Abruzzo is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.2 million. It is divided into four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo and Chieti, its western border lies 80 km east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east, the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area in the west, which includes the Gran Sasso d'Italia, a coastal area in the east with beaches on the Adriatic Sea. Abruzzo is considered a region of Southern Italy in terms of its culture, language and economy, although geographically it may be considered central; the Italian Statistical Authority deems it to be part of Southern Italy because of Abruzzo's historic association with the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Abruzzo is known as "the greenest region in Europe" as half of its territory, the largest in Europe, is set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves. There are three national parks, one regional park, 38 protected nature reserves.
These ensure the survival of 75% of Europe's living species, including rare species such as the small wading dotterel, the golden eagle, the Abruzzo chamois, the Apennine wolf and the Marsican brown bear. Abruzzo is home to Calderone, Europe's southernmost glacier; the visiting nineteenth-century Italian diplomat and journalist Primo Levi said that the adjectives "forte e gentile" best describe the beauty of the region and the character of its people. "Forte e gentile" has since become the motto of its inhabitants. Abruzzo is divided into four administrative provinces: Human settlements in Abruzzo have existed since at least the Neolithic times. A skeleton from Lama dei Peligni in the province of Chieti dates back to 6,540 BC under radiometric dating; the name Abruzzo appears to be derivative of the Latin word "Aprutium". In Roman times, the region was known as Picenum, Sabina et Samnium, Flaminia et Picenum, Campania et Samnium; the region was known as Aprutium in the Middle Ages, arising from four possible sources: it is a combination of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii, applied to their chief city, the old Teramo.
Many cities in Abruzzo date back to ancient times. Corfinio was known as Corfinium when it was the chief city of the Paeligni, was renamed Pentima by the Romans. Chieti is built on the site of the ancient city of Teate, Atri was known as Adria. Teramo, known variously in ancient times as Interamnia and Teramne, has Roman ruins which attract tourists. After the fall of the Roman Empire, there were a string of invasions and rulers in the region, including the Lombards, Byzantines and Hungarians. Between the 9th and 12th centuries, the region was dominated by the popes. Subsequently, the Normans took over, Abruzzo became part of the Kingdom of Sicily the Kingdom of Naples. Spain ruled the kingdom from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries; the French Bourbon dynasty took over in 1815, establishing the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled until Italian unification in 1860. Until 1963, Abruzzo was part of the Abruzzi region with Molise; the term Abruzzi derives from the time. The territory was administered as Abruzzo Citeriore and Abruzzo Ulteriore I and II from Naples, the capital of the kingdom.
Abruzzo Citeriore is now Chieti province. Teramo and Pescara provinces now comprise what was Abruzzo Ulteriore I. Abruzzo Ulteriore II is now the province of L'Aquila. In the twentieth century, war had a great impact on the region. During the Second World War, Abruzzo was on the Gustav Line, part of the German's Winter Line. One of the most brutal battles was the Battle of Ortona. Abruzzo was the location of two prisoner of war camps, Campo 21 in Chieti, Campo 78 in Sulmona; the Sulmona camp served as a POW camp in World War 1. Geographically, Abruzzo is located in central Italy and southern Italy, stretching from the heart of the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea, includes mountainous and wild land; the mountainous land is occupied by a vast plateau, including Gran Sasso, at 2,912 metres the highest peak of the Apennines, Mount Majella at 2,793 metres. The Adriatic coastline is characterized by long sandy beaches to the North and pebbly beaches to the South. Abruzzo is well known for its landscapes and natural environment and nature reserves, characteristic hillside areas rich in vineyards and olive groves, one of the highest densities of Blue Flag beaches.
The Abruzzo region has two types of climate that are influenced by the Apennine Mountains, dividing the climate of the coastal and sub-Apennine hills from the interior's high mountain ranges. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild winters and rainy hills with a sublittoral climate where temperatures decrease progressively with increasing altitude and precipitation with altitude. Precipitation is strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges of the region; the Adriatic coast are sidelined rainfall from the west to the barrier effect of the Apennines undergoing the action of gentle winds descending from it. The minimum annual rainfall, however, is found in some inland vall
North Shore (Pittsburgh)
The North Shore is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's North Side. It has a zip code of 15212, has representation on Pittsburgh City Council by both the council members for District 1 and 6; the neighborhood is home to PNC Park and The Andy Warhol Museum. It is developing around and between the two stadiums. Two new light rail stations opened in the spring of 2012; the North Side station is located beside PNC Park and near the north portal of the Allegheny River Tunnel. Allegheny station is located by Heinz Field, is the current western terminus of the line. In October 2014 two 11-story office skyscrapers were proposed for the area by local parking lot manager Alco Parking; the project is to move forward, as soon as an anchor tenant can be found. The North Shore runs along the Allegheny River and its confluence with the Monongahela River to form the Ohio River, it is bordered by Chateau to the west, Allegheny West to the northwest, Allegheny Center to the north, East Allegheny to the northeast and Troy Hill to the east.
The Roberto Clemente, Andy Warhol and Rachel Carson Bridges provide direct links to Downtown Pittsburgh as do the first southbound exits across the Veterans and Fort Duquesne Bridges. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map
Thomas Alexander Mellon was an American, entrepreneur and judge, best known as the founder of Mellon Bank and patriarch of the Mellon family of Pittsburgh. Mellon was born to farmers Andrew Mellon and Rebecca Wauchob on February 3, 1813, at Camp Hill Cottage, Lower Castletown, parish of Cappagh, County Tyrone, Ireland now Northern Ireland; the original family house now forms the centrepiece of the Ulster American Folk Park Museum. His family had come into Ireland from Scotland around the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1816, his grandfather, Archibald Mellon, emigrated to the United States, settling in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Andrew and his family followed two years later. Mellon wrote in his autobiography that at the age of ten, he had been struck by "wealth and magnificence I had before no conception of" upon viewing the mansion of prominent landowners Jacob Negley and Barbara Ann Negley. At fourteen, he read The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin and became inspired by Franklin's rags-to-riches tale.
Deciding he would not be a farmer, he enrolled at the Western University of Pennsylvania, now known as the University of Pittsburgh in October 1834, graduating in 1837. After graduation, he obtained work in a Pittsburgh law office, became clerk for the Allegheny County prothonotary, he was himself admitted to the bar on December 15, 1838, opened his own law firm, focusing on civil cases. On August 22, 1843, he married Sarah Jane Negley, daughter of Jacob and Barbara and aunt of James S. Negley, after a long—and frustrating—courtship. Soon thereafter, he embarked on a successful legal career in Pittsburgh. In 1859, he was elected assistant judge of the Allegheny County Court of Common Pleas and on December 1 began a ten-year judicial career. Mellon invested the proceeds from his legal work shrewdly, buying up large portions of downtown Pittsburgh real estate. In late 1869, he decided to retire from the bench, rather than return to the legal profession, "concluded to open a banking house." On January 2, 1870, he opened the T.
Mellon & Sons' Bank with his sons Andrew W. and Richard B. Above the cast iron door of the original bank building at 145 Smithfield Street was placed a near life-sized statue of his inspiration, Benjamin Franklin, he nearly lost his estate in the Panic of 1873—an economic depression in which half of Pittsburgh's ninety organized banks and twelve private banks failed—but prevailed, was well placed to prosper when the economy again began to expand. Shrewd investments included real estate holdings in downtown Pittsburgh, coal fields, a $10,000 loan to Henry Clay Frick in 1871, which would provide the coke for Andrew Carnegie's steel mills. In 1877, Mellon was approached to finance the Ligonier Valley Railroad. In 1878 he acquired land around the railroad just west of Ligonier, Pennsylvania where he began a picnic park, Idlewild. Additional land in the Ligonier Valley which he once owned is now the Rolling Rock Club. On January 5, 1882, he retired from day-to-day management of the bank's affairs, handing it to his 26-year-old son, Andrew.
Under A. W. and R. B.'s management, Mellon Bank was by the end of the century the largest banking institution in the country outside of New York. He divested himself of most of the rest of his property on February 3, 1890, leaving it in the hands of his sons. Mellon died on his 95th birthday, February 1908 at his home in East Liberty, he was survived by his wife, who lived for about a year after his death, three children. Thomas Mellon and his wife Sarah are buried in Pittsburgh's Allegheny Cemetery. Mellon was Presbyterian by faith. Though not devoutly religious, he was a member and supporter of the East Liberty Presbyterian Church, the land for, contributed by the Negley family, he maintained a "country house" at 401 North Negley Avenue in East Liberty, where he indulged a passion for horticulture, raising fruit trees and other crops. He took an interest in the poetry of Robert Burns and in the history of Ireland, he was said to have remarked "the only way to settle the Irish question would be to sink the island."Thomas and Sarah Mellon had eight children, five of whom survived to adulthood: Thomas Alexander Mellon, Jr. born June 26, 1844, married to Mary C.
Caldwell, sister of Alexander Caldwell, U. S. Senator of Kansas. James Ross Mellon, born January 14, 1846, married to Rachel Hughey Larimer, daughter of railroad and land baron William Larimer. Sarah Emma Mellon. Annie Rebecca Mellon. Samuel Selwyn Mellon. Andrew William Mellon, born March 24, 1855, died August 26, 1937. Richard Beatty Mellon, born March 19, 1858, died December 1, 1933, married to Jennie King, daughter of Alexander and Cordelia King. George Negley Mellon, born June 30, 1860, died April 15, 1887. Mellon entrusted his sons with business ventures from early ages. By the age of 21, his son Tom had raised, with his son Jim, some $100,000 operating a nursery, lumber yard and construction supply business, Andrew was managing a theatre at the age of 17. Well-prepared for business, the Mellon family ranked among the wealthiest and most prominent industrialists in the United States by the time of Judge Mellon's death in 1908. James Ross Mellon: The Judge: A Life of Thomas Mellon, Founder of a Fortune 575 pp. ISBN 978-0-300-16714-6 Mellon Homestead, birthplace of Thomas Mellon and part of the Ulster American Folk Park in County Tyrone Scots-Irish Americans Thomas Mellon and William B.
Negley Day Book
The U. S. city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was home to a "small, but busy" Chinatown, located at the intersection of Grant Street and Boulevard of the Allies in Downtown Pittsburgh where only two Chinese restaurants remain. The On Leong Society was located there. According to the article, "... the first Chinese community in Pittsburgh developed around Wylie Avenue above Court Place," according to a 1942 newsletter of the American Service Institute of Allegheny County. The Chinatown spread to Grant Street, "... to Water Street and spread out to Second and Third avenues." The Chinatown grew from waves of Chinese immigrants who came east from California after the 1849 Gold Rush and the transcontinental railroads. The immigrants came from the area around Canton in China. According to the article, the Chinatown was centered on Second Avenue with merchant names such as "Wing Hong Chinese Co. 519 Second Ave" and "Quong Chong Shing, 511 Second Ave", all of whom have been driven out when the Boulevard of the Allies was built forcing demolition of all buildings on Second Avenue, sometime by the 1950s.
By the 1930s, "... the Chinatown was vanishing." Pittsburgh's Chinatown in the 1920s to 1930s could be described as a dangerous place as there were frequent skirmishes between the two warring Chinese gangs, otherwise known as the "Tong Wars", covered by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Press. "On Second Avenue there stands the temple, pagoda style, lifting itself three stories, its tiled roof and leaded windows giving it an air of Oriental distinction. Inside is the splendor of embroidery and hangings and mother of pearl, red lacquer and gilt carvings, a carved stone altar for worship, a long table for meetings of the On Leong Merchants Association." Pittsburgh's Chinatown and how it disappeared - The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in cities where there is urban decay. Urban renewal refers to the clearing out of blighted areas in inner cities to clear out slums and create opportunities for higher class housing and more. Modern attempts at renewal began in the late 19th century in developed nations, experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s under the rubric of reconstruction; the process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world. Urban renewal is a process where owned properties within a designated renewal area are purchased or taken by eminent domain by a municipal redevelopment authority and reconveyed to selected developers who devote them to other uses; until 1970, the displaced owners and tenants received only the constitutionally-mandated "just compensation" specified in the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution; this measure of compensation covered only the fair market value of the taken property, omitted compensation for a variety of incidental losses like, for example, moving expenses, loss of favorable financing and notably, business losses, such as loss of business goodwill.
In the 1970s the federal government and state governments enacted the Uniform Relocation Assistance Act which provides for limited compensation of some of these losses. However the Act denies the displaced land owners the right to sue to enforce its provisions, so it is deemed an act of legislative grace rather than a constitutional right. Urban redevelopment has been controversial because of such practices as taking private property by eminent domain for "public use" and turning it over to redevelopers free of charge or for less than the acquisition cost. Thus, in the controversial Connecticut case of Kelo v. City of New London the plan called for a redeveloper to lease the subject 90-acre waterfront property for $1 per year; this process is carried out in rural areas, referred to as village renewal, though it may not be the same in practice. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl when city infrastructure begins to include freeways and expressways. Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism, by critics as a mechanism for control.
Though it may bring more wealth to communities, it may edge out its preexisting residents. Some redevelopment projects have been failures, including the Kelo case, in which the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the taking by a 5 to 4 vote, but where nothing was built on the taken property. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs; the goal of urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, today is an integral part of many local governments combined with small and big business incentives. Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents – it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, residents – it has played an undeniably important if controversial role, but at other times urban redevelopment projects have failed in several American cities, having wasted large amounts of public funds to no purpose.
Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, it may improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late 1964, the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock and cultural'opportunities'. In the United States successful urban redevelopment projects tend to revitalize downtown areas, but have not been successful in revitalizing cities as a whole; the process has resulted in the displacement of low-income city inhabitants when their dwellings were taken and demolished. Urban redevelopment became an engine of construction of shopping malls, automobile factories and dealerships, "large box" department stores.
Thus, in Washington, DC, the famous Southwest Washington renewal project displaced thousands of African-American families, but provided them with no replacement housing because at the time the law did not provide for any. The version of the project, approved by the U. S. Supreme Court in Berman, provided for low-cost replacement housing, one-third of, to rent for $17/room/month, but after the court's decision, that provision in the local law was repealed. Replacement housing – in the form of high-rise housing for low-income tenants – have not been successful; these projects are difficult to police, leading to an increase in crime, such structures might in themselves be dehumanising. Public housing projects like Cabrini-Green in Chicago and Pruitt-Igoe in St. Louis became so bad that they had to be demolished; the concept of urban renewal as a method for social reform emerged in England as a reaction to the cramped and unsanitary conditions of the urban poor in the industrializing cities of the 19th century.
The agenda that emerged was a progressive d