Joseph Wright (American painter)
Joseph Wright, born in Bordentown, New Jersey, was a portrait painter, affiliated with the United States Mint in the late 1700s. It is thought that either he or Henry Voigt designed the Liberty Cap Cent, although most historians and numismatists today credit the design to Wright, he presumably designed the 1792 Quarter dollar pattern. He was George Washington's original choice for the Chief Engraver of the Mint, but he died before being inducted into the position, his mother, Patience Wright regarded as America's first sculptor, ran a wax modeling studio in New York City. In 1772, she moved to London to open a studio and waxworks there. Six years in 1775, Joseph, Jr. joined his mother in England and became the first American-born student to matriculate in the Royal Academy of Arts in London, where he studied for 6 years. He won a silver medal for "the best model of an Academy figure" in December 1778. In 1780, he caused a scandal at the Royal Academy by exhibiting a portrait of his mother sculpting a wax head of King Charles II, while busts of King George III and Queen Charlotte looked on.
In 1781, Wright and his mother traveled to Paris. While there, he painted several portraits of Benjamin Franklin. After 7 years in Europe, Wright returned to America in 1782, where he became the first of just two artists to make a plaster mold of George Washington. Thomas Jefferson judged Wright's portrait of Washington highly. "I have no hesitation in pronouncing Wright's drawing to be a better likeness of the General than Peale's," he wrote in 1795. Early in his Presidency and Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, diligently sought after talented European engravers to design the first United States coins. However, they failed in this endeavor and decided that Wright would become the unofficial Engraver at the nascent Philadelphia Mint in the second half of 1792. In August, 1793, Joseph was designated as the Mint's "First Draughtsman & Diesinker." Wright was responsible for the design of Liberty Cap designs on both the large cents. These designs were based upon the obverse of the Libertas Americana medal on which Wright is believed to have been the designer.
Large Cent varieties of 1793 are his creations. On December 5, 1789, Wright married Sarah Vandervoordt in Philadelphia, they had three children, Sarah and Harriet. Wright and his wife both died, most as a result of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793. Columbia Encyclopedia: Joseph Wright
John M. Reich
John M. Reich was a Director of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, he was sworn in on January 15, 2001, following an appointment by President of the United States Bill Clinton and served on the FDIC Board for eight years. Reich served as Vice Chairman of the Board of the FDIC from November 2002 until he was nominated on June 7, 2005 by President George W. Bush to be Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, the U. S. Senate confirmed his nomination on July 29, 2005, he served as Acting Chairman of the FDIC from July to August 2001. As Deputy Chairman, 2001–2005, Reich served as the Chair of FDIC's Audit Committee during a time when the General Accounting Office issued reportable conditions regarding information security at the Corporation. Reich took the oath of Director of OTS on August 9, 2005 and continued in that capacity as well as serving as a member of the FDIC Board of Directors until he resigned on February 12, 2009 and stepped down February 27, 2009. Under Director Reich, the Office of Thrift Supervision saw the failure or near-failure of at least five major institutions - IndyMac Bank, AIG, Washington Mutual, Downey Financial and Countrywide Financial.
These constituted some of the largest financial failures in modern history to that point. OTS acknowledged that in the case of AIG it failed to take regulatory actions it should appropriately have taken as early as 2004. In the case of IndyMac, after Director Reich and OTS both denied responsibility for the failure, the Office of Inspector General of the United States Treasury found that OTS both inappropriately failed to act and inappropriately and knowingly allowed regulatory misconduct. On June 17, 2009, President Barack Obama announced his intention to disband the Office of Thrift Supervision as part of a program of regulatory reform, citing "loopholes that have allowed important institutions to cherry-pick among banking rules". Prior to coming to Washington, D. C. Reich spent 23 years as a community banker in Illinois and Florida, including 10 years as President and CEO of the National Bank of Sarasota, in Sarasota, which he led as it grew from a two-office, $17 million institution to a $450 million institution with 19 offices.
Reflecting on his community banking experience, Reich Director of OTS, said in remarks to the New York Bankers Association, New York, NY, April 6, 2006: I am concerned that community banks will continue to disappear from our landscape, with local communities and consumers across the country being the ultimate losers. The loss of these community human resources not only impacts local banking relationships with small businesses and individuals, it reduces human resources available for leadership of community service organizations on which senior bank officers and their directors serve. There is an unquantified social cost to industry consolidation, attributable to the weight of accumulated regulatory burden; this is a growing problem in communities across the country, with implications that are ignored by policymakers. Reich served 12 years on the staff of U. S. Senator Connie Mack, before joining the FDIC. From 1998 through 2000, he was Senator Mack's Chief of Staff and overseeing all of the Senator's offices and committee activities, including those at the Senate Banking Committee.
An ardent foe of regulatory red tape, Reich dedicated much effort and public testimony toward reducing regulatory burdens on financial institutions and, beginning in 2005, led a three-year interagency review of all federal bank regulations, mandated under the Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act of 1996. Director of OTS, Reich championed more regulatory independence and discretion for his agency in the cause of efficiency and regulatory burden relief. On April 6, 2006, Reich voiced his concern that banks were allowing an overall slippage in underwriting due to increased competition in certain market segments and geographical areas as banks tried to feed loan volumes after the real estate market peaked, he cited the increased sales of alternative or nontraditional mortgage lending products like "interest-only" and "pay option" adjustable rate mortgage. These loan products were legitimate and valuable, according to Reich, suggesting the main danger was from institutions with limited experience in these loans and managing the associated risks the inherent credit risks.
However, of the five leading issuers of option adjustable-rate mortgages, three — IndyMac Bank, Washington Mutual and Downey Financial — would fail. Countrywide Financial, the largest, was forced to sell itself to Bank of America for a small fraction of its previous value or fail. AIG Financial Products, regulated by OTS, would fail. AIG FP was a major issuer of Credit Default Swaps related to the securitized, outstanding interest of these and other subprime loans. On July 21, 2008, following the failure of IndyMac but before the failures of Washington Mutual, AIG and Downey Financial, Reich described his agency's "Financial Institution Reform Initiative": I believe Congress should help create a level and well-regulated playing field so consumers and investors have confidence in the transparency and integrity of all mortgage originations; the standards of the under-regulated segments of the market must be raised to the level followed by the federally regulated segments. All entities that originate home loans should be required to comply with basic credit principles, such as conducting a reasonable assessment of each borrower's ability to repay.
In those same remarks, he described the role he felt his agency should play: Selecting a strong regulator to monitor this new level playing field is critical for protecting consumers and restoring market confidence. I won't pretend to be a disinteres
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
The mill or is a now-abstract unit of currency used sometimes in accounting. In the United States, it is a notional unit equivalent to 1⁄1000 of a United States dollar. In the United Kingdom it was proposed during the decades of discussion on the decimalisation of the pound as a 1⁄1000 division of the pound sterling. Several other currencies used the mill, such as the Maltese lira; the term comes from the Latin "millesimum", meaning "thousandth part". In the United States, the term was first used by the Continental Congress in 1786, being described as the "lowest money of account, of which 1000 shall be equal to the federal dollar."The Coinage Act of 1792 describes milles and other subdivisions of the dollar: That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars or units, dismes or tenths, cents or hundredths, milles or thousandths, a disme being the tenth part of a dollar, a cent the hundredth part of a dollar, a mille the thousandth part of a dollar, that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation.
The mint of Philadelphia made half cents worth 5 mills each from 1793 to 1857. Tokens in this denomination were issued by some states and local governments for such uses as payment of sales tax; these were of inexpensive material such as tin, plastic or paper. Rising inflation depreciated the value of these tokens in relation to the value of their constituent materials. None were made after the 1960s. Today, most Americans would refer to fractions of a cent rather than mills, a term, unknown. For example, a gasoline price of $3.019 per gallon, if pronounced in full, would be "three dollars one and nine-tenths cents". Discount coupons, such as those for grocery items include in their fine print a statement such as "Cash value less than 1⁄10 of 1 cent." There are common occurrences of "half-cent" discounts on goods bought in quantity. However, the term "mill" is still used when discussing billing in the electric power industry as shorthand for the lengthier "1⁄1000 of a dollar per kilowatt hour".
The term is commonly used when discussing stock prices, the issuance of founder's stock of a company, cigarette taxes. Property taxes are expressed in terms of mills per dollar assessed. For instance, with a millage rate of 2.8₥, a house with an assessment of $100,000 would be taxed = 280,000₥, or $280.00. The term is spelled "mil" when used in this context; the term mill is used in finance in conjunction with equity market microstructure. The term is sometimes used as one-hundredth of a cent. For example, a broker that charges 5 mils per share is taking in $5. Additionally, in finance the term is sometimes spelled "mil"; some exchanges allow prices to be accounted in ten-thousandths of a dollar. This last digit is sometimes called a "decimill" or "deci-mill", but no exchange recognizes the term. Mark Twain introduced a fictional elaboration of the mill in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; when Hank Morgan, the American time traveler, introduces decimal currency to Arthurian Britain, he has it denominated in cents, "milrays", or tenths of a mill.
Mills are or were used in some cities to express property tax rates, in the same manner as in the U. S. Proposed on several occasions as a division of the British pound under the "Pound and Mil" system, the mill was used in accounting; the 1862 report from the Select Committee on Weights and Measures noted that the Equitable Insurance Company had been keeping accounts in mills for such purposes for over 100 years. Such a unit of a thousandth of a pound would have been similar in value to the then-existing farthing coin. By the time British currency was decimalised in 1971, the farthing had lost its legal tender status eleven years prior, thus the mill was not necessary. Maltese lira coinage included 2 mil, 3 mil, 5 mil coins from 1972 to 1994, with 10 mils being equal to one cent. Prices could still be marked using mils until the country switched to the euro in 2008, however these were rounded up for accounting purposes; the Palestine pound, used as the currency of the British Mandate for Palestine from 1927 to 1948, was divided into 1,000 mils.
Its successor currencies, the Israeli lira and the Jordanian dinar, were divided into 1⁄1000 units named the peruta and fils. The Israeli peruta lasted until 1960, the Jordanian fils until 1992. Between 1863 and 1866 the mill coin was the lowest denomination issued by the British government in Hong Kong; the mill was used with the Cypriot pound, starting with decimalization in 1955, lasting until 1983. However, coins smaller than 5 mils ceased being used in the mid 1960s; when switched to cents in 1983, a ½-cent coin was struck, abolished a few years later. Coins for 5 millimes are still in circulation. However, larger coins such as the 10, 20, 50, 100 millime coins are still in use and production; the Egyptian pound is divided into 1000 milliemes, 10 milliemes equal 1 piastre. The Tunisian dinar is divided into 1000 millimes The national curren
Robert Patterson was an Irish-born United States major general during the American Civil War, chiefly remembered for inflicting an early defeat on Stonewall Jackson, but crucially failing to stop Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston from joining forces with P. G. T. Beauregard at the First Battle of Bull Run, he is still blamed for this historic Union defeat. Patterson was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, his family was banished from Ireland due to his father's involvement as an insurrectionist. In 1799 he emigrated to the United States, where he became involved in banking at a young age. Patterson received his education in public schools and afterward became a clerk in a Philadelphia counting house, he volunteered for service during the War of 1812 and rose from captain to colonel in the 2nd Pennsylvania Militia before joining the United States Army. He was discharged in 1815 as a captain. After the war, Patterson returned to commercial pursuits in manufacturing and established several mills.
He became influential in politics in Pennsylvania. Patterson was one of the five Col. Pattersons in the Pennsylvania Convention that nominated Andrew Jackson for the presidency and in 1836 was President of the Electoral College that cast the vote for Martin Van Buren. Patterson served as the Commander of the Pennsylvania State militia. In 1838, he led troops to end the Anti-Abolition Riots in Philadelphia which led to the destruction of Pennsylvania Hall. Again in 1844, he helped to put down the Philadelphia Bible Riots against Irish Catholics, which resulted in the destruction of St. Michael's and St. Augustine's Churches; the first riot took place in Kensington in May. Another took place in Southwark in July. On each occasion, Gen. Patterson led militia into combat with rioting civilians, leading to loss of life on both sides. Patterson was commissioned a major general of volunteers at the outbreak of the Mexican–American War and commanded the 2nd Division, Army of Occupation, during the Tampico Expedition.
He was considered for command of the expedition to Veracruz which went to Winfield Scott. He was, placed in command of the expedition's Volunteer Division and saw action during the Siege of Veracruz and at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded, he was the first to enter Jalapa. While the U. S. Army was stationed at Jalapa, Patterson returned to the U. S. with other volunteer units whose enlistment time had expired. He resumed his business interests in Pennsylvania, where he acquired 30 cotton mills and became quite wealthy. Patterson became one of the largest mill-owners in the United States and involved in sugar refineries and cotton plantations, he again was an influential figure in Philadelphia politics. The American Civil War brought Patterson back to military service, he was appointed major general of Pennsylvania volunteers and commanded the Department of Pennsylvania and the Army of the Shenandoah. In 1861, Winfield Scott, now General-in-Chief of the U. S. Army, gave Patterson vague orders to retake Harpers Ferry.
Patterson failed to act on these orders, was outmaneuvered after the Battle of Hoke's Run, a Confederate army at Winchester, under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, was able to march without interference to reinforce the Confederates under P. G. T. Beauregard at the First Battle of Bull Run. Johnston did, declare that Patterson’s army had deterred him from pursuing the shattered and disorganised Union troops as they retreated back to Washington after the battle. Patterson criticized for his failure to contain the enemy forces, was mustered out of the Army in late July 1861. Patterson again returned to his cotton milling business and wrote a book, A Narrative of the Campaign in the Valley of the Shenandoah, in 1861, published in 1865, he was President of the Aztec Club of 1847 from 1867 to 1881 and was a Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. During his tenure as President of the Aztec Club, the Club accomplished what few of its contemporaries did—the successful metamorphosis from a military society to an hereditary one.
Patterson was a trustee of Lafayette College from 1826 to 1835, president of the trustees from 1876 to 1881. Patterson is buried there in Laurel Hill Cemetery, his son Francis Engle Patterson and his son-in-law John Joseph Abercrombie were both Union generals during the American Civil War. Patterson's mansion was located on the southwest corner of Locust Streets. After Patterson’s death in 1881, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania purchased the mansion as its permanent home; the mansion was demolished between 1905 and 1909 and a new building dedicated in 1910. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
Half cent (United States coin)
The half cent is the smallest denomination of United States coin minted. It was first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857, it was minted with five different designs. First authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792 on April 2, 1792, the coin was produced in the United States from 1793 to 1857; the half-cent piece was made of 100% copper and was valued at five milles, or one two-hundredth of a dollar. It was smaller than a modern U. S. quarter with diameters 22 mm, 23.5 mm and 23 mm. Coinage was discontinued by the Coinage Act of February 21, 1857, they were all produced at the Philadelphia Mint. There are several different types of half cents: Liberty Cap, Left - issued 1793 Liberty Cap, Right - issued 1794 to 1797 Draped Bust - issued 1800 to 1808 Classic Head - issued 1809 to 1836 Braided Hair - issued 1840 to 1857There are no mint marks on any of the coins and the edges are plain on most half cents. On the 1793, 1794 and some 1795 coins and a variety of the 1797 coin, it was lettered TWO HUNDRED FOR A DOLLAR and another 1797 variety had a gripped, or milled, edge.
Liberty Cap, Left 1793 - 35,334Liberty Cap, Right 1794 - 81,601 1795 - 139,690 1796 - 1,390 1797 - 127,840Draped Bust 1800 - 202,908 1802 - 20,266 1803 - 92,000 1804 - 1,055,312 1805 - 814,464 1806 - 356,000 1807 - 476,000 1808 - 400,000Classic Head 1809 - 1,154,572 1810 - 215,000 1811 - 63,140 1825 - 63,000 1826 - 234,000 1828 - 606,000 1829 - 487,000 1831 - 2,200 1832 - 51,000 1833 - 103,000 1834 - 141,000 1835 - 398,000 1836 - proof only, restrikes were made 1837 - No half cents were struck by the United States government. Braided Hair 1840 through 1849 were proof-only issues. There were restrikes made. 1849 - 39,864 1850 - 39,812 1851 - 147,672 1852 - proof only. Restrikes were made. 1853 - 129,694 1854 - 55,358 1855 - 56,500 1856 - 40,430 1857 - 35,180 Penny, the second smallest denomination of United States coin minted Half Cent information by year and type. Histories, mintages, metal contents, edge designs and more. Half Cent Pictures This half cent was the first coin donated to the American Numismatic Society The Half Cent Die State Book 1793-1857 by Ronald P. Manley, Ph.
D. 1998. American Half Cents - The "Little Half Sisters" by Roger S. Cohen, Jr. 1982. Walter Breen's Encyclopedia of United States Half Cents 1793-1857 by Walter Breen, 1983; the Half Cent, 1793-1857 The Story of American's Greatest Little Coin by William R. Eckberg, 2019
Penny (United States coin)
The United States one-cent coin called the penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. The cent's symbol is ¢, its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010; the coin is 0.75 inches in diameter and 0.0598 inches in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production; the U. S. Mint's official name for the coin is "cent" and the U. S. Treasury's official name is "one cent piece"; the colloquial term penny derives from the British coin of the same name, the pre-decimal version of which had a similar place in the British system. In American English, pennies is the plural form. In the early 2010s the price of metal used to make pennies rose to a noticeable cost to the mint which peaked at a $0.02 for $0.01 ratio.
This pushed the mint to look for alternative metals again for the coin, brought the penny debate into more focus. There are no firm plans to eliminate the penny as arguments for and against the coin continue to be debated. In honor of Lincoln's 200th anniversary, special 2009 cents were minted for collectors in the same composition as the 1909 coins; the isotope composition of early coins spanning the period 1828 to 1843 reflects the copper from Cornish ores from England, while coins after 1850 reflect the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan ores, a finding consistent with historical records. In 1943, at the peak of World War II, zinc-coated steel cents were made for a short time because of war demands for copper. A few copper cents from 1943 were produced from the 1942 planchets remaining in the bins; some 1944 steel cents have been confirmed. From 1944 to 1946, salvaged ammunition shells made their way into the minting process, it was not uncommon to see coins featuring streaks of brass or having a darker finish than other issues.
During the early 1970s, the price of copper rose to the point where the cent contained one cent's worth of copper. This led the Mint to test alternative metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. Aluminum was chosen, over 1.5 million of these pennies were struck and ready for public release before being rejected. The proposed aluminum pennies were rejected for two reasons: vending machine owners complained the coins would cause mechanical problems. One aluminum cent was donated to the Smithsonian Institution; the cent's composition was changed in 1982 because the value of the copper in the coin started to rise above one cent. Some 1982 pennies used the 97.5% zinc composition, while others used the 95% copper composition. With the exception of 2009 bicentennial cents minted for collectors, United States cents minted after 1982 have been zinc with copper plating. In Fiscal Year 2013, the average one-cent piece minted cost the U. S. Mint 1.83 cents, down from 2.41 cents apiece in FY 2011. The bronze and copper cents can be distinguished from the newer zinc cents by dropping the coins on a solid surface.
The predominantly zinc coins make a lower-pitched "clunk", while the copper coins produce a higher-pitched ringing sound. In addition, a full 50-cent roll of pre-1982/3 coins weighs 5.4 oz compared to a post-1982–83 roll which weighs 4.4 oz. Mintage figures for the penny can be found at United States cent mintage figures; the coin has gone through several designs over its two-hundred-year time frame. Until 1857 it was about the size of the current U. S. dollar coins. The following types of cents have been produced: Large cents: Flowing Hair Chain 1793 Flowing Hair Wreath 1793 Liberty Cap 1793–1796 Draped bust 1796–1807 Classic Head 1808–1814 Coronet 1816–1839 Braided Hair 1839–1857, 1868 Small cents: Flying Eagle cent Indian Head cent Lincoln cent Lincoln Wheat Lincoln Memorial Lincoln Bicentennial 4 reverse designs Lincoln Union Shield Throughout its history, the Lincoln cent has featured several typefaces for the date, but most of the digits have been old-style numerals, except with the 4 and 8 neither ascending nor descending.
The only significant divergence is that the small 3 was non-descending in the early history, before switching to a descending, large 3 for just one year in 1934 and permanently in 1943. The digit 5 was small and non-descending up to 1945 from 1950 and on, it became a large descending 5. From 1959 until 2008, the Lincoln Memorial was shown on the reverse of the United States cent; because the Lincoln Memorial was shown in sufficient detail to discern the statue of Lincoln on the reverse of cent, Abraham Lincoln was at that time the only person to be depicted on both the obverse and reverse of the same United States coin. In 1999, the New Jersey state quarter was released, which depicts George Washington on both sides, crossing the Delaware River on the reverse side and in profile on the obverse. (The state quarter for South Dakota, released in 2006 features Washington on both sides: the typical profile on the obverse, Washington within Mount Rushmore on the re