Holboellia is a genus of flowering plant in the Lardizabalaceae family. There are twenty species in all restricted to Southeast Asia, the Himalayas and China. Holboellia is s genus of perennial, evergreen vines, although some are deciduous; the flowers are monoecious, that is, separate male and female flowers are produced on the same plant. Holboellia acuminata Holboellia angustifolia Holboellia apetala Holboellia brachyandra Holboellia brevipes Holboellia chapaensis Holboellia chinensis Holboellia coriacea
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Stauntonia is a genus of flowering plant in the Lardizabalaceae family. It is named after George Staunton; the genus contains the following species, more: Stauntonia brachyanthera Stauntonia brunoniana Stauntonia cavalerieana Stauntonia chinensis Stauntonia conspicua Stauntonia decora Stauntonia duclouxii Stauntonia elliptica Stauntonia glauca Stauntonia latifolia Stauntonia leucantha Stauntonia libera Stauntonia maculata Stauntonia obcordatilimba Stauntonia obovata Stauntonia obovatifoliola Stauntonia oligophylla Stauntonia pseudomaculata Stauntonia purpurea Stauntonia trinervia Stauntonia yaoshanensis Don, George, A General System of Gardening and Botany, 1, Rivington, p. 818
Lardizabala is a monotypic genus of flowering plants. These plants are evergreen lianas, native to temperate forests of southern Chile; the sole species is Lardizabala biternata Ruiz & Pav, known as Coguil, Cogüilera, Coille, Voqui cógüil, or Voqui coille, in Chile, known as Lardizabala or Zabala fruit in English. It is grown for ornamental flowers; the genus is dedicated to a Spanish statesman from the 18th century. Pink, A.. Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. "Lardizabala biternata" en enciclopedia de la flora Chilena Chilebosque, flora of Chile, with photos, including of fruits Lardizabala biternata
Boquila is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the family Lardizabalaceae, native to temperate forests of central and southern Chile and Argentina. The sole species is Boquila trifoliolata Decne. Known as pilpil, voquicillo, voqui blanco in Chile, it grows vines that wrap around host plants, mimicking the host’s leaves in a phenomenon called mimetic polymorphism. It bears an edible fruit; this species has been shown to be capable of mimicking the leaves of its supporting trees. Ernesto Gianoli said; the biggest ones can be 10 times bigger than the smallest, they can vary from light to dark. In around three-quarters of cases, they’re similar to the closest leaf from another tree, matching it in size, length of stalk and color. Boquila’s leaves can grow a spiny tip when, only when, it climbs onto a shrub with spine-tipped leaves." Without any nearby host leaves to influence them, the normal leaves of the B. Trifoliolata are short and light green leaves with rounded edges; the Boquila leaves, unlike other plants capable of mimicry, does not require physical contact to match its host.
Boquila trifoliolata are a unique species of plant because of their ability to mimic their leaves to the leaves of the hosts that are supporting them, a phenomenon called mimetic polymorphism. The B. trifoliolata adapted their climbing behavior to be protected from ground herbivores and the mimicry behavior as a protection against leaf herbivores. B. trifoliolata is distinct in comparison to other plants that can mimic, like the Australian Mistletoe, because it is not limited to mimicking a single host and is not a parasite to the host tree. An individual B. trifoliolata vine can mimic multiple foliage closest in proximity to it. Their mimicking behavior was discovered by researchers Ernesto Fernando Carrasco-Urra, they carried out observations and measurements in a rainforest located at Puyehue National Park in southern Chile. They sampled 12 different species of host trees with 45 total individual B. trifoliolata vines that have climbed these trees. The two closest leaves in proximity between a pair of the 45 vine-trees were measured, 11 different traits in total: angle, petiole length, leaflet petiole length, leaflet angle, maximum width, maximum length, perimeter, area/perimeter, color.
Usage of a generalized linear model showed that 9 of the 11 traits demonstrated mimicry by the vine to its host tree. Gianoli et al. sampled more individuals that were prostrated, that grew on leafless tree trunks, more individuals that have climbed on the 8 most common host species. To analyze these samples, the researchers used multivariate analysis of variance, they found that the prostrate individuals were not different from the leafless-host vines, but that they were different for 7 of the 8 common-host vine leaves. They concluded that the leafless-host vines were different for 6 or the 8 common-host vines. There is no known mechanism for how B. trifoliolata is able to mimic host leaves so well, but Gianoli proposes two possible mechanisms. One hypothesis is that volatile organic compounds emitted from host plant leaves induce a phenotypically change in closeby B. trifoliolata leaves. By receiving different host signals into its system, it is able to create specific signals and hormones in its tissues to regulate gene transcription of leaf morphology and developmental pathways for leaf differentiation.
The other hypothesis is that there could be horizontal gene transfer between the host and B. trifoliolata. A study by Gianoli et al. indicated that this leaf mimicry led to lower leaf herbivory rates. Climbing vines had no difference in herbivory compared to supporting host tree leaves but had much lower herbivory compared to prostrated, unsupported B. trifoliolata individuals. The highest amount of herbivory was on B. trifoliolata vines. Lardizabala, a related species grown for its fruit
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. Lianas are characteristic of tropical moist deciduous forests, but may be found in temperate rainforests. There are temperate lianas, for example the members of the Clematis or Vitis genera. Lianas can form bridges amidst the forest canopy, providing arboreal animals with paths across the forest; these bridges can protect weaker trees from strong winds. Lianas compete with forest trees for sunlight and nutrients from the soil. Forests without lianas grow 150% more fruit; the term "liana" is not a taxonomic grouping, but rather a description of the way the plant grows – much like "tree" or "shrub". Lianas may be found in many different plant families. One way of distinguishing lianas from trees and shrubs is based on the stiffness the Young's modulus of various parts of the stem.
Trees and shrubs have young twigs and smaller branches which are quite flexible and older growth such as trunks and large branches which are stiffer. A liana has stiff young growths and older, more flexible growth at the base of the stem. Described genera containing liana species include: Gnetophyta Gnetum spp. Acanthaceae Mendoncia spp. Thunbergia spp. e.g. T. grandiflora, T. mysorensisAncistrocladaceae Ancistrocladus spp. Annonaceae Artabotrys spp. Fissistigma spp. Uvaria spp. Apocynaceae Odontadenia spp. Strophanthus – several spp. including S. sarmentosusArecaceae Calamoideae – rattans: several genera including: Calamus spp. Daemonorops spp. Araceae Pothos spp. Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia spp. Bignoniaceae Anemopaegma spp. Capparaceae Capparis spp. Connaraceae Connarus spp. Dilleniaceae Doliocarpus spp. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea spp.: the yam family Fabaceae: not leguminous vines are well represented: – Caesalpinioideae Acacia some spp.: e.g. A. concinna "cat's claw" lianas including: Hultholia mimosoides Mezoneuron spp.
Entada spp. Pterolobium spp.– Cercidoideae Lasiobema and Phanera spp.: "monkey ladders" or "snake climbers"– Faboideae Dalbergia armata: of subtropical Africa Derris spp. Machaerium spp. Mucuna spp. Strongylodon spp. Flagellariaceae Flagellaria indicaLoganiaceae Strychnos spp. e.g. S. axillarisNepenthaceae Nepenthes spp. Oleaceae Jasminum spp. Polygalaceae Moutabea: M. aculeataSapindaceae Paullinia spp. Rhamnaceae Ventilago spp. Ziziphus spp. Rubiaceae Uncaria spp. Rutaceae Toddalia asiaticaSchlegeliaceae Schlegelia spp. Smilacaceae Smilax spp. Vitaceae Ampelopsis spp. Cissus spp. "water vines" Parthenocissus spp. Tetrastigma spp. Vitis spp. Lianas compete intensely with trees reducing tree growth and tree reproduction increasing tree mortality, preventing tree seedlings from establishing, altering the course of regeneration in forests, affecting tree population growth rates. Lianas provide access routes in the forest canopy for many arboreal animals, including ants and many other invertebrates, rodents, sloths and lemurs.
For example, in the Eastern tropical forests of Madagascar, many lemurs achieve higher mobility from the web of lianas draped amongst the vertical tree species. Many lemurs prefer trees with lianas for their roost sites. Lianas provide support for trees when strong winds blow. However, they may be destructive in that when one tree falls, the connections made by the lianas may cause many other trees to fall; as noted by Charles Darwin, because lianas are supported by other plants, they may conserve resources that other plants must allocate to the development of structure and use them instead for growth and reproduction. In general, lianas are detrimental to the trees. Growth rates are lower for trees with lianas. Lianas make the canopy of trees more accessible to animals which eat leaves; because of these negative effects, trees which remain free of lianas are at an advantage. The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including