Sir William Talbot, 1st Baronet
Sir William Talbot, 1st Baronet, was an Irish lawyer and politician. He was the son of Robert Talbot of Carton, County Kildare, the third son of Sir Thomas Talbot of Malahide, County Dublin, he was educated for the law, attained a leading position as a lawyer in Dublin. About 1603 he was appointed Recorder of Dublin, being a staunch Roman Catholic, he was soon afterwards removed from office for recusancy. On 13 April 1613 he was returned to the Irish Parliament as MP for County Kildare, became the unofficial legal adviser to the Roman Catholic party in the Irish House of Commons. Thomas Ryves, a close ally of the new Speaker, complained to the Westminster government that Talbot had abetted the return to Parliament of two schismatics. During the stormy scenes which marked the election of a Speaker in the Irish House of Commons, culminating with one of the rival Speakers sitting on the other, Talbot urged that the House should first purge itself of members elected by illegal means. On 30 May he was appointed by the House one of the deputies to represent to James I the corrupt practices employed in the elections to secure a Protestant majority, the arbitrary treatment of the Anglo-Irish Catholics.
He crossed to England in July, was examined by the Privy Council on his conduct in the Irish House of Commons. During the discussion of this question Archbishop George Abbot demanded Talbot's opinion on a book in which Francisco Suárez maintained the right of Catholics to kill an heretical king. Talbot acknowledged James as the lawful king; the Council was not satisfied with his answers, on 17 July Talbot was committed to the Tower of London. On 13 November 1613 the Star Chamber sentenced him to a fine of £10,000. Early in the following year, Talbot was allowed to return to Ireland, the fine was remitted. James I, on releasing him, disclaimed any intention of forcing the Irish Catholics to change their religion. From this time Talbot took little part in politics. On 4 February 1622 he was created a baronet, he subsequently received various grants of land, he is buried in Laraghbryan Cemetery outside Maynooth. By his wife Alison, daughter of John Netterville of Castleton, co. Meath, Talbot had issue eight daughters.
The eldest son, succeeded as second baronet, from Robert's daughter Frances, who married Richard Talbot of Malahide, descended the Baron Talbot de Malahide. The second son was Peter Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin, the eighth was Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell. Tyrconnel became Lord Lieutenant during the reign of James II, overhauling the Royal Irish Army which fought in the War of the Two Kings Of Sir William's daughters, Margaret married the landowner Sir Henry Talbot; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Talbot, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation those espoused during the English Reformation; the church self-identifies as being both Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning and those who are more Protestant-leaning. For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is identified as a Protestant church; the Church of Ireland describes itself as that part of the Irish Church, influenced by the Reformation, has its origins in the early Celtic Church of St Patrick. The Church of Ireland considers itself Catholic because it is in possession of a continuous tradition of faith and practice, based on scripture and early traditions, enshrined in the Catholic creeds, together with the sacraments and apostolic ministry.
However, the Church of Ireland is Protestant, or Reformed, since it opposes doctrines and ways of worshipping that it considers contrary to scripture and which led to the Reformation. The Church of Ireland, as a Reformed and Protestant Church, doth hereby re-affirm its constant witness against all those innovations in doctrine and worship whereby the Primitive faith hath been from time to time defaced or overlaid, which at the Reformation this Church did disown and reject; when the English Parliament declared that the Holy See had no power over the Church in England, the Church in Ireland conformed, assuming possession of most church property and so retaining a great repository of religious architecture and other items, though some were destroyed. The church explains its possession of so many of the ancient church buildings of Ireland by reference to the precedent set by Emperor Constantine the Great in the 4th century:Since the days of the Emperor Constantine in the 4th century European states saw themselves as having a central role in the government of the Church.
This church-state link was vigorously applied. Bishops were required to do homage to the king for their lands, just like earls and barons, who were vassals of the crown, it was therefore accepted, both during and after the Reformation, that the Crown should continue to exercise that authority over the church, in which it continued to play a central role. In this way, church property that existed at the time of the Reformation, buildings included, was retained by the Reformed, Established Church of Ireland. In Ireland, a considerable majority of the population continued to adhere to Roman Catholicism despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the state church. Despite its numerical minority, the Church of Ireland remained the official state church until the Irish Church Act 1869 disestablished it on 1 January 1871, under Queen Victoria and her Liberal government led by William Ewart Gladstone; the Church of Ireland claimed that in breaking with Rome the reformed established church was reverting to a condition that had obtained in the church in Ireland prior to the 12th century – the independent character of Celtic Christianity.
Modern scholarship, sees the early Irish church as different to but still a part of Roman Christianity, with the result that the Church of Ireland and the Irish Roman Catholic church can both claim descent from St Patrick. Claims of legitimacy for the Norman invasion of Ireland were derived from a Papal Bull of 1155 – Laudabiliter, although the governing structures in Ireland had never acknowledged any external authority over Ireland; the bull claimed to give King Henry II of England the right to invade Ireland, ostensibly as a means of reforming the church in Ireland more directly under the control of the Holy See. The authorisation from the Holy See was based upon the putative Donation of Constantine which claimed to make every Christian island in the western Roman Empire the property of the Papacy, though as Ireland was never a part of the Roman Empire, it had no real relevance. By the time of the English Reformation, the Donation had been exposed as a forgery, Henry VIII sought to undo by enforcing laws regarding praemunire the historic royal homage to the Papacy, delivered by John, King of England before him.
The Church of Ireland is the second largest church in Ireland and the third largest in Northern Ireland, after the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian churches. In 1155, Adrian IV granted Henry II the Lordship of Ireland; the reformed Church of Ireland was founded in 1536 when the Irish Parliament accepted Henry VIII as its head, rather than the Pope, confirmed when Henry became King of Ireland in 1541. The church was restricted to Dublin, driven by its bishop, George Browne; the pace of reform in quickened after 1547 under Edward VI, ended when his sister Mary I restored Catholicism in 1558. When Elizabeth replaced Mary in 1558, only five Irish bishops accepted the 1560 Elizabethan Settlement. Replacing them was complicated by the relative poverty of the Church compared to its Catholic predecessor, its lack of Irish-speaking clergy and the poor reputation of others. For example, Hugh Curwen backed the reforms of Henry and Edward, was appointed Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin in 1555 by Mary, became a Protestant
County Kildare is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Mid-East Region, it is named after the town of Kildare. Kildare County Council is the local authority for the county which has a population of 222,504. Kildare is the 24th-largest of Ireland's 32 counties in area and seventh largest in terms of population, it is the eighth largest of Leinster's twelve counties in size, second largest in terms of population. It is bordered by the counties of Carlow, Meath, Offaly and Wicklow; as an inland county, Kildare is a lowland region. The county's highest points are the foothills of the Wicklow Mountains bordering to the east; the highest point in Kildare is Cupidstown Hill on the border with Dublin, with the better known Hill of Allen in central Kildare. The county has three major rivers running through it: the Liffey and the Boyne; the Grand Canal crosses the county from Lyons on the east to Monasterevin on the west. A southern branch joins the Barrow navigation at Athy; the Royal Canal stretches across the north of the county along the border with Meath.
Pollardstown Fen is the largest remaining calcareous fen in Ireland, covering an area of 220 hectares and is recognised as an internationally important fen ecosystem with unique and endangered plant communities, declared a National Nature Reserve in 1986. The Bog of Allen is a large bog that extends across 958 km2 and into County Kildare, County Meath, County Offaly, County Laois, County Westmeath. Kildare has 243 km2 of bog located in the south-west and north-west, a majority of this being Raised Bog, it is habitat to over 185 animal species. There are 8,472 hectares of Forested land in Kildare, accounting for 5% of the county's total land area. 4,056 hectares of this is Coniferous, while there is 2,963 hectares of Broadleaf and the remaining area are Unclassified Species. Coillte and Dúchas own 47% of the forestry. Coillte run Donadea Forest Park, in North-Central Kildare; the forest is the largest forest park in Kildare. Kildare was shired in 1297 and assumed its present borders in 1832, following amendments to remove a number of enclaves and exclaves.
The county was the home of the powerful Fitzgerald family. Parts of the county were part of the Pale area around Dublin. Kildare County Council is the local authority for the county; the Local Electoral Areas of Kildare are Athy, Celbridge - Leixlip, Kildare - Newbridge and Naas. The Council has 40 members; the current council was elected in May 2013. Under the Local Government Reform Act 2014 the towns of Leixlip, Naas and Athy ceased to have separate town councils and were absorbed into their corresponding local electoral area. For elections to Dáil Éireann, there are two constituencies in the area of the county. In the Irish general election, 2016, Kildare North returned Catherine Murphy, James Lawless, Frank O'Rourke and Bernard Durkan, while Martin Heydon, Fiona O'Loughlin and Sean O Fearghail were returned for Kildare South; as part of the Mid-East Region, it is within the purview of the Mid-East Regional Authority. For elections to the European Parliament, it is part of the Midlands North-West constituency which returns four MEPs.
The county's population has nearly doubled to some 186,000 in 1990-2005. The north eastern region of Kildare had the highest average per-capita income in Ireland outside County Dublin in 2003. East Kildare's population has increased for example the amount of housing in the Naas suburb of Sallins has increased sixfold since the mid-1990s; as of 2016 the population of the county was 222,504. Ethnically, the 2016 census recorded County Kildare as 84% white Irish, 9% other white ethnicities, 2% black, 2% Asian, 1% of other ethnicity, 2% not stated. For religion, the census recorded a population, 80% Catholic, 9% of other stated religions, 10% with no religion and 2% not stated. Kildare contains the European base of electronics firms and Hewlett Packard, two of the largest employers in this sector in the entire island. Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has its European Manufacturing base in Newbridge, with another plant in nearby Newcastle in County Dublin. Major pizza-making, soft drinks, frozen food enterprises are located in Naas.
Large supermarket distribution centres are located in Naas and Kilcock. Kerry Group has developed a Global Innovation Centre in Millennium Park in Naas and employs over 1,000 people across 3 developments. Further developments including a new Education Campus are to be constructed in Millennium Park in the future; the Irish Army's largest military base containing its command headquarters and training centre is located at the Curragh. Kildare is the centre of the Irish horse industry. Kildare has more stud farms than any other county in Ireland. Several prominent international breeders have substantial stud farms in Kildare, including many from the Arab world. Racecourses The Irish National Stud farm The National Equestrian Centre Equine auction centre. County Kildare is the richest county in Ireland outside of Dublin and has the lowest unemployment rates in Ireland, throughout the economic recession of the 1980s. House prices in the county but in the North East of the county e.g. Naas and Maynooth have always been higher than the other counties in the country outside Dubl
Maynooth is a university town in north County Kildare, Ireland. It is home to Maynooth University and St Patrick's College, a Pontifical University and Ireland's main Roman Catholic seminary. Maynooth is the seat of the Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference and holds the headquarters of Ireland's largest development charity, Trócaire. Maynooth is located 24 kilometres west of central Dublin. Maynooth is located on the R148 road between Leixlip and Kilcock, with the M4 motorway bypassing the town. Other roads connect the town to Celbridge and Dunboyne. Maynooth is on the Dublin to Sligo rail line and is served by a commuter and intercity train service. Maynooth comes from Irish: Maigh Nuadhat or Maigh Nuadhad, meaning "plain of Nuadha". Maigh Nuad is the modern spelling. Nuadha was one of the gods of the ancient Irish, corresponding to Nudd of Wales and Nodens of ancient Britain and Gaul. Maynooth was a long-term centre for the Geraldine or FitzGerald family, which dominated Irish affairs in during the Anglo-Norman and Tudor periods.
From 1932 to 1937, the town was the unofficial home to the King's representative in Ireland, Governor General Domhnall Ua Buachalla, who declined to take up official residence in the Viceregal Lodge in the Phoenix Park, whose family operated a hardware store in the town until 2005, the only shop with an Irish language name in the town for many years, though during 2014 a sweet shop named An Siopa Milseán opened a few doors away. The town is just inside the western edge of The Pale, it has, at either end of the main street, Maynooth Castle and Carton House, two former seats of the Dukes of Leinster. The castle was a stronghold of the 16th century historical figure Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, better known as Silken Thomas; the castle was overrun after the rebellion of the Earl. The most important historical buildings in the town are those of St. Patrick's College and some which antedate the foundation of the college, while others are in the late Georgian and neo-Gothic revival style.
The "new range" of buildings was erected by A. W. N. Pugin in 1850 under a commission from college president Laurence F. Renehan, while the College Chapel was designed and completed by James Joseph McCarthy during the presidency of Dr. Robert Browne in 1894. Conolly's Folly is within Maynooth's extensive town boundaries, although it is much closer to Celbridge. There are three old monastic settlements in the vicinity of Maynooth, including Laraghbryan and its cemetery and its Round Tower and Grangewilliam; the population of 14,585 makes Maynooth the fifth largest settlement in Kildare and the 31st largest settlement in Ireland. However during the academic year the population of Maynooth nearly doubles in size. Measurement can be difficult as much of the population is transient – students at Maynooth University or St. Patrick's College, or temporary employees at the nearby Intel and Hewlett Packard facilities. There are two third-level educational institutions – St Patrick's College, founded under King George III in 1795 to train Ireland's Roman Catholic clergy, Maynooth University, separated from St. Patrick's College in 1997 – located in the town.
They share many facilities. Maynooth University is the only university in the Republic of Ireland not situated in a city. There are two secondary schools, four primary schools: a girls' school, a boys' school, an Educate Together school, an Irish-speaking school. Kildare VEC has received patronage authority to build a second secondary school, albeit their expressed desire is to split the existing one to senior and junior schools instead; the town contains a fire station, in addition to the area's part-time Garda station, a health centre, a branch library, a credit union as well as various restaurants, including Romayo's, voted to be the best Take-Away in Leinster in 2014. Maynooth is served by two churches named St. Mary's, one St. Mary's Church of Ireland, incorporated into the walls of St. Patrick's College, St. Mary's Roman Catholic church, where the Kilcock Road turns into Maynooth Village, serving the Maynooth Parish of St. Mary's and Ladychapel. Close by is the former Moyglare Church, used as the Church of Ireland, Meath & Kildare Diocesan Centre.
Maynooth Community Church is a congregation linked to the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The town is the main retail and service centre for North Kildare and South Meath, with branches of SuperValu, Tesco Ireland and Lidl, as well as a wide variety of non-chain stores. In October 2005, Dunnes Stores opened a major shopping centre off the town's main street, Manor Mills; this centre contains a number such as Easons and Elvery's Sports. On 18 January 2007 Tesco Ireland announced plans to demolish its existing store in Maynooth and build a larger shopping centre, anchored by a Tesco Extra store, on a neighbouring site; the new centre is known after nearby Carton House. The Tesco Extra portion of the new shopping centre opened on 3 November 2008, with Heatons, Sports Direct, Next Children and Boots. A number of shops that formed part of the former Maynooth Shopping Centre remain open on the old site. Maynooth is on the Royal Canal, navigable from central Dublin to this point, now used for leisure purposes.
It provided an important stopping point before Dublin in the period directly before the coming of the railways to
Duke of Leinster
Duke of Leinster is a title in the Peerage of Ireland and the premier dukedom in that peerage. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Leinster are: Marquess of Kildare, Earl of Kildare, Earl of Offaly, Viscount Leinster, of Taplow in the County of Buckingham, Baron Offaly and Baron Kildare, of Kildare in the County of Kildare; the viscounty of Leinster is in the Peerage of Great Britain, the barony of Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, all other titles in the Peerage of Ireland. The courtesy title of the eldest son and heir of the Duke of Leinster is Marquess of Kildare. General The 3rd Duke of Schomberg, K. G. was created The 1st Duke of Leinster in 1691. However, that creation became extinct upon Schomberg's death in July 1719; the family seat of the current Duke of Leinster is now Oakley Park, near Oxfordshire. This branch of the Cambro Norman FitzGerald/FitzMaurice dynasty, which came to Ireland in 1169, were created Earls of Kildare; the earldom was created in 1316 for John FitzGerald.
Two senior FitzGeralds, Garret Mór FitzGerald and his son, Garret Óg FitzGerald served as Lords Deputy of Ireland, the representative of the Lord of Ireland in Ireland. The tenth earl, Thomas FitzGerald, known as Silken Thomas, was attainted and his honours were forfeit in 1537. In 1554, Thomas's half-brother and only male heir, Gerald FitzGerald, was created Earl of Kildare in the Peerage of Ireland, he was subsequently restored as 11th earl. The second earldom became extinct in 1599; the family was based in Maynooth Castle in Maynooth in County Kildare. In centuries the family owned estates in Waterford with their country residence being a Georgian house called Carton House which had replaced the castle in County Kildare. In Dublin, the Earl built a large townhouse residence on the southside of Dublin called Kildare House; when the Earl was awarded a dukedom and became Duke of Leinster, the house was renamed Leinster House. One of its occupants was Lord Edward FitzGerald, who became an icon for Irish nationalism through his involvement with the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which cost him his life.
Leinster House was sold by the Leinsters in 1815. After nearly a century as the headquarters of the Royal Dublin Society, which held its famed Spring Show and Horse Show in its grounds, Oireachtas Éireann, the two chamber parliament of the new Irish Free State, rented Leinster House in 1922 to be its temporary parliament house. In 1924 it bought the building for parliamentary use, it has remained the parliament house of the Irish state. The Dukes of Leinster had by the early 20th century lost all wealth, their Carton House seat was sold, as on was their other residence in Waterford. The family now live in a smaller property in Oxfordshire. A controversial claim by the supposed descendants of the 5th Duke was made and failed, with the Lord Chancellor accepting the claim made by the 9th Duke of Leinster. In 2006, a lawsuit was filed with HMG's Department of Constitutional Affairs by Theresa Pamella Caudill, daughter of Eleanor and Maurice F. “Desmond” FitzGerald, on behalf of her nephew, a California builder, Paul FitzGerald, as claimant to be the rightful Duke of Leinster.
FitzGerald purported that he is the grandson of Major Lord Desmond FitzGerald, the second son of The 5th Duke of Leinster, recorded as having been killed in action during the First World War while serving with the Irish Guards. When The 6th Duke of Leinster died and childless, in February 1922, the Leinster dukedom – and its considerable wealth and lands – devolved upon his youngest brother Lord Edward FitzGerald, who succeeded as The 7th Duke of Leinster. Paul FitzGerald and his supporters claimed that Lord Desmond faked his death and emigrated to California where he lived until his death in 1967, it was further claimed by Mrs Caudill that a package of documents, witnessed by the Prince of Wales and Sir Edgar Vincent, Lord Feversham, had been lodged by her father with the Crown Office of the House of Lords in 1929, the family had been denied access to them. Mrs Caudill believed the documents included evidence that her father agreed to relinquish the title for one generation but made it clear it was to be passed down to his son, her brother Leonard FitzGerald.
Instead, it was passed down through her father's brother's family. It was alleged that an archivist had acknowledged the package had once existed, but the official line was that it was now lost; the Baron Falconer of Thoroton, Lord Chancellor, Harriet Harman, Minister of State in the Department for Constitutional Affairs, gave due consideration to this claim. The claim was dismissed by Lord Falconer despite a 30-year campaign by Paul FitzGerald's family reputedly costing £1.3 million. The Lord Chancellor adjudicated that the title was to remain with the existing holder, His Grace Maurice, 9th Duke of Leinster. Paul FitzGerald has a right of appeal against the Lord Chancellor's verdict by petitioning Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. In 2010, however, DNA evidence was presented that indicates that Paul FitzGerald is related to the wife of the 5th Duke, the former Lady Hermione Duncombe; as reported in The Scotsman, "with the help of Dunfermline-based genealogist Lloyd Pitcairn, Mrs FitzGerald Caudill traced Maud Crawf