Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles is a contemporary art museum with three locations in greater Los Angeles, California. The main branch is located on Grand Avenue in Downtown Los Angeles, near the Walt Disney Concert Hall. MOCA's original space intended as a "temporary" exhibit space while the main facility was built, is now known as the Geffen Contemporary, in the Little Tokyo district of downtown Los Angeles; the Pacific Design Center facility is in West Hollywood. The museum's exhibits consist of American and European contemporary art created after 1940. Since the museum's inception, MOCA's programming has been defined by its multi-disciplinary approach to contemporary art. In a 1979 political fund raising event at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, Councilman Joel Wachs, local philanthropist Marcia Simon Weisman happened to be seated at the same table. Throughout the evening, Weisman passionately discussed the city's need for a contemporary art museum. Weisman's brother, Norton Simon, had stepped in to bail out the financially ailing Pasadena Art Museum in 1975, but was unable to retain its focus on modern art.
In the following weeks, the Mayor's Museum Advisory Committee was organized. The committee, led by William A. Norris, set about creating a museum from scratch, including locating funds, directors, curators, a gallery, most an art collection; that same year and five other key local collectors signed an agreement whereby they would pledge chunks of their private collections, worth up to $6 million, "to create a museum of standing and repute."The following year, the fledgling Museum of Contemporary Art was operating out of an office on Boyd Street. The city's most prominent philanthropists and collectors had been assembled into a Board of Trustees in 1980, set a goal of raising $10 million in their first year. A working staff was brought together. Following Weisman's initiative, $1-million contributions from Eli Broad, Max Palevsky, Atlantic Richfield Co. helped securing the construction of the new museum. Many of MOCA's initial donors were young and supporting the arts for the first time. Making up well over 90% of the museum's works, gifts from several major private collectors form the cornerstones of MOCA's permanent collection of nearly 6,000 works.
Much of it has come from board members who donated or bequeathed key works or entire collections, or sold art to the museum at favorable terms. Within months of its fall 1983 opening, MOCA was able to turn itself into an instant player in the international art world by striking a deal with one of its board members, Giuseppe Panza, who agreed to sell a group of works for $11 million and stagger the payments over five years, interest-free; the 1984 purchase of parts of the Panza Collection encompasses 80 seminal works of abstract expressionism and pop art by Jean Fautrier, Franz Kline, Roy Lichtenstein, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Mark Rothko, Antoni Tàpies. In 1985, the museum accepted Michael Heizer's earthwork Double Negative in Nevada desert, donated by Virginia Dwan. A 1986 bequest by television executive Barry Lowen included 67 works of minimalist, post-minimalist and neo-expressionist painting, sculpture and drawing by artists such as Dan Flavin, Ellsworth Kelly, Agnes Martin, Elizabeth Murray, Julian Schnabel, Joel Shapiro, Frank Stella, Cy Twombly.
In 1989, pieces by the Rita and Taft Schreiber collection were donated to the museum, encompassing 18 paintings and drawings by Jackson Pollock, Piet Mondrian, Arshile Gorky, among others. Hollywood agent Phil Gersh and his wife Beatrice, both founding members, gave 13 important pieces from their collection to the museum the same year, including Pollock's early drip painting Number 3, 1948 and David Smith's 8-foot-tall stainless steel sculpture Cubi III — as well as works by artists such as Ed Ruscha, Cindy Sherman, Susan Rothenberg; the museum's co-founder Marcia Simon Weisman bequeathed 83 works on paper from artists including Willem de Kooning, Barnett Newman, Jasper Johns and California-based painters Richard Diebenkorn and Sam Francis. In 1991, Hollywood screenwriter Scott Spiegel donated works by Jean-Michel Basquiat, Mark Innerst, Robert Longo, Susan Rothenberg, David Salle, among others. In 2003, the museum received the promise of a gift of 33 pieces from advertising executive Clifford Einstein, chair of MOCA's board of trustees, his wife, Madeline.
In 2004 the museum received the largest group of artworks donated by a private collector in the its 25-year history when E. Blake Byrne, a MOCA trustee and retired television executive, gave 123 paintings, drawings and photographs by 78 artists. Over the years, major donations of art collections have come from the Lannan Foundation and through funding from the Ralph M. Parsons Foundation. In 2000, MOCA received gifts from artists themselves, including major pieces by sculptor and performance artist Paul McCarthy, video artist Doug Aitken and photographer Andreas Gursky. Los Angeles-based artist Ed Moses made a major gift of his work to the museum in 1995, surveying nearly 40 years of his artistic development. Included within today's permanent collection are works by further influential artists such as Greg Colson, Kim Dingle, Sam Dur
Palm Springs Art Museum
The Palm Springs Art Museum was founded in 1938, is a regional art, natural science and performing arts institution for Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley, in Riverside County, United States. The Palm Springs Desert Museum was first housed in 1938 in a small room in La Plaza Arcade on Palm Canyon Drive near'downtown' Palm Springs; the museum focused on the Colorado Desert natural environment and the original local Native Americans, such as the Cahuilla people. On the edge of the present-day business district, the arcade was a gathering place for residents. Soon the growing museum found temporary new quarters in a section of the town's library. During World War II it was operated by biologist T. D. A. Cockerell, it expanded in 1947 into a section of a converted wartime hospital. Folk singer and marine biologist Sam Hinton served as director from 1942–1944; the Desert Museum had evolved to reflect the community's growing interest in its natural science and American Indian collections and programs.
In 1952 the desert wildlife reserve habitat natural'open air natural history museum' and botanical garden was added, the name for all was the Palm Springs Desert Museum. The Desert Museum started to transition to an art museum in 1953 when desert landscape paintings by Carl Eytel were donated by Cornelia White, Isabel Chase, Earl Coffman. A new modern 10,000-square-foot structure was built for the Art Museum component in downtown Palm Springs in 1958, in 1962 it expanded for an auditorium and new galleries to house contemporary art exhibitions. Frederick Sleight – anthropologist and Executive Director – is credited with guiding the transformation. Renowned local architect E. Stewart Williams designed another new 75,000-square-foot building only a few blocks away, in the Modernist architectural style, for the third and present location of the growing museum, it continues as an architecturally dramatic and innovative Art Museum and Annenberg Theater in downtown Palm Springs, at 101 Museum Drive just west of North Palm Canyon Drive at the base of Mt. San Jacinto.
When the art museum was established, the desert wildlife reserve museum component became an independent public institution as the Living Desert Museum, now the Living Desert Zoo and Gardens. The Williams-designed building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016. By 2003, the museum found itself in financial difficulty, still constrained by the debt incurred during its 1990s expansion phase. In that year, retired banker Harold J. Meyerman joined the museum board. Under Meyerman, the museum pursued financial stability through steps such as increasing its endowment from $6 million to $15.5 million. Emphases of the Palm Springs Art Museum developed into three areas: Art: contemporary art, studio art glass, architecture archives Natural Science Performing ArtsEducational programs related to each of the three disciplines were planned, the new Palm Springs Desert Museum opened to the public in January 1976; the museum expanded again in 1982 with the addition of the Denney Western American Art Wing, the museum was renamed the Palm Springs Art Museum, classic American western art was added to the collection's fine art emphasis.
Today the permanent collection consists of more than 24,000 objects. 12,000 objects include fine art, fine art photography, photographic archives, Native American art, Mesoamerican art and artifacts from other cultures. The natural science collections are categorized in geology and archaeology. 12,000 specimens include ceramics, tools, minerals, rocks, casts of fossils, mounted invertebrates, preserved amphibians and reptiles, study skins and whole mounts of birds and mammals. Noted landscape artists with works on displayed or curated by the museum include: The intimate 437-seat Annenberg Theater presents internationally known performers and concert artists in music and theater; the museum received accreditation from the American Association of Museums in 1982. The museum building had been designed with the possibility of adding a third level; the need for more exhibition space and educational facilities was recognized by the Board of Trustees, noting increased population and tourism in the Coachella Valley, in addition to the Museum's growing collections.
An expansion project was initiated with a gift of $1.5 million seed money and 132 works of art from the personal collection of designer and art collector Steve Chase. The Steve Chase Art Wing and Education Center designed by E. Stewart Williams, opened in November 1996; the expansion included 25,000 additional square feet of art galleries, a mezzanine, a sculpture terrace, four classrooms, two art storage vaults and a 90-seat lecture hall. The entire Palm Springs Museum complex now encompasses 124,435 square feet, with additional exhibition space in Palm Desert as of March 2012. On March 15, 2012, the museum opened a satellite facility in the nearby community of Palm Desert; the inaugural exhibition was "Rodin to Now" a survey of modern sculpture from the groundbreaking French artist's work which arguably began the modern epoch in sculpture through to the contemporary works of artists such as Tracey Emin, Anthony Gormley and Jennifer Steinkamp. Edmund Jaeger – noted naturalist who helped establish the Desert Museum National Register of Historic Places listings in Riverside County, California Askey, Ruth.
"New museum – old environment". Art Gallery. XIX (
Eli Broad is an American entrepreneur and philanthropist. He is the only individual to have created two Fortune 500 companies in different industries; as of October 2015, Forbes ranked Broad the 65th wealthiest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of $7.4 billion. Broad was born in 1933 in the Bronx, New York, the only child of Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents who met in New York, his father worked as a house painter, his mother worked as a dressmaker. His family moved to Michigan when he was six years old. In Detroit, his father was a union organizer, owned five-and-dime stores. Broad attended Detroit Public Schools and graduated from Detroit Central High School in 1951. Broad attended Michigan State University, majoring in accounting with a minor in economics and graduating cum laude in 1954. Among the jobs Broad held in college were selling women's shoes, selling garbage disposals door-to-door, working as a drill press operator at Packard Motor, where he was a member of United Auto Workers.
The same year, 21-year-old Broad married 18-year-old Edythe "Edye" Lawson. Broad became the youngest Michigan resident to attain the credentials of Certified Public Accountant, a record he held until 2010. Broad worked as an accountant for two years and taught night classes at the Detroit Institute of Technology as an assistant professor of accounting in 1956. Wanting to work on his own, he founded his own accounting firm and was offered office space by the husband of his wife's cousin, Donald Bruce Kaufman, in return for doing the books for Kaufman's small homebuilding and subcontracting business. Doing the accounting for Kaufman's small business led Broad to decide to enter homebuilding himself. In 1956, Broad and Kaufman build homes together. Borrowing $12,500 from his wife's parents, Broad put up half the capital in their first venture together, building two model homes in the Northeast Detroit suburbs where a new generation of first-time home buyers were flocking. By streamlining the construction process and eliminating basements, offering a carport instead, they could price the houses so the monthly mortgage would be less than the rent for a two-bedroom apartment.
Kaufman and Broad christened this model the "Award Winner" and priced it at $13,700. After one weekend, seventeen were sold and within two years and Broad had built 600 homes in the Detroit suburbs. In 1960, fearing that the Detroit economy was too dependent on the automotive business, they moved to Phoenix, Arizona. In 1961, Kaufman and Broad Home Corporation went public on the American Stock Exchange. In 1963, Broad moved the company to Los Angeles. Soon after, Kaufman retired and he and his wife Glorya Kaufman went on to become noted philanthropists. By 1969, KB Home was the first homebuilder listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1974, Broad stepped down as CEO. In 1971, Broad acquired Sun Life Insurance Company of America, a family-owned insurance company founded in Baltimore in 1890, for $52 million. Broad transformed Sun Life into the retirement savings powerhouse SunAmerica. In 1999, he sold SunAmerica to the American International Group for $18 billion. Broad continued as CEO of SunAmerica until 1999.
In 2012, Broad's first book, The Art of Being Unreasonable: Lessons in Unconventional Thinking, was published by Wiley and Sons and debuted as a New York Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Washington Post bestseller. Eli and Edythe Broad created The Broad Foundations, which include The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation and The Broad Art Foundation; these organizations have assets of $3 billion. In 2010, the Broads announced their participation in The Giving Pledge, a commitment for wealthy individuals to give at least half of their wealth to charity; the Broads committed to giving 75% of their wealth away. In 2017, Broad announced his retirement from The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, passing responsibility to its president, Gerun Riley. Broad said he would remain as a trustee of the foundation, continue to serve on the Board of The Broad museum. Broad said he was in good health and felt like it was time to "step back"; the stated mission of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation's education work is to ensure that every student in an urban public school has the opportunity to succeed.
The foundation has made $589 million in grants since it launched in 1999. Broad founded the Broad Academy, a training center for school administrators, in 2002. From 2002 to 2014, The Broad Foundation awarded an annual $1 million Broad Prize for Urban Education; the Broad Prize recognized the large urban school districts in America that have made the greatest improvement in student achievement while narrowing achievement gaps among low-income students and students of color. The Broad Prize has awarded $16 million in college scholarships to high school seniors since 2002. In 2012, the foundation launched the Broad Prize for Public Charter Schools, which awards $250,000 to the top charter management organization in the country. In 2015, the foundation announced; the Broad Center in Los Angeles, California, is a nonprofit organization that seeks to prepare strong leaders of public school systems through The Broad Superintendents Academy and The Broad Residency in Urban Education. It is wholly funded by the Broad Foundation.
Broad has been an influential figure in the art world since 1973 and has had a particular focus on the cultural life of Los Angeles. Broad was the founding chairman of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979 and chaired the board until 1984, he recruited the founding director of the museum and negotiated the acquisition of the
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey, abbreviated as MARCO, is a major contemporary art museum, located in the city of Monterrey, in Nuevo León state of northeastern Mexico. MARCO organizes major exhibitions with international contemporary artists; the museum is in the Centro district of Monterrey, adjacent to the Macroplaza and to the Barrio Antiguo district. MARCO was designed by Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta, in a Minimalist Post-modern architectural style; the museum building opened in 1991. The artworks are in spaces with balanced arrangements of artificial light; the museum occupies a 16,000 square metres structure, with 5,000 square metres for exhibitions in 11 gallery halls. There is an outdoor sculpture garden courtyard, the Central Patio courtyard with a water mirror fountain, an auditorium, gift shop and restaurant. A large outdoor bronze sculpture is a landmark at the museum's entrance plaza on the street, it is an abstracted dove, titled "La Paloma", by sculptor Juan Soriano.
The 4 ton modern sculpture rises 18 feet above the plaza and street corner of Zuazua and Jardón streets.] The permanent collection of the museum is composed of paintings, sculptures and graphic artworks. The collection is contemporary Latin American artworks, by Mexican and Latin American artists. There are works by artists in Europe, the United States, Canada in the permanent collection. Many Mexican artists have been exhibited in temporary shows at MARCO, including Frida Kahlo, Mathias Goeritz, Gabriel Orozco, Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Armando Salas Portugal, Julio Galán, Teodoro González de León, Enrique Guzmán, Ricardo Mazal, Ricardo Legorreta, Miriam Medrez, Rodolfo Morales, Paula Santiago, Alberto Vargas, Hermenegildo Bustos. Other nationalities of artists have been exhibited in temporary shows, including Isamu Noguchi, Joseph Beuys, Jenny Holzer, Joan Brossa, Ana Mendieta, Paula Rego, Cory Hanson, Henry Moore, Antony Gormley, Jan Hendrix, Michael Ray-Von, Annette Messager, Ron Mueck, Ernesto Neto, Claudio Bravo.
Art museums in Mexico Contemporary art galleries in Mexico Landmarks in Monterrey Official MARCO—Museum of Contemporary Art, Monterrey website
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
The Hammer Museum, affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles, is an art museum and cultural center known for its artist-centric and progressive array of exhibitions and public programs. Founded in 1990 by the entrepreneur-industrialist Armand Hammer to house his personal art collection, the museum has since expanded its scope to become "the hippest and most culturally relevant institution in town." Important among the museum's critically acclaimed exhibitions are presentations of both over-looked and emerging contemporary artists. The Hammer Museum hosts over 300 programs throughout the year, from lectures and readings to concerts and film screenings; as of February 2014, the museum's collections and programs are free to all visitors. The Hammer opened November 28, 1990 with an exhibition of work by the Russian Suprematist painter Kazimir Malevich which originated at the National Gallery of Art in Washington and subsequently travelled to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The museum has since presented important single-artist and thematic exhibitions of historical and contemporary art. It has developed an international reputation for reintroducing artists and movements that have been overlooked in the art historical canon. Notable examples include a 2003 retrospective of Lee Bontecou, co-organized with the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; the Hammer is dedicated to inclusion. Of all of the solo exhibitions on view in Los Angeles between January 2008 and December 2012, the Hammer is the only institution to devote 50% of its exhibition programming to female artists; the Hammer hosts fifteen Hammer Projects each year, offering international and local artists a laboratory-like surrounding to create new and innovative work. In 2010 the Hammer announced its inaugural biennial devoted to Los Angeles artists. Though the museum has featured California artists as part of its ongoing exhibition program, the Made in L. A. series has emerged as an important and high-profile platform to showcase the diversity and energy of Los Angeles as an emerging art capitol.
Organized by Hammer senior curator Anne Ellegood, Hammer curator Ali Subotnick, LAXART director and chief curator Lauri Firstenberg, LAXART associate director and senior curator Cesar Garcia, LAXART curator-at-large Malik Gaines, the inaugural Made in L. A. in 2012 featured work by 60 Los Angeles artists in spaces throughout the city including the Hammer Museum itself, LAXART, the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery in Barnsdall Art Park. In conjunction with the exhibition, the Hammer sponsored a satellite exhibition, the Venice Beach Biennial on the Venice Boardwalk, between July 13 and 15th of that year; the second iteration of Made in L. A. in 2014 took over the entire space of the museum to feature work by more than 30 different artists and collectives. The 2014 exhibition was organized by Hammer chief curator Connie Butler and independent curator Michael Ned Holte. In conjunction with the inaugural Made in L. A. exhibition in 2012, the Hammer offered the first iteration of the prestigious Mohn Award to the artist Meleko Mokgosi.
The award consisted of a catalogue and a $100,000.00 cash prize and was decided by public vote after a jury of experts narrowed the 60 participants to five finalists. The Mohn Award, funded by Los Angeles philanthropists and art collectors Jarl and Pamela Mohn and the Mohn Family Foundation, was one of the most generous international awards given to a single artist. In 2014 the Hammer announced it was offering three awards in conjunction with Made in L. A. 2014: The Mohn Award, the Career Achievement Award —both of which are selected by a professional jury—and the Public Recognition Award, awarded by popular vote among exhibition visitors. All three awards are again funded by the Mohn Family Foundation. In 2014 Alice Könitz's Los Angeles Museum on Art won the Mohn Award, Michael Frimkess and Magdalena Suarez Frimkess were awarded the Career Achievement Award, Jennifer Moon was awarded the Public Recognition Award; the Hammer Museum manages five distinct collections: The Hammer Contemporary Collection.
The Hammer Contemporary Collection, inaugurated in 1999, is the museum's growing collection of modern and contemporary art. The collection includes works on paper drawings and photographs, as well as paintings and media arts; the Contemporary Collection houses works from internationally acclaimed artists, including many active in Southern California from 1960 to the present. Hammer Contemporary Collection works are acquired in tandem with exhibitions presented at the museum, including the Hammer Projects series focusing on the work of emerging artists; the 2009 exhibition Second Nature: The Valentine-Adelson Collection at the Hammer exhibited selections from Dean Valentine and Amy Adelson's gift to the Hammer Contemporary Collection. The gift of fifty sculptures by 29 Los Angeles artists represents a significant milestone in the Hammer's commitment to collecting the works of Southern California artists. In 2012, the Hammer showcased selections from the Larry Marx Collection; the exhibition was made possible by a substantial gift from longtime museum supporters Susan and Larry Marx and includes more than 150 paintings, sculp