The Miami Dolphins are a professional American football team based in the Miami metropolitan area. The Dolphins compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the Dolphins play their home games at Hard Rock Stadium in the northern suburb of Miami Gardens and are headquartered in Davie, Florida. The Dolphins are Florida's oldest professional sports team. Of the four AFC East teams, they are the only team in the division, not a charter member of the American Football League; the Dolphins were founded by attorney-politician Joe actor-comedian Danny Thomas. They began play in the AFL in 1966; the region had not had a professional football team since the days of the Miami Seahawks, who played in the All-America Football Conference in 1946, before becoming the first incarnation of the Baltimore Colts. For the first few years, the Dolphins' full-time training camp and practice facilities were at Saint Andrew's School, a private boys boarding prep school in Boca Raton.
In the 1970 AFL–NFL merger, the Dolphins joined the NFL. The team made its first Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl VI, losing to the Dallas Cowboys, 24–3; the following year, the Dolphins completed the NFL's only perfect season, culminating in a Super Bowl win, winning all 14 of their regular season games, all three of their playoff games, including Super Bowl VII. They were the third NFL team to accomplish a perfect regular season; the next year, the Dolphins won Super Bowl VIII, becoming the first team to appear in three consecutive Super Bowls, the second team to win back-to-back championships. Miami appeared in Super Bowl XVII and Super Bowl XIX, losing both games. For most of their early history, the Dolphins were coached by Don Shula, the most successful head coach in professional football history in terms of total games won. Under Shula, the Dolphins posted losing records in only two of his 26 seasons as the head coach. During the period spanning 1983 to the end of 1999, quarterback Dan Marino became one of the most prolific passers in NFL history, breaking numerous league passing records.
Marino led the Dolphins to five division titles, 10 playoff appearances and Super Bowl XIX before retiring following the 1999 season. In 2008, the Dolphins became the first team in NFL history to win their division and make a playoff appearance following a league-worst 1–15 season; that same season, the Dolphins upset the 16–0 New England Patriots on the road during Week 3, handing the Patriots' their first regular season loss since December 10, 2006, in which coincidentally, they were beaten by the Dolphins. The Miami Dolphins joined the American Football League when an expansion franchise was awarded to lawyer Joseph Robbie and actor Danny Thomas in 1965 for $7.5 million, although Thomas would sell his stake in the team to Robbie. During the summer of 1966, the Dolphins' training camp was in St. Pete Beach with practices in August at Boca Ciega High School in Gulfport; the Dolphins had a combined 15–39–2 record in their first four seasons under head coach George Wilson, before Don Shula was hired as head coach.
Shula was a Paul Brown disciple, lured from the Baltimore Colts, after losing Super Bowl III two seasons earlier to the AFL's New York Jets, finishing 8–5–1 the following season. Shula got his first NFL coaching job from then-Detroit Head Coach George Wilson, who hired him as the defensive coordinator; the AFL merged with the NFL in 1970, the Dolphins were assigned to the AFC East division in the NFL's new American Football Conference. For the rest of the 20th century, the Shula-led Dolphins emerged as one of the most dominant teams in the NFL with a strong running game and defense, with only two losing seasons between 1970 and 1999, they were successful in the 1970s, completing the first complete perfect season in NFL history by finishing with a 14–0 regular season record in 1972 and winning the Super Bowl that year. It was the first of one of three appearances in a row; the 1980s and 1990s were moderately successful. The early 80s teams made two Super Bowls despite losing both times, saw the emergence of future Hall of Fame quarterback Dan Marino, who went on to break numerous NFL passing records, holding many of them until the late 2000s.
After winning every game against the division rival Buffalo Bills in the 1970s, the two teams developed a competitive rivalry in the 80s and 90s competing for AFC supremacy when Jim Kelly emerged as the quarterback for the Bills. The Dolphins have maintained a strong rivalry with the New York Jets throughout much of their history. Following the retirements of Marino and Shula and the rise of Tom Brady and the New England Patriots, the Dolphins suffered a decline in the 2000s, including a 1–15 season in 2007, the worst in franchise history, they only made the playoffs three times in that decade and were unable to find a consistent quarterback to replace Marino, shuffling 13 quarterbacks and five head coaches. However, the Dolphins have been competitive against the Patriots despite their decline, with notable wins coming in 2004, 2008, 2018. While quarterback Ryan Tannehill provided some stability at the position throughout most of the 2010s, the team has nonetheless been mediocre, only having made the playoffs once during the decade.
The Dolphins share intense rivalries with their three AFC East opponents, but have had historical or occasional rivalries with other teams such as their cross-state rivals Tampa Bay Buccaneers, their former divisional rivals Indianapolis Colts, the Pittsburgh Steelers, San Diego/Los Angeles Chargers, Oakland Raiders, to a lesser extent, the Jacksonville Jaguars
Mike McCarthy (American football)
Michael John McCarthy is an American football coach. He was the head coach of the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League from 2006 to 2018, leading them to a win in Super Bowl XLV over his hometown team, the Pittsburgh Steelers, he was the offensive coordinator for the San Francisco 49ers and New Orleans Saints. McCarthy was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, his father was a firefighter and Pittsburgh Police officer as well as a bar owner, who raised McCarthy as a Pittsburgh Steelers fan. McCarthy was a tight end at Scottsdale Community College before transferring to Baker University, an NAIA school located in Baldwin City, Kansas. After serving as a graduate assistant at Fort Hays State from 1987 to 1988, McCarthy returned home to Pittsburgh and was hired in 1989 to work under Mike Gottfried and later Paul Hackett at the University of Pittsburgh, where he served as a graduate assistant for three seasons before coaching wide receivers during the 1992 season. During the off season he worked on the Pennsylvania Turnpike to supplement his income.
In 1993, McCarthy was hired by the NFL's Kansas City Chiefs under head coach Marty Schottenheimer. After working two years as an offensive quality control assistant, McCarthy became quarterbacks coach, overseeing the work of Rich Gannon, Elvis Grbac, Steve Bono; when Schottenheimer resigned after the 1998 season, McCarthy left Kansas City and became the Packers quarterbacks coach. In the 1999 season, Packers quarterback Brett Favre threw for 4,091 yards, the fourth-best total of his career. After the Packers released the entire coaching staff following the 1999 season, McCarthy became the offensive coordinator of the New Orleans Saints, he would remain in that position for five seasons and was selected as NFC Assistant Coach of the Year by USA Today in 2000. New Orleans would finish 10th, 13th, 3rd in 2002, 14th, 14th in points scored during his tenure as offensive coordinator. In his first two years, running back Ricky Williams would run for 2,245 yards with 14 touchdowns. In 2005, McCarthy served as offensive coordinator for the San Francisco 49ers.
His unit, beset by injuries and led by a rookie quarterback, finished the season ranked 30th in the NFL in points scored and dead last in yards gained. Despite this, running back Frank Gore would emerge to run for over 600 yards with a 4.8 YPC and wide receiver Brandon Lloyd had 733 yards receiving and five touchdowns. McCarthy was interviewed by Packers general manager Ted Thompson on January 8, 2006 and was offered the head coaching position three days later. In 2006, the Packers started with a 4–8 record, but managed to win their last four games to finish the season 8–8, ending with a win against their archrival Chicago Bears, but missing the playoffs for the second straight year. McCarthy guided the Packers to an 8–1 record in the first 9 games of the 2007 season. McCarthy recorded the best win-loss ratio to start the first 25 games of a career among active coaches, setting the record for the best coaching start in Packers' history and tying Washington's Joe Gibbs at 16–9. McCarthy led the Packers to a 13–3 record and made it to the NFC Championship game, where they lost to the eventual Super Bowl-winning New York Giants in overtime.
That year, he finished second in voting for The Associated Press Coach of the Year award, garnering 15 votes to Bill Belichick's 29 votes. He signed a five-year contract extension with the team on January 19, 2008, that raised his salary to $3.4 million a year. In 2008, McCarthy became embroiled in a major controversy involving the future of their franchise quarterback, Brett Favre; the controversy started when Favre, after having announced his retirement, changed his mind, deciding to play again. Favre had assumed. McCarthy and Packers' general manager Ted Thompson had stated their desire to move forward with new starter Aaron Rodgers. Favre was offered the opportunity to be the back up to an offer which Favre refused. Favre was traded to the New York Jets for a conditional fourth-round draft pick; the 2008 season was McCarthy's worst to date with the Packers. Despite a solid showing by Rodgers, who threw for over 4,000 yards and posted a 93.8 passer rating, the Packers started with a 5–5 record, proceeding to lose five consecutive close games until they ended the disappointing season with a 31–21 victory over the Detroit Lions.
At 6–10, the Packers finished 3rd in the NFC North, only ahead of the Lions, did not make the playoffs. In 2009, the Packers showed some signs of improvement, but had struggles. Rodgers improved on 2008's statistics, but was sacked 50 times, more than any other quarterback in the NFL; the Packers dominated teams with losing records, but were swept by their rival Minnesota Vikings, led by former Packers franchise quarterback Brett Favre. The Packers lost to the winless Tampa Bay Buccaneers, but came back to beat the NFC East-leading Dallas Cowboys, they began a five-game winning streak, the Packers qualified for the playoffs with a Week 17 win over the Cardinals, finishing at 11–5, the second playoff berth in McCarthy's tenure. The Packers lost the Wild Card round to the Arizona Cardinals in overtime, 51–45. In 2010, McCarthy led the Packers to a 10–6 finish, never losing by more than four points and never trailing by more than 7 throughout the entire season; this record was good for 2nd in the NFC North, behind the arch-rival Chicago Bears, with whom they split victories in the regular season.
They finished as the sixth seed in the NFC. The Packers went on to defeat the number three-seeded Philadelphia Eagles and the number one-seeded Atlanta Falcons. In the NFC Championship game they p
Auburn Tigers football
The Auburn Tigers football program represents Auburn University in the sport of American college football. Auburn competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference. Auburn began competing in intercollegiate football in 1892; the Tigers joined the Southeastern Conference in 1932 as one of the inaugural members of the conference and the Tigers began competing in the West Division when the conference divided in 1992. Auburn claims two national championships. Auburn has achieved twelve undefeated seasons and won twelve conference championships, along with eight divisional championships; the Tigers have made 43 post season bowl appearances, including 12 major bowl berths. The Tigers have the 13th most wins in FBS history with over 700 victories and have finished ranked in the Top 25 of either the AP or Coaches polls 37 times, including finishing in the top ten 18 times; the Tigers have produced three Heisman Trophy winners: quarterback Pat Sullivan in 1971, running back Bo Jackson in 1985, quarterback Cameron Newton in 2010.
Auburn has produced twenty-nine consensus All-American players. The College Football Hall of Fame has inducted a total of 12 individuals from Auburn, including eight student-athletes and four head coaches: John Heisman, Mike Donahue, Ralph Jordan, Pat Dye. Jordan, who coached from 1951 to 1975, led Auburn to its first national championship and won a total of 176 games, the most by any Auburn coach. Auburn's home stadium is Jordan–Hare Stadium, which opened in 1939 and becomes Alabama's fifth largest city on gamedays with a capacity of 87,451. Auburn's arch rival is in-state foe Alabama; the Tigers and Crimson Tide meet annually in the Iron Bowl, one of the biggest rivalries in all of sports. The Tigers are led by head coach Gus Malzahn. In terms of winning percentage, Auburn ranks as the 9th most successful team in the past 25 years with a 71% win rate and 9th over the last half century with 69%. Of the 93 current I-A football programs that been active since Auburn first fielded a team 116 years ago, Auburn ranks 14th in winning percentage over that period.
The College Football Research Center lists Auburn as the 14th best college football program in history, with eight Auburn squads listed in Billingsley's Top 200 Teams of All Time. The Bleacher Report placed Auburn as the 18th best program of all time in their power rankings conducted after the 2010 season. In 2013, College Football Data Warehouse, a website dedicated to the historical data of college football, listed Auburn 13th all-time. After the 2008 season, ESPN ranked Auburn the 21st most prestigious program in history; the Associated Press poll statistics show Auburn with the 11th best national record of being ranked in the final AP Poll and 14th overall, with an average ranking of 11.2. Since the Coaches Poll first released a final poll in 1950, Auburn has 26 seasons where the team finished ranked in the top 20 in both the AP and Coaches Polls. Auburn has had success against teams ranked number one in the nation; the Tigers have beaten seven teams ranked number one in either the AP, Bowl Championship Series, or College Football Playoff rankings.
The BCS was created in 1998 to guarantee bowl game matchups between the top teams, including a national championship game between the two top-ranked teams. The BCS was discontinued in 2014 and replaced by the CFP, which organizes a four-team playoff and national championship game. Auburn has been both affiliated with three conferences. Independent Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Southern Conference Southeastern Conference Five Auburn teams have been awarded a national championship from NCAA-designated major selectors—1913, 1957, 1983, 1993, 2010; the 1957 and 2010 championships claimed by the university. † Ineligible for the SEC Championship Game and postseason bowl game. Claimed national championship 1913 season The 1913 team was coached by Mike Donahue and was undefeated at 8–0, outscoring opponents 224–13. Auburn, led by senior captain Kirk Newell, finished as SIAA champions for the first time in school history. Newell a member of the Upsilon Chapter of Pi Kappa Alpha, went on to be a World War I hero and member of the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame.
The Tigers were awarded a national title by the Billingsley Report under their Billingsley MOV formula, one of two formulas used by Billingsley. 1957 season The 1957 Auburn Tigers, led by coach Ralph "Shug" Jordan, finished with a perfect 10–0 record, marking the school's first SEC championship. Auburn was recognized as national champions by the AP Poll though they were on probation and did not participate in a bowl game; this was the school's first recognized national championship. The 1957 title is shared with Ohio State, named the national champion by the Coaches' Poll; this was the first of only two times in the history of the AP championship that it was awarded to a team on probation not allowed to participate in a bowl game. 1983 season The 1983 Auburn Tigers, led by head coach Pat Dye and running back Bo Jackson, finished 11–1 after playing the nation's toughest schedule. Their only loss came against No. 3 Texas, who defeated the Tigers, 20–7. Auburn went on to defeat 9 -- 7, in the Sugar Bowl.
Despite entering the bowl games ranked third in both major polls, with both teams ranked higher losing their bowl games, the Tigers ended ranked third in the fina
History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel
NC State Wolfpack football
The NC State Wolfpack football team represents North Carolina State University in the sport of American football. The Wolfpack competes in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Atlantic Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Prior to joining the ACC in 1953, the Wolfpack were a member of the Southern Conference; as a founding member of the ACC, the Wolfpack has won seven conference championships and participated in 31 bowl games, of which the team has won 17, including eight of their last eleven. NC State is coached by Dave Doeren. Since 1966, the Wolfpack has played its home games at Carter–Finley Stadium. On September 16, 2010, NC State restored the tradition of having a live mascot on the field. A wolf-like Tamaskan Dog named “Tuffy” was on the sidelines for the Cincinnati game that day in Raleigh and Tuffy has not missed a Wolfpack football game in Carter–Finley Stadium since That day. NC State played its first football game against a team from the Raleigh Male Academy on March 12, 1892 in what is now Pullen Park.
The team's first head coach was Perrin Busbee. The Aggies, whose colors were blue and pink, won 12-6 in front of more than 200 spectators; the following year, the school played its first intercollegiate game: a 12-6 victory over Tennessee College. The program's long-standing rivalry with nearby University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill began on October 12, 1894 with a 44-0 UNC victory in Chapel Hill. Eight days the team lost again to UNC, 16-0 in Raleigh. In 1895, under third-year coach Bart Gatling, the team finished 2–2–1 and wore red and white uniforms for the first time. Over the next five seasons the program continued to try to establish itself, achieving only one winning season during the period; the football team has only had scholarship football players since 1933, prior to that all Wolfpack athletics consisted of non-scholarship student athletes. In 1906, in a game against Randolph-Macon in Raleigh, the Farmers attempted their first forward pass, a play that had only become legal and at the time was still considered a "trick" play.
The following season was the program's most successful yet. Under coach Mickey Whitehurst, A&M won the South Atlantic Intercollegiate Athletic Association championship with a 6–0–1 record; that season, the program recorded its first victory over Virginia. The Farmers played their home games that season on campus at the New Athletic Park, which would be known as Riddick Stadium. In addition to Pullen Park, the state fairgrounds had hosted some games prior to the opening of the new stadium; the team won a second South Atlantic championship in 1910 under coach Edward Green, finishing with a record of 4–0–2. A win over Virginia Tech in Norfolk that season was dubbed the "biggest game played in the South". Coach Green led team to a third conference championship in 1913, with a record of 6–1; the 1918 season, the school's first season with the name North Carolina State University, was cut short due to the United States' entrance into World War I and a severe flu outbreak on campus. The team's roster was depleted, its schedule reduced to four games, practice was suspended for five weeks in October and November.
A week after practice resumed, State College, as the school was called, led by coach Tal Stafford, was defeated 128-0 by Georgia Tech in Atlanta. Tackle John Ripple was named the program's first All-American; the following season, on October 23, the Farmers resumed play with North Carolina after a 14-year hiatus. The Tar Heels won the game 13-12 in Raleigh, it wasn't until 1920. In 1921 State College began wearing red sweaters and were referred to by the local media as the Wolfpack; the program, led by coach Harry Hartsell at the time, joined the Southern Conference that year and would win the conference title six seasons under coach Gus Tebell, finishing the year with a 9–1 record. Running back Jack McDowall was the team's star player that year; the 1930 season saw the installation of field lighting at Riddick Stadium, as the Wolfpack defeated High Point University, 37-0, in the team's first night game. Williams Newton took over as State's head coach in 1937, under his tutelage the team compiled a record of 24–39–6.
Under Newton, State employed a ground-oriented, hard nose attack that put pressure on the opposing interior linemen. Recruitment became difficult during at least part of his tenure as Head Coach due to the fact that World War II necessitated that eligible males over 18 be inducted into the U. S. military. Newton left NC State after seven seasons to accept the head football coach position at South Carolina. In 1944, State hired former Appalachian State head coach Beattie Feathers as the Wolfpack head football coach. Feathers, a former star at Tennessee and the first NFL running back to rush for 1,000 yards in a season, compiled a 37–38–8 record in eight seasons, the program's most successful coaching tenure yet. In Feathers' second season, Wolfpack defensive player Howard "Touchdown" Turner returned an interception 105 yards against Duke, a record that still stands as the longest play in Wolfpack history; the 1946 season began with wins over Duke and Clemson, earning the program their first appearance in the UPI poll.
The next year, NC State reached their first bowl game, the second annual Gator Bowl. The team lost to Oklahoma, 34-13, finished the season at 8–3, the highest win total since finishing 9–1 in 1927. 1947 saw the Wolfpack finish 5–3–1. That season was followed by a 3–6–1 campaign in 1948, a 3–7 mark in 1949 and a 5–4–1 record i
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri. It was founded in 1839 as the first public institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River; the state's largest university, it enrolled 30,870 students in 2017 and offered over 300 degree programs in 21 academic divisions. It is the flagship campus of the University of Missouri System, which has campuses in Kansas City, St. Louis. There are more than 300,000 MU alumni living worldwide with over one half residing in Missouri. In 1908, one of the first schools of journalism was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism. Forty-five years in 1953, the school began operating the country's only university-owned TV network affiliate, it is one of the 34 public universities that are members of the Association of American Universities. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is the world's most powerful university research reactor; the university operates the University of Missouri Health Care system, which operates four hospitals in Mid-Missouri.
The athletics teams are known as the Missouri Tigers. The FBS football team in Missouri is the only FBS program in Missouri and it competes as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the school's mascot, Truman the Tiger, is named after Missourian and former U. S. president Harry S. Truman. MU claims that the university held the first American football homecoming in 1911. In 1839, the Missouri Legislature passed the Geyer Act to establish funds for a state university, it would be the first public university west of the Mississippi River. To secure the university, the citizens of Columbia and Boone County pledged $117,921 in cash and land to beat out five other central Missouri counties for the location of the state university; the land on which the university was constructed was just south of Columbia's downtown and owned by James S. Rollins, he was called the "Father of the University." As the first public university in the Louisiana Purchase, the school was shaped by Thomas Jefferson's ideas about public education.
In 1862 the American Civil War forced the university to close for much of the year. Residents of Columbia formed a Union "home guard" militia that became known as the "Fighting Tigers of Columbia", they were given the name for their readiness to protect the university. In 1890, the university's newly formed football team took the name the "Tigers" after the Civil War militia. In 1870 the institution was granted land-grant college status under the Morrill Act of 1862; the act led to the founding of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy as an offshoot of the main campus in Columbia. It developed as the present-day Missouri University of Technology. In 1888 the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station opened; this grew to encompass ten centers and research farms around Missouri. By 1890 the university encompassed a normal college, engineering college and science college, school of agriculture and mechanical arts. School of medicine, school of law. On January 9, 1892, Academic Hall, the institution's main building, burned in a fire that gutted the building, leaving little more standing than six stone Ionic columns.
Under the administration of Missouri Governor David R. Francis, the university was rebuilt, with additions that shaped the modern institution. After the fire, some state residents tried to have the university moved further west to Sedalia; the columns were retained as a symbol of the historic campus. Today they are surrounded by the oldest part of campus. At the quad's southern end is Academic Hall's replacement, Jesse Hall, named for Richard Jesse. Built in 1895, Jesse Hall holds Jesse Auditorium; the buildings surrounding the quad were constructed of red brick, leading to this area becoming known as Red Campus. The area was tied together in planned landscaping and walks in 1910 by George Kessler in a City Beautiful design of the grounds. Jesse Hall is scheduled for a $9.8 mil. makeover to include a fire sprinkler system, work on its elevators, a new heating and cooling system as part of a $92 mil. total renovation package the Board of Curators approved in June 2013. This upgrade is expected to be completed in March 2015.
To the east of the quadrangle buildings constructed of white limestone in 1913 and 1914 to accommodate the new academic programs became known as the White Campus. In 1908 the world's first journalism school opened at MU, it became notable for its "Missouri Method" of experience-based instruction. It established an award for "Distinguished Journalism". In April 1923, a black janitor was accused of the rape of the daughter of a University of Missouri professor. James T. Scott was abducted from the Boone County jail by a mob of townsfolk and students, was lynched to death from a bridge near the campus before his trial took place. In the winter of 1935, four graduates of Lincoln University—a traditionally black school about 30 miles away in Jefferson City—were denied admission to MU's graduate school. One of the students, Lloyd L. Gaines, brought his case to the United States Supreme Court. On December 12, 1938, in a landmark 6–2 decision, the court ordered the State of Missouri to admit Gaines to MU's law school or provide a facility of equal stature.
Gaines disappeared in Chicago on March 1939, under suspicious circumstances. The university granted Gaines a posthumous honorary law degree in May 2006. Undergraduate divisions were integrated by court order in 1950, when the university was co