Groupers are fish of any of a number of genera in the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae, in the order Perciformes. Not all serranids are called groupers, the family includes the sea basses. The common name grouper is usually given to fish in one of two genera and Mycteroperca. In addition, the species classified in the small genera Anyperidon, Dermatolepis, Saloptia, fish in the genus Plectropomus are referred to as coralgroupers. These genera are all classified in the subfamily Epiphelinae, the word grouper on its own is usually taken as meaning the subfamily Epinephelinae. The word grouper is most widely believedto be from the Portuguese name, the origin of this name in Portuguese is believed to be from an indigenous South American language. In Australia, groper is used instead of grouper for several species, in the Philippines, it is named lapu-lapu in Luzon, while in the Visayas and Mindanao it goes by the name pugapo. In New Zealand, groper refers to a type of wreckfish, Polyprion oxygeneios, in the Middle East, the fish is known as hammour, and is widely eaten, especially in the Persian Gulf region.
Groupers are teleosts, typically having a body and a large mouth. They are not built for long-distance, fast swimming and they can be quite large, and lengths over a meter and weights up to 100 kg are not uncommon, though obviously in such a large group, species vary considerably. They swallow prey rather than biting pieces off it and they do not have many teeth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx. They habitually eat fish and crustaceans, some species prefer to ambush their prey, while other species are active predators. Reports of fatal attacks on humans by the largest species, the giant grouper are unconfirmed and their mouths and gills form a powerful sucking system that sucks their prey in from a distance. They use their mouths to dig into sand to form their shelters under big rocks, research indicates roving coralgroupers sometimes cooperate with giant morays in hunting. Groupers are mostly monandric protogynous hermaphrodites, i. e. they mature only as females and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity, some species of groupers grow about a kilogram per year and are generally adolescent until they reach three kilograms, when they become female.
The largest males often control harems containing three to 15 females, groupers often pair spawn, which enables large males to competitively exclude smaller males from reproducing. As such, if a small female grouper were to change sex before it could control a harem as a male, if no male is available, the largest female that can increase fitness by changing sex will do so. Gonochorism, or a strategy with two distinct sexes, has evolved independently in groupers at least five times
Olango Island Group
The Olango Island Group is a group of islands found in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines and is a part of Cebu Province. It comprises Olango island and 6 satellite islets namely, Gilutongan, Caohagan, Pangan-an, Olango Island and its neighboring islets has a total land area of approximately 1,030 ha. The island group is divided under the jurisdiction of the city of Lapu-Lapu and it lies 5 kilometres east of Mactan Island and is a major tourist destination in Cebu. It is known for its wildlife sanctuary, the Olango Group of islands consists of seven islands. Located 5 kilometres east of Mactan Island, Olango Island and its satellite islets lies between the Cebu Strait to the south and the Camotes Sea to the north. To the east is the Olango Channel while to the west is the Gilutungan Channel, Olango Islands has a total land area of approximately 1,030 hectares. The reef flat-lagoon surrounding the island of Olango is considered one of the most extensive areas in the Central Visayas.
The Olango group of islands is a group composed of the island of Olango. The six neighboring islets are Sulpa, Nalusuan, Pangan-an and these are bound by continuous fringing reefs and reef flats. The islands are low-lying with elevation reaching no more than 10 metres above sea level, at the center of these islands is a vast tidal flat, which includes the 920-hectare area of the Olango Island Wildlife Sanctuary. Olango Islands are raised coral reefs, like most of Cebu province, the lithology of the island consists of two unit types, As a consequence of the geology, water supplies are hard. The climate is typically equatorial – temperature range over the year is less than 3 degrees Celsius change, january to April inclusive are less wet than the other months. This supports at least two rice crops per year, the dry season starts in February and lasts through April sometimes extending to mid‑May. Olango has a climate, which is typical to the Central Visayas. Most months of the year are marked by significant rainfall, the short dry season has little impact.
This location is classified as Am by Köppen–Geiger climate classification system, the area is relatively hot and humid, with a mean daily temperature range of 23.2 to 33.1 °C. Daily mean relative humidity ranges from 60 to 94 percent, the annual rainfall averages about 1,562 mm at Mactan-Cebu International Airport and 1,440 mm in brgy Maribago, which is located along the eastern coastline of Mactan Island. Although, the Philippine archipelago lies within the belt, the island of Olango is shielded from typhoons by the islands of Mactan
Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu, is the capital city of the province of Cebu in Central Visayas and is the second city of the Philippines after Manila. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 630,003 registered voters, Cebu City is a significant center of commerce and education in the Visayas. The city is located on the side of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement, the countrys oldest city, and it is considered as the Fount of Christianity in the Far East. Cebu is the Philippines main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the countrys shipping companies. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island, Metro Cebu has a total population of 2,849,213 as of 2015, making it the second most-populous metropolitan area of the nation after Metro Manila in Luzon. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire, before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya, now better known as the Rajahnate of Cebu.
It was founded by a prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the name Sugbu refers to Sri Lumays scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders. On 7 April 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu and he was welcomed by Rajah Humabon, the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, the last ruler of Sugbu, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabons nephew, Rajah Tupas. They Christianized some natives and Spanish remnants in Cebu, the Spanish arrived in Cebu on 15 April 1565. They attempted to parley with the ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on 8 May, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, the Treaty of Cebu was formalized on 3 July 1565. López de Legazpis party named the new city Villa de San Miguel de Cebú, in 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain. The growing colony was fortified by Fort San Pedro, by 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago.
Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went to Mindoro and Luzon, one year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. On 14 August 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila
Cebu is a 1st provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, and consisting of the main island itself and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, Cebu City forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities and eight other local government units. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines, Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a hub for shipping, furniture-making, business processing services. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others, Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire.
The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya and he was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 established a period of Spanish exploration and colonization, losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and they reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain.
Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos, the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized, Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated, according to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellans body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellans second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain.
Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure, in 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, and established a colony
Marcelo Fernan Bridge
Marcelo Fernan Bridge is an extradosed cable-stayed bridge located in Metro Cebu in the Philippines. It spans across Mactan Channel connecting Mandaue City to Lapu-Lapu City in Mactan Island, before it was named the Marcelo Fernan Bridge, it was called the Consolacion Bridge, named after the Municipality of Consolacion, which is 1.6 miles from the north end of the bridge. Marcelo Fernan Bridge was opened in August 1999 to decongest the traffic from the older Mactan-Mandaue Bridge. The bridge has a length of 1237 meters with a center span of 185 meters, and was completed by in August 1999. The bridge is one of the widest and longest bridge spans in the Philippines, the bridge was constructed with the help of the Japanese Government. It was named after Senator Marcelo Fernan, a figure from Cebu City. On the Mactan Island side of the bridge, there is a called the Millennium Park at the base of the bridges piers. Also, the bridge has two pedestrian walkways, one on the side of the bridge, and one on the south side.
On the Cebu Island side of the bridge, there is Mandaue City, the Mactan Island side of the bridge, which is in Lapu-Lapu City, is accessed by Old Patiller Road, a spur road of the Manuel L. Quezon National Highway. The Mactan-Mandaue Bridge is located about 1.6 kilometers south of the Marcelo Fernan Bridge, picture of the Millenium Park under the bridge and another picture as well
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Central Visayas is a region of the Philippines, designated as Region VII. It is located in the part of the Visayas island group. Cebu City is the regional center, the region is dominated by the native speakers of Cebuano. The land area of the region is 10,102 square kilometres, on May 29,2015, the region was redefined, when Region VII lost the province of Negros Oriental to the newly formed Negros Island Region. By virtue of Executive Order No.183 issued on May 29,2015 by President Benigno Aquino III, in the 2013 electoral roll, it had 4,114,046 registered voters, meaning that 68% of the population are aged 18 and over. According to the 2015 census, it had a population of 6,041,903, the 2015 census showed an average annual population growth rate of 1. 76% from 2010 to 2015, slightly higher than the national average of 1. 72%. Cebuano is the dominant language of the region, the Central Visayas region consists of 3 provinces and 3 independent cities, Negros Oriental was formerly a part of Region VII.
President Benigno Aquino III signed the Executive Order No.183, Cebu City is the main media hub for both the region. Most of these stations broadcast local news and public affairs as well as entertainment, aside from the 24 national daily newspapers available, Cebu City has 20 local newspapers. Among the widely read are the Sun Star Cebu, the countrys main Islamic news journal, The Voice of Islam, was founded in 1961 and published in this city. The Port of Cebu is the main gateway. There are ports in Tagbilaran in Bohol and Larena in Siquijor, inter-island shipping is served by numerous shipping lines, two of them fastcraft companies which serve all the provinces in the region. The Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Lapu-Lapu City, is the second busiest airport. It is the airline hub of Cebu Pacific, and secondary hub for Philippine Airlines and its subsidiaries. It serves international flights to other Asian and intercontinental destinations, other airports in the region are Tagbilaran Airport, serves Tagbilaran and Bohol with flights to Manila.
Media related to Central Visayas at Wikimedia Commons Central Visayas travel guide from Wikivoyage
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Cities of the Philippines
A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. As of December 12,2015, there are 145 cities, Cities are entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal, only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have. A citys local government is headed by an elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. Upon receiving their charters, cities receive a full complement of executive departments to serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a basis, depending on the needs of the city. Source, Local Government Code of 1991, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods, to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative districts, examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao and Samal.
Some cities such as Caloocan and Pasay even have a level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units, there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels, rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient. Cities are classified according to annual income based on the previous four calendar years. There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines,16 of which are located in Metro Manila, Component Cities, Cities which do not meet the preceding requirements are deemed part of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located along the boundaries of two or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality, majority of the remaining cities are considered component cities. The five exceptions are listed below, independent Component Cities, Cities of this type have charters that explicitly prohibit their residents to vote for provincial officials.
These cities are considered independent from the province in which they are geographically located, there are five such cities, Dagupan, Naga and Santiago. There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities. Some independent cities are still grouped with their provinces for the purposes of representation in the Congress of the Philippines
A barangay, formerly referred to as barrio, is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. In colloquial usage, the term refers to an inner city neighbourhood. The word barangay originated from balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian peoples when they migrated to the Philippines, as of June 2015, there were 42,029 barangays throughout the Philippines. When the first Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, the name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning sailboat. The first barangays started as small communities of around 50 to 100 families. By the time of contact with Spaniards, many barangays have developed into large communities, some of these barangays had large populations. In Panay, some barangays had 20,000 inhabitants, in Leyte,15,000 inhabitants, in Cebu,3,500 residents, in Vitis,7,000 inhabitants, there were smaller barangays with less number of people. But these were generally inland communities, or if they were coastal and these smaller barangays had around thirty to one hundred houses only, and the population varies from one hundred to five hundred persons.
According to Legazpi, he found communities with twenty to thirty people only, the original “barangays” were coastal settlements of the migration of these Malayo-Polynesian people from other places in Southeast Asia. Most of the ancient barangays were coastal or riverine in nature and this is because most of the people were relying on fishing for supply of protein and for their livelihood. They travelled mostly by water up and down rivers, trails always followed river systems, which were a major source of water for bathing and drinking. The coastal barangays were more accessible to trade with foreigners and these were ideal places for economic activity to develop. Business with traders from other countries meant contact with cultures and civilizations, such as those of Japan, Han Chinese, Indian people. These coastal communities acquired more cosmopolitan cultures, with developed social structures, during the Spanish rule, through a resettlement policy called the Reducción, smaller scattered barangays were consolidated to form compact towns.
Each barangay was headed by the cabeza de barangay, who formed part of the Principalía - the elite ruling class of the municipalities of the Spanish Philippines and this position was inherited from the first datus, and came to be known as such during the Spanish regime. The Spanish Monarch ruled each barangay through the Cabeza, who collected taxes from the residents for the Spanish Crown. When the Americans arrived, slight changes in the structure of government was effected. Later, Rural Councils with four councilors were created to assist, now renamed Barrio Lieutenant, it was renamed Barrio Council, the Spanish term barrio was used for much of the 20th century until 1974, when President Ferdinand Marcos ordered their renaming to barangays
The Mactan Channel known as Opon Channel is the strait between main island of Cebu and the smaller Mactan Island. The body of water is located within Metro Cebu separating Lapu-Lapu City on Mactan Island from Mandaue City and it is one of the three channels that connect the Cebu Strait to the Camotes Sea - the other two being Olango Channel and Hilutangan Channel. It is the passageway for ships navigating between Cebu and Bohol. The Port of Cebu - the second largest port in the country - is located along Mactan Channel and has used since the Spanish Colonial Period. It was organized a Channel in Cebu on March 1,1958, the channel was first spanned by the Mactan-Mandaue Bridge in 1971 and by the Marcelo Fernan Bridge in 1999
The Philippine Revolution, called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities. The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered Katipunan, the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, was a liberationist movement whose goal was independence from Spain through armed revolt. The organization began to influence much of the Philippines, Bonifacio called for an attack on the capital city of Manila. This attack failed, the surrounding provinces began to revolt, in particular, rebels in Cavite led by Mariano Alvarez and Emilio Aguinaldo won early victories. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacios death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo and that year, the revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo and other Filipino officers exiled themselves in Hong Kong, the hostilities never completely ceased.
On April 21,1898, the United States launched a blockade of Cuba. On May 1, the U. S. Navys Asiatic Squadron, under Commodore George Dewey, decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay, effectively seizing control of Manila. On May 19, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines, by June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence, although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence. The Spanish rule of the Philippines officially ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, in the treaty, Spain ceded control of the Philippines and other territories to the United States. There was an uneasy peace around Manila, with the American forces controlling the city, in June 1899, the nascent First Philippine Republic formally declared war against the United States. The Philippines would not become an internationally recognized independent state until 1946, the main influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century, when the Philippines was opened for world trade.
In 1809, the first English firms were established in Manila, the Philippines had been governed from Mexico since 1565, with colonial administrative costs sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade. Increased competition with foreign traders brought the trade to an end in 1815. After its recognition of Mexican independence in 1821, Spain was forced to govern the Philippines directly from Madrid, at this point, post-French Revolution ideas entered the country through literature, which resulted in the rise of an enlightened principalia class in the society. The 1868 Spanish Revolution brought the rule of Queen Isabella II to an end. The autocratic government was replaced by a government led by General Francisco Serrano