The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, ended 35 to 55 million years ago. The exact duration and ages of beginning and end of the orogeny are in dispute; the Laramide orogeny occurred with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature, created by this orogeny was deep-seated, thick-skinned deformation, with evidence of this orogeny found from Canada to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota; the phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming. The Laramide orogeny is sometimes confused with the Sevier orogeny, which overlapped in time and space; the orogeny is attributed to events off the west coast of North America, where the Kula and Farallon Plates were sliding under the North American plate. Most hypotheses propose that oceanic crust was undergoing flat-slab subduction, i.e. with a shallow subduction angle, as a consequence, no magmatism occurred in the central west of the continent, the underlying oceanic lithosphere caused drag on the root of the overlying continental lithosphere.
One cause for shallow subduction may have been an increased rate of plate convergence. Another proposed cause was subduction of thickened oceanic crust. Magmatism associated with subduction occurred not near the plate edges, but far to the east, called the Coast Range Arc. Geologists call such a lack of volcanic activity near a subduction zone a magmatic gap; this particular gap may have occurred because the subducted slab was in contact with cool continental lithosphere, not hotter asthenosphere. One result of shallow angle of subduction and the drag that it caused was a broad belt of mountains, some of which were the progenitors of the Rocky Mountains. Part of the proto-Rocky Mountains would be modified by extension to become the Basin and Range Province; the Laramide orogeny produced intermontane structural basins and adjacent mountain blocks by means of deformation. This style of deformation is typical of continental plates adjacent to convergent margins of long duration that have not sustained continent/continent collisions.
This tectonic setting produces a pattern of compressive uplifts and basins, with most of the deformation confined to block edges. Twelve kilometers of structural relief between basins and adjacent uplifts is not uncommon; the basins contain several thousand meters of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that predate the Laramide orogeny. As much as 5,000 meters of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments filled these orogenically-defined basins. Deformed Paleocene and Eocene deposits record continuing orogenic activity. During the Laramide orogeny, basin floors and mountain summits were much closer to sea level than today. After the seas retreated from the Rocky Mountain region, floodplains and vast lakes developed in the basins. Drainage systems imposed at that time persist today. Since the Oligocene, episodic epeirogenic uplift raised the entire region, including the Great Plains, to present elevations. Most of the modern topography is the result of Pliocene and Pleistocene events, including additional uplift, glaciation of the high country, denudation and dissection of older Cenozoic surfaces in the basin by fluvial processes.
In the United States, these distinctive intermontane basins occur principally in the central Rocky Mountains from Colorado and Utah to Montana and are best developed in Wyoming, with the Bighorn, Powder River, Wind River being the largest. Topographically, the basin floors resemble the surface of the western Great Plains, except for vistas of surrounding mountains. At most boundaries, Paleozoic through Paleogene units dip steeply into the basins off uplifted blocks cored by Precambrian rocks; the eroded steeply dipping units form flatirons. Many of the boundaries are reverse faults. Although other boundaries appear to be monoclinal flexures, faulting is suspected at depth. Most bounding faults show evidence of at least two episodes of Laramide movement, suggesting both thrust and strike-slip types of displacement. According to paleontologist Thomas M. Lehman, the Laramide orogeny triggered "the most dramatic event that affected Late Cretaceous dinosaur communities in North America prior to their extinction."
This turnover event saw the replacement of specialized and ornamented centrosaurine and lambeosaurines by more basal upland dinosaurs in the south, while northern biomes became dominated by Triceratops with a reduced hadrosaur community. Laramide Belt — of the North American Cordillera. Sevier orogeny — earlier than the Laramide orogeny, of the Cretaceous era. Nevadan orogeny — still-earlier, of the late Jurassic—early Cretaceous era. Geology of the Rocky Mountains Geology of the Pacific Northwest Maps, detailed information U. Wisconsin article
Ghar Ek Sapnaa is a Hindi television serial that aired on Sahara One channel worldwide. It is based on the story of a young woman, whose dreams are shattered when she learns that her husband does not love her and she is not accepted by her in-laws. Sayantani Ghosh / Anisha Kapur as Kakul Samman Chaudhary Anisha Kapur... Damini Darshan Dave... Sujeet Ujjwal Rana / Ankur Nayyar as Samman Chaudhary Alok Nath... Amarnath Chaudhary Himani Shivpuri... Uttara Shammi.... Dadi Harsh Chhaya... Dr. Rishabh Lata Sabharwal... Cynthia Niki Aneja Walia... Simi Ahuja Chinky Jaiswal as Sonia Ahuja Barkha Madan... Devika Vinod Singh... Vicky Vindhya Tiwari... Mritika episodes 2–74, episodes 210–233 Jeetu Malkani... Ahaan episodes 205–231 Jaya Binju... Tulika Sachal Tyagi... Abhi Nagesh Bhosle... Nana Piyush Sahdev/Hasan Zaidi... Sharad Upsana Shukla.... Neha Resham Tipnis as Trisha Vineet Kumar... Om Shankar Varun Badola as Gautam Aarzoo Govitrikar... Vanshika Mehul Buch... Dhanraj Saxena Mahesh Shetty as Shlok Verma Ali Merchant...
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Dreamtime at the'G is an annual Australian rules football match between Australian Football League clubs Essendon and Richmond. The name of the match comes from the Australian Aboriginal term "Dreamtime" and "the'G", a nickname for the Melbourne Cricket Ground where the match takes place. Since the 2007 season the match has been held annually on the Saturday night of the AFL's "Indigenous Round" known as the Sir Doug Nicholls Round; the game draws one of the highest crowds of the home-and-away season, with an average crowd of over 70,000 since its inception and a record attendance of 85,656 in 2017. The winning club is awarded the "Kevin Sheedy Cup" and the best player on the ground is awarded the "Yiooken Award". Dreamtime at the'G was first held in 2005, with the aim being to recognise the contribution of all Indigenous players to the AFL, it was held during NAIDOC Week. From 2006, the Yiooken Award has been awarded to the player judged best on ground in the match. In 2007, following the success of the Dreamtime at the'G match in 2005 and 2006, the AFL nominated a specific Indigenous Round which has become an annual event in which the Dreamtime at the'G match takes centre stage.
The success of the annual match, which now features crowds in excess of 80,000, led to the two clubs agreeing to cement the match's official status for an additional decade in May 2016. From 2016, the Indigenous Round was named after Sir Doug Nicholls, the only AFL player to have been knighted and serve as a state governor; each year, each player in all 18 clubs wears a specially-commissioned artwork by an Indigenous artist on their guernsey. In 2019, former Essendon player Michael Long was honoured at this round. Round 6, 2006 saw Richmond escape with a two-point victory over Essendon after Jarrad Oakley-Nicholls scored the match winning behind with minutes remaining in the final quarter. Round 9, 2007: With just under five minutes remaining, Richmond had a 12-point lead, pulled back by Essendon to level the match at 84-apiece. Tigers full-forward Matthew Richardson thought he had kicked the match winning goal but it was pulled back, a fifty-metre penalty was awarded, after Richardson had pushed his opponent in the back prior to kicking the goal.
Essendon kicked the last 1.2. of the match to win the game by eight points and deny Richmond what would have been their first win of the 2007 season. The match is associated with the pre-game commemoration events organised by The Long Walk, a charity inspired by Indigenous former Essendon player Michael Long, who walked halfway from Melbourne to Canberra in 2004 to get the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people back on the national agenda. On the day of the Dreamtime game, The Long Walk holds a community celebration featuring entertainment and activities as well as community organisation information stalls. Prior to the Dreamtime match and several thousand other participants walk from Federation Square to the Melbourne Cricket Ground to promote reconciliation. In 2013, over 15,000 participants walked to the MCG; the walk has grown in stature and size, in 2016 was attended by Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and the Leader of the Opposition, Bill Shorten. A curtain-raiser match is held between two Indigenous football teams from around Australia and its territories.
Each year the game is preceded by an extravagant indigenous-based entertainment show. Performers in 2008 included Kev Carmody. Wins Richmond: 9 Essendon: 6 In 2005 Richmond and Essendon first competed for the Kevin Sheedy Cup; the cup has continued to be awarded to the winner of each Dreamtime at the'G game. Sheedy has a strong connection with both Essendon and Richmond, having played 251 games for Richmond including their 1969, 1973 and 1974 premiership teams, he won the 1976 best & fairest award, captained the club in 1978, was named on their Team of the Century at left back-pocket and inducted into the Richmond Hall of Fame in 2002. He retired in 1979, he went on to coach Essendon from 1981 to 2007, amassing 635 games as coach and led the club to premierships in 1984, 1985, 1993 & 2000. He was named as coach of the Essendon Team of the Century, he was a selector for the Indigenous Team of the Century and has championed indigenous football and education. Indigenous Team of the Century Indigenous All-Stars