditure for the development of agriculture and rural areas. Funding was markedly increased for land development schemes, physical infrastructure, social services; the Plan's stated objective was "to provide facilities and opportunities for the rural population to improve its level of economic and social wellbeing." Some have attributed the greater expenditure of the Plan to the governing Alliance political coalition's political woes. While it held the reins of power, the NOC set out the NEP, with the ultimate aim of eradicating poverty and eliminating "the identification of race with economic function" through a "rapidly expanding economy".

The Outline Perspective Plan was approved, with similar goals to the NEP. Both the NEP and the Outline Perspective Plan were set to expire in 1990, the Second Malaysia Plan was passed by Parliament to implement the goals of these policies; the Second Malaysia Plan stepped up government involvement in the economy, with the main goal of increasing Malay economic interests in the areas of manufacturing and mining. To avoid directly hurting Chinese economic interests, the plan focused on huge economic growth, with the goal of expanding both the Malay and non-Malay shares of the economy in absolute terms, while increasing the Malay share in relative terms as well. A sum of M$7.25 billion in total was allocated for the Second Malaysia Plan. Although this constituted a decrease from the First Malaysia Plan's allocation of M$10.5 billion, the Second Malaysia Plan hoped to achieve greater reduction in poverty and increase the involvement of the Malays in the private sector by imposing certain restrictions on private firms that would benefit Malay employment and economic ownership.

At the time the plan was announced, the non-Malays had, in the words of one commentator, "a virtual monopoly of private industrial and commercial employment", were concentrated in the urban areas. However, foreign interests controlled most modern industries, including manufacturing, finance and tin; the Malays were involved in rural occupations such as rice farming, tending to rubber or oil palm smallholdings, so on. They were conspicuously absent from minor white collar jobs, such as clerical work, only in the civil service, where they were guaranteed 80% of all government jobs, were they present in the upper portion of the hierarchy. Most members of some professions, such as medicine and law, were non-Malay. Government policies, such as those set out by Article 153, appeared to hinder Malay involvement in the private sector by giving them preference in only the public sector. Unemployment among all races was rampant due to poor education, with about 70% of the 275,000 unemployed in 1970 being aged between 15 and 25 years.

It was all this that the NEP and the Second Malays