Award of Garden Merit
The Award of Garden Merit is a long-established annual award for plants by the British Royal Horticultural Society. It is based on assessment of the plants' performance under UK growing conditions; the Award of Garden Merit is a mark of quality awarded, since 1922, to garden plants by the United Kingdom, Royal Horticultural Society. Awards are made annually after plant trials intended to judge the plants' performance under UK growing conditions. Trials may last for one or more years, depending on the type of plant being tried out, may be performed at Royal Horticulture Society Garden in Wisley and other gardens or after observation of plants in specialist collections. Trial reports are made available on the website. Awards are reviewed annually in case plants have become unavailable horticulturally, or have been superseded by better cultivars; the award should not be confused with the Royal Horticulture Society's Award of Merit, given to plants deemed'of great merit for exhibition' i.e. for show, not garden, plants.
Since 1989, France has had similar awards called the Mérites de Courson, but these are drawn from a limited number of plants submitted by nurserymen to juries at the twice-yearly Journées des Plantes de Courson and awards are based on the opinions of the jury members as to the plants' performance in French gardens, rather than on extensive trials. The Award of Garden Merit was reviewed in 1992, to increase its prestige. Field trial results gained weight in the assessments and existing AGM plants were reviewed in the light of more recent experience; the AGMs were to be reviewed at 10 year intervals from 1992, but this frequency has been increased to annually. The 2012/13 review, with advice from experts such as Royal Horticultural Society's plant committees, specialist societies, Plant Heritage National Collection holders and others, resulted in many changes. Nearly 1,900 plants lost more than 1,400 plants gained awards. Plants may be added to the Royal Horticultural Society'Sunset List' for rescission for several reasons, including unavailability to gardeners, better plants becoming available, affliction by pests or diseases, or insufficient uniformity.
To qualify for an Award of Garden Merit, a plant must be available horticulturally must be of outstanding excellence for garden decoration or use must be of good constitution must not require specialist growing conditions or care must not be susceptible to any pest or disease must not be subject to an unreasonable degree of reversion. The "Award of Garden Merit" symbol represents a cup-shaped trophy with handles, it is cited together with a hardiness rating as follows: H1 Requires a heated glasshouse H1a Warmer than 15C/59F: tropical plants for indoors and heated greenhouses H1b 10C/50F to 15C/59F: subtropical plants for indoors and heated greenhouses H1c 5C/41F to 10C/50F: warm temperate plants that can go outdoors in summer H2 1C/34F to 5C/41F: plants that need a frost-free greenhouse in winter H3 -5C/23F to 1C/34F: hardy outside in some regions or situations, or which - while grown outside in summer - need frost protection in winter H4 -10C/14F to -5C/23F: plants hardy outside in most of the UK in an average winter H5 -15C/5F to -10C/14F: plants hardy outside in most of the UK in severe winters H6 -20C/-4F to -15C/5F: plants hardy outside in the UK and northern Europe H7 Colder than -20C/-4F: plants hardy outside in the severest European climates List of Award of Garden Merit flowering cherries List of Award of Garden Merit magnolias List of Award of Garden Merit roses List of Award of Garden Merit sweet peas RHS Plant Finder 2005–2006, Dorling Kindersley ISBN 1-4053-0736-6 The Royal Horticultural Society's website - Search facility for AGM plants RHS AGM Plant Awards RHS Plant Committees Search for AGM plants The Royal Horticultural Society Complete AGM lists
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Élie-Abel Carrière was a French botanist, based in Paris. He was a leading authority on conifers in the period 1850–1870, describing many new species, the new genera Tsuga and Pseudotsuga, his most important work was the Traité Général des Conifères, published in 1855, with a second, extensively revised edition in 1867. There is a brief biography of Carrière, in English, in the journal Brittonia. In addition to his studies of conifers, he published a number of works in the field of horticulture: Guide pratique du jardinier multiplicateur: ou art de propager les végétaux par semis, greffes, etc. -- book on propagation of plants by seeds, grafts. Flore des jardins de l'Europe: manuel général des plantes, arbres et arbustes, comprenant leur origine, culture: leur application aux jardins d'agrément, à l'agriculture, aux forêts, aux usages domestiques, aux arts et à l'industrie. Et classés selon la méthode de Decandolle par Jacques et Hérincq, / Paris: Librairie agricole de la Maison rustique, Entretiens familiers sur l'horticulture Encyclopédie horticole -- Horticulture encyclopedia Production et fixation des variétés dans les végétaux Origine des plantes domestiques démontrée par la culture du radis sauvage -- Origin of domesticated plants demonstrated by culture of wild radish.
Semis et mise à fruit des arbres fruitiers. In 1880, he described Iris orchioides
Aylmer Bourke Lambert
Aylmer Bourke Lambert was a British botanist, one of the first fellows of the Linnean Society. Aylmer Bourke Lambert was born at Bath, England on 2 February 1761, the son of Edmund Lambert of Boyton House and Bridget Bourke, the daughter of the 8th Viscount Mayo. Lambert's mother died in 1773, the same year that he started school and through her family he inherited estates in Jamaica and Ireland. Lambert went to Newcome's School for the sons of gentlemen at Hackney, attended Oxford University for three years, he is best known for his work A description of the genus Pinus, issued in several parts 1803–1824, a sumptuously illustrated folio volume detailing all of the conifers known. A second folio edition was produced between 1828 and 1837, a third, smaller edition in 1832. Individual books of the same edition are very different from one another, which causes problems when the illustrations have been used as types to fix the application of names. A full description of the publication history is given in: Renkema, H. W. & Ardagh, J..
Aylmer Bourke Lambert and his'Description of the Genus Pinus'. Journal of the Linnean Society of London – Botany 48: 439–466. Many of the new conifers discovered by David Douglas and others, including the Coast Redwood, were described for the first time in Lambert's books. Lambert acquired a number of significant herbarium collections including those of Johann Reinhold Forster, Archibald Menzies and Henry de Ponthieu, he amassed a large collection of specimens and drawings from Australia in the era following the arrival of the First Fleet. Contributors included Governor Arthur Phillip, Surgeon-General John White, Colonel William Paterson, Major Robert Ross, Major Francis Grose and Philip Gidley King. Lambert's collection of 50,000 preserved plant specimens, along with his extensive library, was consulted by authors and botanists including Robert Brown, De Candolle, George Don and David Don, it was auctioned following his death in 317 lots and specimens can be found in botanical collections around the world.
Lambert was one of the founding fellows of the Linnean Society in 1788. In 1796 Lambert was appointed by James Edward Smith as one of the four Vice-Presidents of the Linnean Society of London, he held this position until his death in 1842. In 1791, Lambert was elected to the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge and Joseph Banks made him a member of its Council in 1810."He was a friend and correspondent of Sir Joseph Banks, took a great interest in the botanical and zoological discoveries emerging from New Holland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as they were transmitted back to London, whether as living or dead specimens, as seeds, or as drawings. Lambert compiled the collection from Surgeon General John White's specimens and drawings brought from Sydney to London in 1795." Lambert is honoured in the scientific name of the Sugar Pine, the genus Lambertia, the variegated fairywren. The standard botanical author abbreviation Lamb. is applied to species he described.
Anemaat, Louise. "Lambert, Aylmer Bourke". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 6–7. Elbert L. Little, Jr. "Lambert's'Description of the Genus Pinus,' 1832 Edition". Madrono, 10:33–47. 1949. H. W. Renkema and John Ardagh. "Aylmer Bourke Lambert and his'Description of the Genus Pinus'". The Journal of the Linnaean Society of London, 48:439–466. 1928–1931. Aylmer Bourke Lambert FLS at www.barnelms.com The TAL & Dai-ichi Life Derby Collection at the State Library of New South Wales
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development; the term bud is used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual. The buds of many woody plants in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance; when the bud develops, the scales may enlarge somewhat but just drop off, leaving a series of horizontally-elongated scars on the surface of the growing stem. By means of these scars one can determine the age of any young branch, since each year's growth ends in the formation of a bud, the formation of which produces an additional group of bud scale scars.
Continued growth of the branch causes these scars to be obliterated after a few years so that the total age of older branches cannot be determined by this means. In many plants scales do not form over the bud, the bud is called a naked bud; the minute underdeveloped leaves in such buds are excessively hairy. Naked buds are found in some shrubs, like some species of the Sumac and Viburnums and in herbaceous plants. In many of the latter, buds are more reduced consisting of undifferentiated masses of cells in the axils of leaves. A terminal bud occurs on the end of a stem and lateral buds are found on the side. A head of cabbage is an exceptionally large terminal bud, while Brussels sprouts are large lateral buds. Since buds are formed in the axils of leaves, their distribution on the stem is the same as that of leaves. There are alternate and whorled buds, as well as the terminal bud at the tip of the stem. In many plants buds appear in unexpected places: these are known as adventitious buds, it is possible to find a bud in a remarkable series of gradations of bud scales.
In the buckeye, for example, one may see a complete gradation from the small brown outer scale through larger scales which on unfolding become somewhat green to the inner scales of the bud, which are remarkably leaf-like. Such a series suggests that the scales of the bud are in truth leaves, modified to protect the more delicate parts of the plant during unfavorable periods. Buds are useful in the identification of plants for woody plants in winter when leaves have fallen. Buds may be classified and described according to different criteria: location, status and function. Botanists use the following terms: for location: terminal, when located at the tip of a stem; the term is usable as a synonym of resting, but is better employed for buds waiting undeveloped for years, for example epicormic buds. Buds The term bud is used by analogy within zoology as well, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which develops into a new individual, it is a form of asexual reproduction limited to animals or plants of simple structure.
In this process a portion of the wall of the parent cell pushes out. The protuberance thus formed enlarges while at this time the nucleus of the parent cell divides. One of the resulting nuclei passes into the bud, the bud is cut off from its parent cell and the process is repeated; the daughter cell will begin to bud before it becomes separated from the parent, so that whole colonies of adhering cells may be formed. Cross walls cut off the bud from the original cell
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period