Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Communes of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's 102 Communes conform to LAU Level 2 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions. Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger; the cantons are responsible for the ceremonial and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843; the province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.
Luxembourg has three official languages: French and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites offer English versions The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, they have wide-ranging powers; the communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, provide most social security. Communes have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, providing a sufficient supply of water and electricity. There are 102 communes in the 12 cantons; the 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Remich, Rumelange and Wiltz. Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today.
These defunct communes are listed in the table below. The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic; these were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad and Schieren were separated from Ettelbruck. Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily.
In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Wincrange. 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. Category:Lists of communes of Luxembourg Statec. Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003. Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18. / "Archives of Mémorial A".
Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Meysembourg Castle is located some 2 km south-west of Larochette in central Luxembourg. While the site has a history dating back to the 12th century, today's castle was built in 1880 in Neo-Renaissance style and is owned; the Meysembourg family is first mentioned in the 12th century when Dame de Meysembourg was in the service of Ermesinde, Countess of Luxembourg. Historic references show that Walter de Meysembourg was the propretor in 1176 and Eberhart de Maysembourg in 1296. In 1443, the castle was destroyed by Philip the Good but was rebuilt before 1500, it was again destroyed by Maréchal de Boufflers troops in 1683–84. All that remains of the former castle are the moat and part of the outer wall. Custine de Wiltz, the last in line to inherit the property, fled during the French invasion in 1794. Following a public auction in 1798, the castle fell into the hands of the Lords of Fischbach and Jean-François Reuter of Heddersdorf who occupied the village after expelling its inhabitants. After buying the property in 1855, the Prince of Arenberg demolished it in 1880 and built a new castle in Neo-Renaissance style.
In 1971, the State architect Charles Arendt carried out restoration work. The property now belongs to the Spiegelburg family; the castle is now owned and is not open to visitors. List of castles in Luxembourg
Larochette Castle stands high above the town of Larochette in central Luxembourg. Dating from the 11th century, the castle was destroyed by fire at the end of the 16th century. Since its acquisition by the State of Luxembourg in 1979, some restoration work has been undertaken; the castle ruins are located on a promontory some 150 metres above the White Ernz which runs through the small town of Larochette. The access road crosses a large farmyard with fortified earthworks; the main building is surrounded by a wall, now destroyed. A deep ditch divides the castle into two parts. At the far end of the promontory, the remains of several manor houses attest to the high quality of the architecture and its rather pompous style; the earliest references to the castle are from the end of the 11th century and during the 12th century when the lords of Larochette were flag bearers for the counts of Luxembourg. The family proliferated leading to the construction of the five stately houses which are separate from the main structure.
They include the Créhange Manor both of which have now been restored. The Verlorenkost watchtower stands alone on the south side; the legend goes. The Créhange manor now contains period artwork. There is a well inside which has its legend, telling how the lady of the castle jumped into the well with her child while the castle was under attack. After rescuing the brave woman, the invaders accused the steward of the castle of treason and threw him into the well, it is said. The castle is open to the public from Easter until the end of every day from 10 am to 6 pm. List of castles in Luxembourg
Vallée de l'Ernz
Vallée de l'Ernz is a commune in northern Luxembourg, in the canton of Diekirch. The commune of Vallée de l'Ernz was formed on 1 January 2012 from the former communes of Ermsdorf and Medernach; the law creating the Vallée de l'Ernz was passed on 24 May 2011. It has an area of 39.73 km2. Media related to Vallée de l'Ernz at Wikimedia Commons