Pernod Ricard is a French company that produces alcoholic beverages. The company's eponymous products, Pernod Anise and Ricard Pastis, are both anise-flavoured pastis apéritifs and are referred to as Pernod or Ricard; the company produces several other types of pastis. It is the world’s second-largest wine and spirits seller. After the banning of absinthe, Pernod Ricard was created from the Pernod Fils company, which had produced absinthe. Pernod Ricard owned the distilled beverage division of the former corporation Seagram until 2006, along with many other holdings. In 2005, the company acquired Allied Domecq plc.. In 2008, Pernod Ricard announced its acquisition of Swedish-based V&S Group, which produces Absolut Vodka. In 2013, Pernod Ricard joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers' commitments to reducing harmful drinking; as of 2015, India is the company's third largest market by value. 1797 – Henri-Louis Pernod, a Swiss distiller, opens his first absinthe distillery in Switzerland.
1805 – Maison Pernod Fils is founded in Pontarlier, Franche-Comté, eastern France, by Henri-Louis Pernod and begins production of the anise-flavored liquor known as absinthe. 1850 – Henri-Louis Pernod dies. 1871 – Distillerie Hémard is founded near Paris. 1872 – Société Pernod Père & Fils opens in Avignon. 1915 – Production and consumption of absinthe is prohibited in France. 1926 – All 3 distilleries merge to form Les Établissements Pernod. 1951 – Pastis 51 is launched. 1965 – Takeover of Distillerie Rousseau, Laurens et Moureaux, producer of Suze liquor since 1889. 1932 – Ricard, which soon becomes France's favourite long drink, is founded in Marseille by Paul Ricard. 1940 – Production of pastis is prohibited by the Vichy regime. 1944 – Production of pastis becomes legal again. 1968 – Paul Ricard retires. 1975 – Old rivals Pernod and Ricard merge to form Pernod Ricard S. A.. 1988 – Pernod Ricard acquires Irish Distillers. 1989 – Pernod Ricard acquires Orlando Wyndham. 1993 – Pernod Ricard works with Cuban companies to create Havana Club International.
1998 – Pernod Ricard acquires the Yerevan Brandy Company. 2001 – Pernod Ricard purchases 38% of Seagram's Wines and Spirits business. 2005 – Pernod Ricard purchases Allied Domecq. 2008 – Pernod Ricard purchases V&S Group, including the Absolut Vodka brand, from the Swedish government. Pernod Ricard Winemakers – owner of Jacob's Creek, Brancott Estate, Campo Viejo, Tarsus, Aura and Siglo Corby Distilleries - Canadian subsidiary; these include: 100 Pipers Aberlour Absolut ArArAt Becherovka Blenders Pride Chivas Regal DITA Dubonnet Frïs Vodka FUEL Vodka The Glenlivet Havana Club Imperial Blue Jacob's Creek Jameson Irish Whiskey Longmorn Luksusowa Macieira Brandy Martell Montilla Olmeca Tequila Pan Tadeusz Passport Scotch Zoco Pernod Liqueur D'Anis Pernod Absinthe Recette Traditionnelle Powers Redbreast Ricard and 51 Royal Salute whisky Royal Stag Scapa Siwucha Wyborowa As of 26 July 2005, the brand portfolio expanded to include former Allied Domecq products: Ballantine's blended Scotch whisky Kahlúa coffee liqueur Malibu coconut-flavored rum Beefeater gin Tia Maria liqueur Stolichnaya vodka Mumm champagne Perrier-Jouët champagne Campo Viejo wine Ysios wine Aura wine Azpilicueta wine Tarsus wine Siglo winePernod Ricard owned the non-alcoholic chocolate beverage Yoo-hoo, acquired from a group of private investors in 1989.
Pernod Ricard previously owned the carbonated citrus drink Orangina. Both brands were sold in 2001 to Cadbury Schweppes; the Havana Club brand was lost to its founders, the Arechabala family, due to the 1959 Cuban Revolution, an ongoing legal battle opposes the claimed trademark owners in the US to the joint-venture between Pernod Ricard and the Cuban State-owned company Corporación Cuba Ron. The Havana Club trademark remains unchallenged elsewhere in the world, having been validated by court decisions in a number of countries other than the US. According to the NGO Alliance anticorrida, Pernod Ricard is the major funder of bullfighting in France, financing bullfighting clubs and sponsoring corridas despite the opposition of a majority of French citizens to blood sports. There are few corridas in France. Most native bull fights do not harm the animals: rosettes attached between the horns are plucked with a claw instrument, the animals are returned to the pasture. Companies portal Official website
Castrol is a British global brand of industrial and automotive lubricants offering a wide range of oils and similar products for most lubrication applications. The Wakefield Oil Company was founded by Charles Cheers Wakefield in 1899; the brand "Castrol" originated. In 1966, Castrol was acquired by Scottish company Burmah Oil, renamed Burmah-Castrol. Burmah-Castrol was purchased by London-based multinational BP in 2000. Castrol has signed with Gaunt Brothers Racing to run the 96 Toyota with DJ Kennington in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series in the 4 superspeedway races at Daytona International Speedway and Talladega SuperspeedwayThe brand has been involved in Formula One for many years, supplying to a number of teams, including McLaren, Team Lotus, Jaguar and Walter Wolf Racing. Castrol have signed up with Renault F1 to supply fuel and lubricants for the 2017 F1 world championship. McLaren are expected to announce a similar deal with Castrol in the coming weeks. Castrol has sponsored the Ford World Rally Team and M-Sport in the World Rally Championship since 2003, the Chip Ganassi Racing Ford GT factory team since 2016.
It has sponsored Volkswagen Motorsport activities in the Dakar Rally and the World Rally Championship since 2005. Audi Sport's activities in rallying and touring car racing have been sponsored by Castrol, as well as its Le Mans Prototypes program since 2011. BMW Motorsport was sponsored by Castrol from 1999 to 2014. Toyota Motorsport GmbH had Castrol sponsorship in the World Rally Championship from 1993 to 1998, Hyundai Motorsport did so from 2000 to 2002; the Honda factory team at the World Touring Car Championship has Castrol sponsorship since 2012. In the All-Japan GT Championship, the TOM'S Toyota Supra and the Mugen Honda NSX had Castrol sponsorships. In Australia, between 1993 and 2005, Castrol was the title sponsor of V8 Supercars team Perkins Engineering, it sponsored Longhurst Racing between 1995 and 1999, Ford Performance Racing between 2007 and 2009, Paul Morris Motorsport in 2010. Since 2018 Castrol has been title sponsor of Kelly Racing driver Rick Kelly. Castrol is the title sponsor with Team Bray, owned by Australian drag car legend, Victor Bray for 17 years.
In North America, Castrol has been an active sponsor of NHRA drag racing. Castrol sponsored John Force Racing under the GTX brand from 1987 until the end of the 2014 season; the All American Racers had Castrol sponsorship in the CART World Series from 1996 to 1999. In 2014, Castrol sponsored former Indy 500-winning IndyCar team Bryan Herta Autosport, with English rookie Jack Hawksworth behind the wheel. Castrol is the name sponsor of Castrol Raceway, a multi-track oval and motocross racing facility in Edmonton, Canada. Castrol is the sponsor of D. J. Kennington in the NASCAR Canadian Tire Series. In Australia, Castrol was the main sponsor of the Castrol International Rally in Canberra for more than 10 years between 1976 and 1986; the same was true for an International Rally held in South Africa, ending annually in neighbouring Swaziland. It was the most prestigious event on the South African rally calendar at the time, until Castrol ended its sponsorship of this event. Only some competitors' cars were carrying the bright green and red colours of Castrol sponsorship in national rally events, notably the S.
A. Toyota dealer team; as of 2015, Castrol has a major V8 Supercar presence in Australia. Castrol is the Official Oil of the Championship. In Additionally, certain race events are Castrol branded, such as the Castrol Edge Townsville 500 and the Castrol Gold Coast 600. Castrol advertising has been a part of telecasts of the National Football League for years. In 2011 Castrol's Edge brand became the official motor oil sponsor for the league, along with Minnesota Vikings running back Adrian Peterson endorsing the product; the endorsement deal with Peterson was terminated on 16 September 2014 due to ongoing child abuse allegations. The Castrol Cricket Index for a team is a dynamic indicator of the overall performance of the cricket team, it is calculated by taking into consideration the batting momentum, the bowling efficiency, the performance of the teams in the quick start overs and the extreme performance overs and many other factors. Castrol Cricket ranks cricketers based on their overall performance.
India centric initiatives being undertaken like Castrol World Cup ka Hero was created during the 2011 Cricket World Cup. In 2011, Castrol signed a four-year sponsorship deal for the Australian national rugby union team and as the naming rights sponsor of The Rugby Championship. It's More Than Just Oil. It's Liquid Engineering is the advertising slogan or punchline of Castrol, used for branding its engine oil products. Castrol products are still marketed under the red and green colour scheme that dates from the launch of Castrol motor oil in 1909. Advertisements for Castrol oil featured the slogan "Castrol – liquid engineering". It's liquid engineering." In 2008, this slogan was being featured as the name for a new rewards club called the "Castrol Liquid Engineering Crew" in which members get the chance to win prizes. For many years, the opening notes of the second Nachtmusik movement of Mahler's Seventh Symphony were used as the signature theme of Castrol TV commercials. Wakefield vehicles advertised Castrol on their sides.
One example from 1934 to 1
A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, Japan, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most Buddhist, were located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship, although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist vihara; the modern pagoda is an evolution of the stupa. Stupas are a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept venerated; the architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design. Many Philippine bell towers are influenced by pagodas through Chinese workers hired by the Spaniards.
One proposed etymology is from a South Chinese pronunciation of the term for an eight-cornered tower, Chinese: 八角塔, reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the "Pázhōu tǎ", standing just south of Guangzhou at Whampoa Anchorage. Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, "idol" and kada, "temple, dwelling."Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese, from Sanskrit bhagavati, feminine of bhagavat, "blessed", from bhag, "good fortune". Yet another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word dāgaba, derived from Sanskrit dhātugarbha or Pali dhātugabbha: "relic womb/chamber" or "reliquary shrine", i.e. a stupa, by way of Portuguese. The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa; the stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions blended into pagoda architecture also spreading to Southeast Asia.
The pagoda's original purpose was to sacred writings. This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries, pilgrims and ordinary devotees to seek out and extol Buddhist relics. On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newa architecture of Nepal and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia. Nepali architect Araniko shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China; these buildings became prominent. Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures; the image of Gautama Buddha in the abhaya mudrā is noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism. In an article on Buddhist elements in Han dynasty art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist symbolism was so well-incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed. Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial at the top of the structure, when made of metal, this finial, sometimes referred to as a "demon-arrester", can function as a lightning rod.
Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small and others may be large. Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, London; the pagodas in Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia are different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from Dravidian architecture. Tiered towers with multiple eaves: Songyue Pagoda on Mount Song, China, built in 523. Mireuksa at Iksan, built in the early 7th century. Bunhwangsa at Gyeongju, built in 634. Xumi Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 636. Daqin Pagoda in China, built in 640. Hwangnyongsa Wooden nine-story pagoda on Hwangnyongsa, Korea, built in 645. Pagoda at Hōryū-ji, Nara, built in the 7th century. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 704 Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 709. Seokgatap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Dabotap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Tiger Hill Pagoda, built in 961 outside of Suzhou, China Lingxiao Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 1045.
Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049, during the Song dynasty. Liaodi Pagoda of Dingzhou, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Ying County, China. Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, China, 11th century. Beisi Pagoda at Suzhou, China, built in 1162. Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty. Ichijō-ji, Kasai, Hyōgo, built in 1171; the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, built between 1402 and 1424, a wonder of the medieval world in Nanjing, China. Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda in Ping Shan, Hong Kong, built in 1486. Dragon and Tiger Pagodas in Kaohsiung, built in 1976. Seven-storey Pagoda in Chinese Garden at Jurong East, built in 1975. Pazhou Pagoda on Whampoa Island, China, built in 1600. Pagoda of the Celestial Lady, in Huế, built in 1601. Palsangjeon, a five-story pagoda at Beopjusa, Korea built in 1605. Tō-ji, the tallest wooden structure in Kyoto, built in 1644. Nyatapola at Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley built during 1701–1702; the Great Pagoda at Kew Gardens, London, UK, built in 1762.
Trấn Quốc Pagoda, Ha
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Bendicks is a chocolate brand owned by August Storck KG, famed for its "quintessentially British" Bittermint dark mint chocolates, still made to the original recipe of 1931. In 1930 Oscar Benson and Colonel'Bertie' Dickson purchased a small confectionery business at 164 Church street in Kensington, with the chocolates made in a tiny basement below the shop, they used the first syllable of each of their surnames to come up with the name Bendicks. In 1931 Benson's sister-in-law, Lucia Benson, came up with a dark chocolate so bitter that it was inedible on its own, combined it with a mint fondant, so flavoured with mint oil that it was difficult to eat on its own; when the two parts were combined they produced a palatable chocolate that they named Bendicks Bittermints. The chocolate coating contains 95% cocoa solids. By 1933, Bendicks was developing a reputation for quality and a new store was opened in the heart of London's exclusive Mayfair. Prominent among the visitors was the Duke of Kent, son of King George V, who visited for the renowned Bittermints.
The company soon became known as Bendicks of Mayfair. In 1946 the business was sold to Mr. Edgar Lawley. By 1952 Bendicks had moved to a building which bridged St. Thomas Street and Little Minster Street in Winchester, Hampshire; this building, which has now been demolished and replaced by residential properties and garages, had been constructed in around 1890 and been used as The Winchester Temperance Billiards Hall. It had acquired the business of William Cox & Son, manufacturers of Royal Winchester Chocolates, located in St. George's Street, Winchester; the reputation of the company and its products was further enhanced in 1962 when it was awarded the coveted Royal Warrant: "By Appointment to Her Majesty The Queen". The confectionery products were all made with the finest quality ingredients; the main part of the business was chocolate coated confectionery and these were all hand dipped, giving a much thicker layer of chocolate, the availability of female'dippers' was a constraint on the growth of the business.
They produced confectionery products such as nougat and chocolate bars. A feature of Bittermints was that they could be purchased in 18 inch and 36 inch boxes. In 1967 the business was moved to a purpose built factory in Winchester. During the 1960s it had been acquired by Wood Hall Trust Ltd.. In years enrobing equipment was introduced allowing an increase in production. In the 1960s the business owned a number of retail outlets in prestigious parts of London. Two were located in Wigmore Street and Sloane Street, both of which were restaurants; the remaining shops were located in Bond Street, Throgmorton Street and Curzon Street Many of the products sold in these shops were chocolate confectionery packed in fine china so that the remaining'container' became a useful quality object and customers could bring in quality china containers to have filled with confectionery to be given as gifts. Since 1988 Bendicks has been a subsidiary of August Storck; the brand diversified in 2002, introducing Mingles, an unsuccessful selection box of chocolates.
On 18 April 2011, Storck announced its plan to move chocolate production from its factory in Hampshire to Germany, with the loss of 84 jobs. The decision was based on economic factors, namely a weak chocolate market and lack of profitability at the English factory; the managing director of Storck, Thomas Huber, explained: This difficult decision has been driven by commercial reality. Despite our best efforts to re-launch the Bendicks brand and diversify into new flavours and categories, we have not been able to drive the critical mass to support an independent manufacturing plant for Bendicks products only in the UK. Steve Brine, Member of Parliament for Winchester, who raised the matter with the Prime Minister, stated: Clearly this is not at all a surprise following the figures Storck management shared with me and the minister last month but it's a cruel blow nonetheless for the workforce who have given so much to this company over many years. I am sad Bendicks can't make this plant work but it's important we all work with them positively going forward
Scotch whisky is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland. Scotch whisky must be made in a manner specified by law. All Scotch whisky was made from malted barley. Commercial distilleries began introducing whisky made from rye in the late 18th century. Scotch whisky is divided into five distinct categories: single malt Scotch whisky, single grain Scotch whisky, blended malt Scotch whisky, blended grain Scotch whisky, blended Scotch whisky. All Scotch whisky must be aged in oak barrels for at least three years. Any age statement on a bottle of Scotch whisky, expressed in numerical form, must reflect the age of the youngest whisky used to produce that product. A whisky with an age statement is known as guaranteed-age whisky. A whisky without an age statement is known as a no age statement whisky, the only guarantee being that all whisky contained in that bottle is at least three years old; the first written mention of Scotch whisky is in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, 1495. A friar named John Cor was the distiller at Lindores Abbey in Newburgh, where, in October 2017, malt whisky production restarted for the first time in 522 years.
Many Scotch whisky drinkers refer to a unit for drinking as a dram. As of 23 November 2009, the Scotch Whisky Regulations 2009 define and regulate the production, packaging as well as the advertising of Scotch whisky in the United Kingdom, they replace previous regulations that focused on production. International trade agreements have the effect of making some provisions of the SWR apply in various other countries as well as in the UK; the SWR define "Scotch whisky" as whisky that is: Produced at a distillery in Scotland from water and malted barley all of which have been: Processed at that distillery into a mash Converted at that distillery to a fermentable substrate only by endogenous enzyme systems Fermented at that distillery only by adding yeast Distilled at an alcoholic strength by volume of less than 94.8% Wholly matured in an excise warehouse in Scotland in oak casks of a capacity not exceeding 700 litres for at least three years Retaining the colour and taste of the raw materials used in, the method of, its production and maturation Containing no added substances, other than water and plain caramel colouring Comprising a minimum alcoholic strength by volume of 40% A Scotch whisky label comprises several elements that indicate aspects of production, age and ownership.
Some of these elements are regulated by the SWR, some reflect tradition and marketing. The spelling of the term "whisky" is debated by journalists and consumers. Scottish, Welsh and Canadian whiskies use "whisky", Irish whiskies use "whiskey", while American and other styles vary in their spelling of the term; the label always features a declaration of the grain whiskies used. A single malt Scotch whisky is one, produced from malt in one distillery. One may encounter the term "single cask", signifying the bottling comes from one cask; the term "blended malt" signifies that single malt whisky from different distilleries are blended in the bottle. The Cardhu distillery began using the term "pure malt" for the same purpose, causing a controversy in the process over clarity in labelling – the Glenfiddich distillery was using the term to describe some single malt bottlings; as a result, the Scotch Whisky Association declared that a mixture of single malt whiskies must be labelled a "blended malt". The use of the former terms "vatted malt" and "pure malt" is prohibited.
The term "blended malt" is still debated, as some bottlers maintain that consumers confuse the term with "blended Scotch whisky", which contains some proportion of grain whisky. The brand name featured on the label is the same as the distillery name. Indeed, the SWR prohibit bottlers from using a distillery name. A bottler name may be listed, sometimes independent of the distillery. In addition to requiring that Scotch whisky be distilled in Scotland, the SWR require that it be bottled and labelled in Scotland. Labels may indicate the region of the distillery. Alcoholic strength is expressed on the label with "Alcohol By Volume" or sometimes "Vol". Bottled whisky is between 40% and 46% ABV. Whisky is stronger when first emerging from the cask—normally 60–63% ABV. Water is added to create the desired bottling strength. If the whisky is not diluted before bottling, it can be labelled as cask strength. A whisky's age may be listed on the bottle providing a guarantee of the youngest whisky used. An age statement on the bottle, in the form of a number, must reflect the age of the youngest whisky used to produce that product.
A whisky with an age statement is known as guaranteed age whisky. Scotch whisky without an age statement may, by law, be as young as three years old. In the early 21st century, such "No age statement" whiskies became more common, as distilleries responded to the depletion of aged stocks caused by improved sales. A label may carry a bottling date. Whisky does not mature once bottled, so if no age statement is provided, one may calculate the age of the whisky if both the distillation date and bottling date are given. Labels may carry various declarations of filtration techniques or final maturation processes. A Scotch whisky labelled as "natural" or "non-chill-filtered" has not been thro
The Carphone Warehouse Ltd. is a British mobile phone retailer, with over 2,400 stores across Europe. It trades as Carphone Warehouse in the United Kingdom and Ireland, as Phone House elsewhere; the company has been a subsidiary of Dixons Carphone since 7 August 2014, formed by the merger of its former parent Carphone Warehouse Group with Dixons Retail. Carphone Warehouse Group was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the company was co founded in 1989, when most portable phones were too bulky to carry and called car phones, by current Chairman Sir Charles Dunstone and Julian Brownlie. Brownlie and Dunstone put £6,000 into the company from their savings. In 1990, Dunstone called his old school friend and Chartered Accountant David Ross. While Dunstone became the public face of the Carphone Warehouse, David Ross and drove the high street retail footprint of the company by buying Tandy in the United Kingdom for £9 million in January 1999. Dunstone approached old customer Guy Johnson of NEC UK – described by one City analyst as "the Ringo Starr of Carphone Warehouse" for being in the right place at the right time – to become the third partner taking up the role of Logistics and Distribution director.
David Ross led the footprint development of the company, under The Phone House brand, across Europe and the United States. When the IPO of Carphone Warehouse took place in 2000, Charles Dunstone owned half, David Ross a third, Johnson most of the rest. Johnson sold the majority of his stake in July 2001, retired with his young family to his holiday home in Portugal. Carphone Warehouse bought Opal Telecom in November 2002. While David Ross had been joint Chief Operating Officer with Charles Dunstone from 1990 and 2003, whereas Dunstone stayed with the business that he still runs today, Ross started to give up his executive position from 2003. Ross became deputy chairman in July 2005, by 2008, was a non executive director. David Ross resigned over an issue with shares; the Carphone Warehouse announced that it would purchase the Internet access business from AOL in the United Kingdom on 10 October 2006 for £370m, making it the third largest broadband provider, with over 2 million customers, the largest LLU Operator with more than 150,000 LLU customers.
In May 2008 Best Buy agreed to buy a 50% share of The Carphone Warehouse retail business for £1.1 billion to launch the Best Buy Europe joint venture. The division was renamed CPW Europe, included all stores operating under the Carphone Warehouse and Phone House brands. On 8 May 2009, Carphone Warehouse became Britain’s second largest broadband provider after BT when it agreed to pay £236m in cash for the United Kingdom assets of Tiscali, the Italian telecoms group. At the time, Charles Dunstone confirmed that Tiscali UK would become part of TalkTalk, which would be demerged as a separate company; the group split in March 2010, with TalkTalk and New Carphone Warehouse each becoming publicly listed companies. Charles Dunstone became Chairman of both companies. Dido Harding became Roger Taylor CEO of New Carphone Warehouse. On 30 April 2013, Carphone Warehouse agreed to a divorce from Best Buy and to purchase the US company's 50% stake in Best Buy Europe for £500 million. Separation from Virgin Mobile France, announced on 27 June 2014, is pending approval of the French Competition Authority.
Should that deal be approved, Carphone Warehouse, Virgin Group and Finacom SAS would end their three-way relationship by selling the French operation to the French cable and telecoms company Numericable Group SA. In May 2014, Carphone Warehouse Group and Dixons Retail announced their merger to create Dixons Carphone; the merger completed on 7 August 2014. The Dixons Group staff moved into 1 Portal Way, the original home of Carphone Warehouse, in North London in May 2015. In May 2015, Carphone Warehouse launched a new mobile network, iD, a mobile virtual network operator using Three's network. In October 2006, it was announced that Geek Squad would be launching in the United Kingdom in a 50/50 joint venture between Carphone Warehouse and Best Buy. In the same business venture, Carphone Warehouse was split into four parts and one quarter sold to Best Buy for a sum nearing 1.1 billion. On 19 June 2007, the Carphone Warehouse became the official sponsor of the fourth series of The X Factor; the sponsorship deal was to last for three years.
The Carphone Warehouse became the sponsor of its spin-off show, The Xtra Factor. After the Carphone Warehouse and TalkTalk split, TalkTalk took over the sole sponsorship of The X Factor; the company were the sponsors for the United Kingdom's version of Big Brother from 2004 to 2007. In 2006, they sponsored Celebrity Big Brother and related Celebrity Big Brother shows on Channel 4. On 17 January 2007, in response to alleged racism in Celebrity Big Brother, Charles Dunstone said: "We are talking to Channel 4; the sponsorship is under review. We are against racism. Most people understand that the person who has their name associated with the programme does not condone the content."On 18 January 2007, Carphone Warehouse announced that it had suspended its sponsorship of the show as Channel 4 had not taken sufficient action in response to the alleged racism in the show. On 8 March 2007, the company permanently dropped its sponsorship of the show. In April 2011, Carphone Warehouse sponsored the Appy Awards, calling them "the United Kingdom’s first major app awards ceremony designed to recognise innovation and development in app technology".
In 2001, Carphone Warehouse established a corporate partnership with Get Connected UK, that continu