Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Jurchen script was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries. It was derived from the Khitan script; the script has only been decoded to a small extent. The Jurchen script is part of the Chinese family of scripts. After the Jurchen rebelled against the Khitan Liao Dynasty and established the new Jin dynasty in 1115, they were using the Khitan script. In 1119 or 1120,Wanyan Xiyin, the "chancellor" of the early Jin Empire, acting on the orders of the first emperor, Wanyan Aguda, invented the first Jurchen script, known as "the large script"; the second version, the so-called "small script", was promulgated in 1138 by the Xizong Emperor, said to have been created by the emperor himself. According to the Jin Shi, in 1145 the small script characters were used the first time. There is no historical information about any original books that were written in Jurchen, but during the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin a large number of Chinese books were translated into Jurchen.
The translation program started in 1164. Not a single fragment of any of the books survived. Most of the samples of the Jurchen writing available to modern researchers are epigraphic ones, as well as a few short inscriptions on seals, ceramics, etc. A total of nine epigraphic inscriptions are known so far; the best known is the Jurchen inscription on the back of "the Jin Victory Memorial Stele", erected in 1185, during the reign of Emperor Shizong, in memory of Wanyan Aguda's victory over the Liao. It is an abbreviated translation of the Chinese text on the front of the stele. However, the undated inscription from Qingyuan in northern Korea is now thought to be older, surmised to have been created between 1138 and 1153; the only inscription dating from after the end of the Jin dynasty is the one on the stele erected in 1413 by the Ming eunuch admiral Yishiha on the Tyr Cliff, on the lower Amur River. No paper or silk manuscripts in Jurchen were known until 1968, when a Jurchen manuscript was discovered by E.
I. Kychanov among the Tangut papers in the Leningrad branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, it is written on two sheets of paper and dates to 1217. Writing in 1990, Herbert Franke describes the Leningrad document as "unique" and not yet deciphered. More in 1979 Chinese scholars Liu Zuichang and Zhu Jieyuan reported the ground-breaking discovery of an eleven-page document in the Jurchen script in the base of a stele in Xi'an's Stele Forest museum; this manuscript, containing 237 lines of Jurchen script, is thought to be a copy of Nüzhen zishu, written by Wanyan Xiyin himself soon after his invention of the large-character script. According to its discoverers, this manuscript was a type of textbook, a list of large-script characters, each one representing a complete word; this is different from the epigraphic inscriptions, which contain phonetic symbols. The Jurchen script was fairly known among Jurchens, attested by numerous graffiti left by Jurchen visitors in Bai Ta Pagoda in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia.
Jurchen script must have become much less known after the destruction of the Jin dynasty by the Mongols, but it was not forgotten, because it is attested at least twice during the Ming Dynasty: on Yishiha's Tyr stele of 1413 and in a Chinese–Jurchen dictionary included in the multilingual "Chinese–Barbarian Dictionary" compiled by the Ming Bureau of Translators. During the Yuan and Ming dynasty the Jurchen language continued to be spoken in Manchuria, where it developed into the Manchu language; the latter, was written first in Mongolian script, in a new Manchu script derived from the Mongolian script, neither of which has any relation to the Jurchen script. 1526 was the year. Jurchen script was based on the Khitan script, inspired in turn by Chinese characters. Both semantic and phonetic borrowing took place. Many Jurchen characters can be described as copies, or distorted copies of, Chinese and/or large-script Khitan characters with similar meaning. There seem to be few Jurchen characters whose shapes can be related to the Khitan small-character script.
The Jurchen characters can be divided into two classes, according to their role: Ideographic characters, used to record either: a whole word, or the first one or two syllables of a word, to be followed by one or several phonetic symbols. Phonetic characters recording a CV syllable, a Vn ending, or single vowel. However, the boundary between the classes was not precise, as some ideographic characters were used for their phonetic value as parts of other words. Comparing Wanyan Xiyin's Nüzhen zishu with inscriptions and Ming Dynasty dic
Semi-cursive script is a cursive style of Chinese characters. Because it is not as abbreviated as cursive, most people who can read regular script can read semi-cursive, it is useful and artistic. Referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshū, it is derived from clerical script, was for a long time after its development in the 1st centuries AD the usual style of handwriting; some of the best examples of semi-cursive can be found in the work of Wang Xizhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
The Tangut script was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia dynasty. According to the latest count, 5863 Tangut characters are known, excluding variants; the Tangut characters are similar in appearance to Chinese characters, with the same type of strokes, but the methods of forming characters in the Tangut writing system are different from those of forming Chinese characters. As in Chinese calligraphy, running and seal scripts were used in Tangut writing. According to the History of Song, the script was designed by the high-ranking official Yeli Renrong under Western Xia Emperor Li Yuanhao's supervision in 1036; the script was invented in a short period of time, was put into use quickly. Government schools were founded to teach the script. Official documents were written in the script. A great number of Buddhist scriptures were translated from Tibetan and Chinese, block printed in the script. Although the dynasty collapsed in 1227, the script continued to be used for another few centuries.
The last example of the script occurs on a pair of Tangut dharani pillars found at Baoding in present-day Hebei province, which were erected in 1502. The language is remarkable for being written in one of the most inconvenient of all scripts, a collection of nearly 5,800 characters of the same kind as Chinese characters but rather more complicated, it is difficult to remember them, since there are few recognizable indications of sound and meaning in the constituent parts of a character, in some cases characters which differ from one another only in minor details of shape or by one or two strokes have different sounds and meanings. Tangut characters can be divided into two classes: composite; the latter are more numerous. The simple characters can be either phonetic. None of the Tangut characters are pictographic, while some of the Chinese characters were at the time of their creation. Most composite characters comprise two components. A few comprise four. A component can be part of a composite character.
The composite characters include semantic-phonetic ones. A few special composite characters were made for transliterating Sanskrit. There are a number of pairs of special composite characters worth noting; the members of such a pair have the same components, only the location of the components in them is different. The members of such a pair have similar meanings. 6,125 characters of the Tangut script were included in Unicode version 9.0 in June 2016 in the Tangut block. 755 Radicals and components used in the modern study of Tangut were added to the Tangut Components block. An iteration mark, U+16FE0 TANGUT ITERATION MARK, was included in the Ideographic Symbols and Punctuation block. Five additional characters were added in June 2018 with the release of Unicode version 11.0. Six additional characters were added in March 2019 with the release of Unicode version 12.0. Tangutology List of Tangutologists List of Tangut books Chinese family of scripts Grinstead, Eric. Analysis of the Tangut Script. Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series No. 10.
Lund: Studentlitteratur. Kychanov, E. I.. "Tangut", in Peter T. Daniels & William Bright, The World's Writing Systems, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507993-0, pp. 228–9. Nishida Tatsuo 西田龍雄. Seika moji: sono kaidoku no purosesu. Tokyo: Kinokuniya shoten. ISBN 4-314-00632-3. Shi Jinbo 史金波. "Lüelun Xixia wenzi de gouzao", in Minzu yuwen lunji, Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, pp. 192–226. Tangut script at Omniglot Tangut script, by Andrew West Sample Tangut characters at Mojikyo 大西 磨希子・北本 朝展，『文字が語りかける民族意識：カラホトと西夏文字』，ディジタル・シルクロード 史金波. 《西夏文字是有规律的文字吗？》. 宁夏新闻网. Archived from the original on 2014-09-10. Retrieved 2014-09-09. Tangut index
Stroke order refers to the order in which the strokes of a Chinese character are written. A stroke is a movement of a writing instrument on a writing surface. Chinese characters are used in various forms in Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese, they are known as Hanja in Korean and Chữ Hán in Vietnamese. Stroke order is attested in other logographic scripts, e.g. cuneiform. Chinese characters are logograms constructed with strokes. Over the millennia a set of agreed rules have been developed by custom. Minor variations exist between countries, but the basic principles remain the same, namely that writing characters should be economical, with the fewest hand movements to write the most strokes possible; this promotes writing speed and readability. This idea is important since as learners progress, characters get more complex. Since stroke order aids learning and memorization, students are taught about it from a early age in schools and encouraged to follow them; the Eight Principles of Yong uses the single character 永, meaning "eternity", to teach eight of the most basic strokes in Regular Script.
In ancient China, the Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapula and tortoise plastrons showed no indication of stroke order. The characters show huge variations from piece to piece, sometimes within one piece. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone. Although the brush-written stroke order is not discernible after carving, there exists some evidence that it was not idiosyncratic: a few of the characters marginal administrative notations recording the provenance of the shells or bones, were not recarved, the stroke order of these characters tends to resemble traditional and modern stroke order. For those characters which were engraved into the hard surface using a knife by a separate individual, there is evidence that in at least some cases all the strokes running one way were carved the piece was turned, strokes running another way were carved. In early Imperial China, the common script was the Xiaozhuan style.
About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer all of China, imposed Li Si's character uniformisation, a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn characters. Its graphs on old steles — some dating from 200 BC — reveal indications of the stroke order of the time. However, stroke order could still not yet be ascertained from the steles, no paper from that time is extant; the true starting point of stroke order is the Lìshū style, more regularized, in some ways similar to modern text. In theory, by looking at the Lìshū style steles' graphs and the placement of each stroke, one can see hierarchical priority between the strokes, which indicates the stroke order used by the calligrapher or stele sculptors. Kǎishū style — still in use today — is more regularized, allowing one to more guess the stroke order used to write on the steles; the stroke order 1000 years ago was similar to that toward the end of Imperial China. For example, the stroke order of 广 is clear in the Kangxi dictionary of 1716.
The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while current stroke order is still the same, according to the old style. However, the stroke orders implied by the Kangxi dictionary are not similar to nowadays' norm. Cursive styles such as Xíngshū and Cǎoshū show stroke order more than Regular Script, as each move made by the writing tool is visible; the modern governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Japan have standardized official stroke orders to be taught in schools. These stroke order standards are prescribed in conjunction to each government's standard character sets; the various official stroke orders agree on the vast majority of characters, but each have their differences. No governmental standard matches traditional stroke orders completely; the differences between the governmental standards and traditional stroke orders arise from accommodation for schoolchildren who may be overwhelmed if the rules about stroke orders are too detailed, or if there are too many exceptions.
The differences listed below are not exhaustive. Traditional stroke order: Widely used in Imperial China used in the Chinese cultural sphere secondary to each region's governmental standards. Practiced by informed scholars of calligraphy. Called "calligraphic" stroke order; these stroke orders are established by study of handwritten documents from pre-Republic China those of notable calligraphers. These stroke orders are most conservative regarding etymology, character construction, character evolution, tradition. Many characters have more than one stroke correct form. Stroke orders may vary depending on the script style. Unlike the other standards, this is not a governmental standard. Japanese stroke order: Prescribed in modern Japan; the standard character set of the MEXT is the Jōyō kanji, which contains many characters reformed in 1946. The MEXT lets editors prescribe a character's stroke order, which all should "follow commonsensical orders which are accepted in the society"; this standard diverges from the traditional stroke order in that the two sides of the grass radical are joined, written with three strokes.
Flat brush script
The Flat Brush script is a writing style in Chinese calligraphy, created by Jin Nong during the Qing dynasty. The writing style is a mix of the clerical script of the Han dynasty and the regular script of the Wei dynasty; the technique used to write in the flat brush script is different from the other writing styles. It has to be written using a flat brush and not the regular East Asian writing brush. Jin Nong was knowledgeable on Chinese calligraphy, his calligraphy was the best among the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou. His clerical script and semi-cursive script, his works have unique and ingenious aesthetics. After the age of 50, he began to deviate from the norm and used his calligraphic knowledge to create the Flat Brush script. Jin Nong used a special ink that he made by himself, he used a special brush for the Flat Brush script