Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Antrobus is a civil parish and village in Cheshire, England to the south of Warrington. It is situated within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester, has a population of 832, reducing to 791 at the 2011 Census; the parish includes Frandley about one mile south west from the main village. The village was struck by an F1/T3 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day; the village shop and post office is owned and run cooperatively by the villagers for the benefit of the community having closed in 2003. The placename is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Entrebus", in the Pipe Rolls of Cheshire of 1282 as "Anterbus"; the derivation of the name is from the Old Norse personal name "Eindrithi" or "Andrithi", with the Old Norse "buski", bush or thicket, the whole name thus signifying "Andrithi's thicket". Listed buildings in Antrobus Antrobus at GENUKI Antrobus in the Domesday Book
Allostock is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, about five miles south of Knutsford and 20 miles south of Manchester. Allostock was in the borough of Vale Royal until it was abolished on 1 April 2009 to form Cheshire West and Chester. Allostock is located on an affluent of the river Weaver, it had a population of 816 according to the 2011 census data as well as 325 households. John Bartholemew wrote this in 1887 about Allostock: "Allostock, Great Budworth par. Mid. Cheshire, 5 miles S. of Knutsford, 3017 ac. pop. 501." Allostock's name was developed from the Old English word ` Lostock'. The first part of the name, added to distinguish it from Lostock Gralam, may be from'Hall', or from'Auld' or'Old Lostock' which led to the name Allostock. Despite it being overlooked in the Doomsday Book, the origin of the name implies that the piggery was a growing concern before the Norman invasion and even the Romans; the earliest recorded reference of'Alostocke' was in the 13th century in the Leycester of Tabley papers.
During the Saxon settlement in the 7th-century part of today's Allostock was named'Bradshaw'. The name still exists in Brook, with Bradshaw Brook Farm, Bradshaw Brook Methodist church and Bradshaw House. Shakerley Mere is a former sand quarry, filled with water when production was stopped in the 1960s, it is home to much wildlife, where dog walking are popular activities around the area. There are two churches in Allostock, one is part of the ecclesiastical parish of St Oswald's, Lower Peover. There is Bradshaw Brooks Methodist church on Middlewich road. Allostock has no school and younger children attend Byley School – some going to Lower Peover C. E. Primary School. Older children can go to Holmes Chapel Comprehensive and Knutsford and Middlewich have comprehensive schools. There are three pubs/restaurants in Allostock, The Drovers Arms, The Three Greyhounds on the junction between Middlewich road and Holmes Chapel road, The Cottage located on the A50. Hulme Hall with its moat and medieval bridge is Allostock's oldest and most archaeologically significant monument.
The site is an English Heritage Scheduled Ancient Monument and the Hall and bridge are Grade II* listed structures. Danes settled at Hulme Hall in the 10th and 11th century and there are records than an Anglo-Norse squire who lived here, perished in the Battle of Namptwiche in the Northern Rebellion of 1069. "Houlme" was an early version of the Norse word meaning "land above the water" or "island". The Shakerleys built the 15th-century bridge, one entrance to Hulme Hall across the moat, 20 yards wide; the other entrance is reputed to be the site of the old drawbridge. Recent renovations have found evidence of medieval and earlier occupation, a record of, with the Chester Records Office. Allostock has links dating back to the 7th century. With known records of Allostock dating to the 13th century. Allostock is known with strong connections to the Grosvenors and the Shakerleys; the manor of Allostock was conveyed to the Grosvenors in the reign of Edward I by John de Lostock. The Grosvenors had their chief seat at Hulme in this township, till the death of Robert Grosvenor Esq. in whom the male line of the elder line became extinct in 1465, when his estates were divided between his daughters.
A part of the manor was inherited by Sir John Leicester, who married one of the heiresses of the Grosvenors. Mr Shakerley inherited a fifth from his ancestor, of Booths. In 1234 Richard Grosvenor of Hulme took over Hulme Hall from another Norman family; this Richard Grosvenor was related to the first Norman Earl of Chester. In 1269 Richard built a Chapel of Ease at Lower Peover to save the long journey to Great Budworth. In 1464 Robert Grosvenor had a Chantry Chapel built at Lower Peover, pulled down in 1547 under Henry VIII; the Grosvenors established Hulme Mill and Bradshaw Brook was diverted about ¾ of a mile to obtain a better head of water. In 1453 the Shakerleys inherited Hulme Hall and about 1000 acres of Allostock's 3000 acres, through the female line. Several of the Shakerleys are buried in the Shakerley Chapel in the south aisle of Lower Peover Church where memorials may be seen including one to Sir Geoffrey Shakerley who fought for the King in the Civil War. At the Battle of Rowton Moor near Chester, Sir Geoffrey rowed across the Dee in an old tub with his horse swimming beside him.
Roundheads were blocking the roads and he needed to warn the King. The King hesitated with his orders. Sir Geoffrey rowed back but arrived too late and the battle was lost. In Lower Peover Church the Shakerley crest can still be seen on several of the box pew ends; the pews were reserved for the Shakerley tenants. In 1720 the Shakerleys built Somerford Hall as their main residence and Hulme Hall became a farm house. Listed buildings in Allostock
Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the rivers Weaver and Dane; the town is 15 miles south of Warrington. 19 miles south of Manchester and 12 miles south of Manchester Airport. Northwich has been named as one of the best places to live in the United Kingdom according to The Sunday Times in 2014. Northwich is an area of High Growth, with the Winsford and Northwich Locality having a population of over 108,000 in 2018, this has grown from 100,000 in 2011. With an estimated population of 125,000 by 2030. Northwich itself with the Proposed 6,000 new homes being built will have a population of over 85,000 by 2030; the area around Northwich has been exploited for its salt pans since Roman times, when the settlement was known as Condate. The town has been affected by salt mining, subsidence has been a significant problem. There has been recent investment in mine stabilisation.
During Roman times, Northwich was known as Condate, thought to be a Latinisation of a Brittonic name meaning "Confluence". There are several other sites of the same name in France. Northwich can be identified through two contemporary Roman documents; the first of these is a 3rd-century road map split into 14 sections. Two of these sections, or Itinerary, mention Condate: Route II and Route X; the second document is the 7th-century Ravenna Cosmography. This document refers to Condate between the entries for Salinae and Ratae, at the time the capital of the Corieltauvi tribe; the Romans' interest in the Northwich area is thought to be due to the strategic river crossing and the location of the salt brines. Salt was important in Roman society, it is theorised that this is the basis for the modern word salary. Another theory is. See History of salt for further details. There is archaeological evidence of a Roman auxiliary fort within the area of Northwich now known as "Castle" dated to AD 70; this and other northwestern forts were built as the Romans moved north from their stronghold in Chester.
The association with salt continues in the etymology of Northwich. The "wich" suffix applies to other towns in the area: Middlewich and Leftwich; this is considered to have been derived from the Norse, for bay, is associated with the more traditional method of obtaining salt by evaporating sea water. Therefore, a place for making salt became a wych-house; the existence of Northwich in the early medieval period is shown by its record in the Domesday Book: In the same Mildestuic hundred there was a third wich called Norwich and it was at farm for £8. There were the same laws and customs there as there were in the other wiches and the king and the earl divided the renders.... All the other customs in these wiches are the same; this was waste. The manor of Northwich belonged to the Earls of Chester until 1237. Subsequently, Northwich became a royal manor and was given to a noble family to collect tolls in exchange for a set rent; that salt production continued throughout the centuries and can be seen through John Leland's description of the town in 1540: Northwich is a pratie market town but fowle,and by the Salters houses be great stakes of smaul cloven wood, to seethe the salt water that thei make white salt of.
Between 1642 and 1643, during the English Civil War, Northwich was fortified and garrisoned by Sir William Brereton for the Parliamentarians. The salt beds beneath Northwich were re-discovered in the 1670s by employees of the local Smith-Barry family; the Smith-Barrys were looking for coal, but instead discovered rock salt, in the grounds of the family home, Marbury Hall, to the north of Northwich. During the 19th century it became uneconomical to mine for the salt. Instead hot water was pumped through the mines; the resultant brine was pumped out and the salt extracted from the brine. This technique led to land subsidence as they collapsed. Subsidence affected the surrounding landscape. For example, collapses in 1880 formed Witton Flash as the River Weaver flowed into a huge hole caused by subsidence. Subsidence allegedly accounts for many old timber-framed houses in the town centre, which were better able to withstand the movement of the ground; some houses were built on a base of steel girders that could be jacked up to level the house with each change in the underlying ground.
The town's historical link with the salt industry is celebrated in its museum, today in the old workhouse. In 1874, John Brunner and Ludwig Mond founded Brunner Mond in Winnington and started manufacturing soda ash using the Solvay ammonia-soda process; this process used salt as a main raw material. The chemical industry used the subsided land for the disposal of waste from the manufacture of soda-ash; the waste was transported through a network of rails to the produce limebeds. This caused the landscape to be abandoned as unusable. Brine bathsThe first known swimming baths of Northwich was the Verdin Baths, situated on Verdin Park, it was presented by Robert Verdi
Ellesmere Port is a town and port in Cheshire, part of the Cheshire West and Chester local authority. The town had a population of 55,715 in 2011; the town was established on the River Mersey at the entrance to the Ellesmere Canal. As well as a service sector economy, it has retained large industries including Stanlow oil refinery, a chemical works and the Vauxhall Motors car factory. There are a number of tourist attractions including the National Waterways Museum, the Blue Planet Aquarium and Cheshire Oaks Designer Outlet; the town of Ellesmere Port was founded at the outlet of the never completed Ellesmere Canal. The canal now renamed was designed and engineered by William Jessop and Thomas Telford as part of a project to connect the rivers Severn and Dee; the canal was intended to be completed in sections. In 1795 the section between the River Mersey at Netherpool and the River Dee at Chester was opened; however the canal was not finished as first intended. Upon reevaluation it was decided that the costs to complete the project were not projected to be repaid because of a decrease in expected commercial traffic.
There had been a loss of competitive advantage caused by steam engine-related economic advances during the first decade of canal construction. During or before the construction of the canal the village of Netherpool changed its name to the Port of Ellesmere, by the early 19th century, to Ellesmere Port. Settlements had existed in the area since the writing of the Domesday Book in the 11th century, which mentions Great Sutton, Little Sutton and Hooton; the first houses in Ellesmere Port itself, grew up around the docks and the first main street was Dock Street, which now houses the National Waterways Museum. Station Road, which connected the docks with the village of Whitby gradually developed and as more shops were needed, some of the houses became retail premises; as the expanding industrial areas growing up around the canal and its docks attracted more workers to the area, the town itself continued to expand. Whitby was a township in the ancient parishes of Eastham and Stoak, Wirral hundred, which became a civil parish in 1866.
It included the hamlets of Ellesmere Whitbyheath. To enhance the economic growth of the area, the Netherpool and Whitby civil parishes were abolished on 1 April 1911 to become parts of the new civil parish of Ellesmere Port. By the mid-20th century, thanks to the opening of the Manchester Ship Canal in 1894 and the Stanlow Oil Refinery in the 1920s, Ellesmere Port had expanded so that it now incorporated the villages of Great and Little Sutton, Whitby and Rivacre as suburbs; the town centre itself had moved from the Station Road/Dock Street area, to an area that had once been home to a stud farm around the crossroads of Sutton Way/Stanney Lane and Whitby Road. In the 20th century, a number of new housing estates were developed, many of them on the sites of former farms such as Hope Farm and Grange Farm. Many estates consisted of both council housing and owned houses and flats. Ellesmere Port, in more recent times has had an influx of Liverpool immigrants, thus demand for housing increased with the opening of the Vauxhall Motors car plant in 1962.
Opened as a components supplier to the Luton plant, passenger car production began in 1964 with the Vauxhall Viva. The plant is now Vauxhall's only car factory in Britain, since the end of passenger car production at the Luton plant in 2004. Ellesmere Port produces the Vauxhall Astra model on two shifts, employing 2,500 people. In the mid-1980s, the Port Arcades, a covered shopping mall was built in the town centre. By the 1990s, it was the retail sector rather than the industrial, attracting workers and their families to the town; this was boosted with the building of the Cheshire Oaks outlet village and the Coliseum shopping park, which included a multiplex cinema. Since 1974 Ellesmere Port has been an unparished area when the civil parish of Ellesmere Port was abolished and all its functions were assumed by the new district of Ellesmere Port and Neston; the district was abolished in 2009, the town no longer has its own council. The town continues to grow, more housing estates and shops are being built.
The industrial sector is still a major employer in the town although in recent years, a number of factories have been closed and jobs lost. Marks & Spencer have built what is being claimed to be their largest store apart from Marble Arch on a site opposite to the Coliseum shopping park. Ellesmere Port was nearly included into the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in Merseyside, when, formed on 1 April 1974, it was removed from the proposals before the Local Government Act 1972 had its first reading, instead remained in Cheshire as part of the borough of Ellesmere Port and Neston. Plans were announced which proposed combining the borough of Ellesmere Port and Neston with the Chester and Vale Royal districts to form a new "West Cheshire" unitary authority; the new unitary authority came into being on 1 April 2009 as Cheshire Chester. The Conservatives won control of this council in shadow elections in May 2008, winning a majority of seats in the Ellesmere Port area for the first time. At the national level, Ellesmere P
Eddisbury (UK Parliament constituency)
Eddisbury is a constituency in Cheshire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Antoinette Sandbach, a Conservative. 1885–1918: The Municipal Borough of the City of Chester, the Sessional Division of Broxton, parts of the Sessional Divisions of Chester Castle, Eddisbury and Northwich. 1918–1950: The Urban District of Tarporley, the Rural Districts of Malpas and Tarvin, in the Rural District of Northwich the civil parishes of Crowton, Darnhall, Eddisbury, Little Budworth, Marton and Wimboldsley, in the Rural District of Runcorn the civil parishes of Alvanley, Frodsham Lordship, Kingsley, Mauley, Newton-by-Frodsham, Norley, part of the Rural District of Nantwich. 1983–1997: The District of Vale Royal wards of Church and Marton, Davenham and Moulton, Frodsham East, Frodsham North West, Frodsham South, Gorst Wood, Hartford, Helsby Central, Helsby North, Helsby South and Alvanley Ward, Mara, Oulton, Over One, Over Two, Tarporley, Vale Royal and Wharton, the City of Chester wards of Barrow, Malpas, Tattenhall and Waverton.
1997–2010: The District of Vale Royal wards of Cuddington and Marton and Moulton, Mara, Over One, Over Two, Tarporley, Vale Royal, Wharton, the Borough of Crewe and Nantwich wards of Acton, Bunbury, Minshull and Wrenbury, the City of Chester wards of Barrow, Malpas, Tattenhall and Waverton. 2010–present: The Borough of Vale Royal wards of Cuddington and Oakmere and Moulton, Mara and Oulton, Winsford Dene, Winsford Gravel, Winsford Over, Winsford Swanlow, Winsford Verdin, Winsford Wharton, the Borough of Crewe and Nantwich wards of Acton, Bunbury, Minshull and Wrenbury, the City of Chester wards of Barrow, Kelsall, Tarvin, Tattenhall and Waverton. The constituency is rural, covering the south-west of Cheshire, noted in minerals for salt mining and within easy access to the cities of Liverpool and the industrial and manufacturing centres of the Wirral Peninsula and Deeside. To the east of the seat lies part of Delamere Forest; the main town in the constituency is Winsford. The constituency was re-established in 1983 replacing the former Nantwich constituency and is named for the former hundred of Eddisbury.
Since it has always been held by a Conservative. Between 1983 and 1999, it was represented by Alastair Goodlad, who resigned upon being appointed the United Kingdom's High Commissioner to Australia; the ensuing by-election was won by Stephen O'Brien, who held the seat until 2015. The closest the Labour Party has come to winning the seat was in the 1997 general election, when the Conservative majority was reduced to just 1,185. Eddisbury consists of rural villages and small towns which are favourable to the Conservative party. Labour fell from second to third place in the 2010 general election—the Conservative candidate held the seat with a majority of over 13,000 and a Liberal Democrat moved into second place; the 2015 election saw Labour move back into second place, the Conservative majority fell by 1.8%. General Election 1939/40: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected.
J. Russell Liberal: William Gretton Ward General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X
Alvanley is a small rural village and civil parish near the village of Helsby, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It had a population of 472 according to the 2011 Census, it is near junction 14 of the M56 motorway. The village has a primary school, a public house and a Grade II listed parish church dedicated to St John. Alvanley Hall is a Grade II* listed farmhouse to the south-east of the main village, dating from the 17th century. Alvanley Cricket Club, established in 1884, runs five senior teams and four junior teams ranging from under-9s to under-18s; the club came fifth in Division One of the Cheshire County League in 2000, but a fallow period saw them fall back down to the Meller Braggins League. In 2011 the club won the League unbeaten with a record 461 points and in doing so found their way back into the County league for 2012; the Junior Section has in recent years begun to challenge for County Cups, without yet lifting one.
2008 to 2011 saw a period of investment in the club's infrastructure, rewarded by the award of prestigious games such as the Bunbury Festival and Cheshire County fixtures. Listed buildings in Alvanley Alvanley in the Domesday Book