The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Government Communications Headquarters
The Government Communications Headquarters is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom. Based in "The Doughnut" in the suburbs of Cheltenham, GCHQ is the responsibility of the country's Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, but it is not a part of the Foreign Office and its director ranks as a Permanent Secretary. GCHQ was established after the First World War as the Government Code and Cypher School and was known under that name until 1946. During the Second World War it was located at Bletchley Park, where it was responsible for breaking of the German Enigma codes. There are two main components of the GCHQ, the Composite Signals Organisation, responsible for gathering information, the National Cyber Security Centre, responsible for securing the UK's own communications; the Joint Technical Language Service is a small department and cross-government resource responsible for technical language support and translation and interpreting services across government departments.
It is co-located with GCHQ for administrative purposes. In 2013, GCHQ received considerable media attention when the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden revealed that the agency was in the process of collecting all online and telephone data in the UK via the Tempora programme. Snowden's revelations began a spate of ongoing disclosures of global surveillance; the Guardian newspaper was forced to destroy all incriminating files given to them by Snowden because of the threats of lawsuits from the UK Government. GCHQ is led by the Director of GCHQ, Jeremy Fleming, a Corporate Board, made up of executive and non-executive directors. Reporting to the Corporate Board is: Sigint missions: comprising maths and cryptanalysis, IT and computer systems and translation, the intelligence analysis unit Enterprise: comprising applied research and emerging technologies, corporate knowledge and information systems, commercial supplier relationships, biometrics Corporate management: enterprise resource planning, human resources, internal audit, architecture Communications-Electronics Security Group During the First World War, the British Army and Royal Navy had separate signals intelligence agencies, MI1b and NID25 respectively.
In 1919, the Cabinet's Secret Service Committee, chaired by Lord Curzon, recommended that a peacetime codebreaking agency should be created, a task given to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Hugh Sinclair. Sinclair merged staff from NID25 and MI1b into the new organisation, which consisted of around 25–30 officers and a similar number of clerical staff, it was titled the "Government Code and Cypher School", a cover-name chosen by Victor Forbes of the Foreign Office. Alastair Denniston, a member of NID25, was appointed as its operational head, it was under the control of the Admiralty and located in Watergate House, London. Its public function was "to advise as to the security of codes and cyphers used by all Government departments and to assist in their provision", but had a secret directive to "study the methods of cypher communications used by foreign powers". GC&CS formed on 1 November 1919, produced its first decrypt on 19 October. Before the Second World War, GC&CS was a small department.
By 1922, the main focus of GC&CS was on diplomatic traffic, with "no service traffic worth circulating" and so, at the initiative of Lord Curzon, it was transferred from the Admiralty to the Foreign Office. GC&CS came under the supervision of Hugh Sinclair, who by 1923 was both the Chief of SIS and Director of GC&CS. In 1925, both organisations were co-located on different floors of Broadway Buildings, opposite St. James's Park. Messages decrypted by GC&CS were distributed in blue-jacketed files that became known as "BJs". In the 1920s, GC&CS was reading Soviet Union diplomatic ciphers. However, in May 1927, during a row over clandestine Soviet support for the General Strike and the distribution of subversive propaganda, Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin made details from the decrypts public. During the Second World War, GC&CS was based at Bletchley Park, in present-day Milton Keynes, working on understanding the German Enigma machine and Lorenz ciphers. In 1940, GC&CS was working on the diplomatic codes and ciphers of 26 countries, tackling over 150 diplomatic cryptosystems.
Senior staff included Alastair Denniston, Oliver Strachey, Dilly Knox, John Tiltman, Edward Travis, Ernst Fetterlein, Josh Cooper, Donald Michie, Alan Turing, Gordon Welchman, Joan Clarke, Max Newman, William Tutte, I. J. Good, Peter Calvocoressi and Hugh Foss. An outstation in the Far East, the Far East Combined Bureau was set up in Hong Kong in 1935, moved to Singapore in 1939. Subsequently, with the Japanese advance down the Malay Peninsula, the Army and RAF codebreakers went to the Wireless Experimental Centre in Delhi, India; the Navy codebreakers in FECB went to Colombo, Ceylon to Kilindini, near Mombasa, Kenya. GC&CS was renamed the "Government Communications Headquarters" in June 1946. GCHQ was at first based in Eastcote, but in 1951 moved to the outskirts of Cheltenham, setting up two sites there – Oakley and Benhall. Duncan Campbell and Mark Hosenball revealed the existence of GCHQ in 1976 in an article for Time Out. GCHQ had a low profile in the media until 1983 when the trial of Geoffrey Prime, a KGB mole within GCHQ, created considerable media interest.
Since the days of the Second World War, US and British intelligence have shared information. For the GCHQ this me
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U. S. President, Barack Obama, was the first African-American First Lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, she subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters. Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, she returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.
As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She was considered a fashion icon. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson was born on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois, to Fraser Robinson III, a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain, Marian Shields Robinson, a secretary at Spiegel's catalog store, her mother was a full-time homemaker. The Robinson and Shields families trace their roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South. On her father's side, she is descended from the Gullah people of South Carolina's Low Country region, her paternal great-great grandfather, Jim Robinson, was born into slavery in 1850 on Friendfield Plantation, near Georgetown, South Carolina. He became a freedman at age 15 after the war; some of Obama's paternal family still reside in the Georgetown area. Her grandfather Fraser Robinson, Jr. built his own house in South Carolina. He and his wife LaVaughn returned to the Low Country from Chicago after retirement.
Among her maternal ancestors was her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields, born into slavery in South Carolina but sold to Henry Walls Shields, who had a 200-acre farm in Clayton County, Georgia near Atlanta. Melvinia's first son, Dolphus T. Shields, was biracial and born into slavery about 1860. Based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said his father was 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of Melvinia's master, they may have had a continuing relationship, as she had two more mixed-race children and lived near Shields after emancipation, taking his surname. As was the case, Melvinia did not talk to relatives about Dolphus' father. Dolphus Shields with his wife Alice moved to Alabama after the Civil War, they were great-great-grandparents of Michelle Robinson. Other of their children's lines migrated to Ohio in the 20th century. All four of Robinson's grandparents had multiracial ancestors, reflecting the complex history of the U. S, her extended family has said that people did not talk about the era of slavery when they were growing up.
Her distant ancestry includes Irish and Native American roots. Among her contemporary extended family is rabbi Capers Funnye. Funnye converted to Judaism after college, he is a paternal first cousin once-removed. Robinson's childhood home was on the upper floor of 7436 South Euclid Avenue in Chicago's South Shore community area, which her parents rented from her great-aunt, who had the first floor, she was raised in what she describes as a "conventional" home, with "the mother at home, the father works, you have dinner around the table". Her elementary school was down the street, she and her family enjoyed playing games such as Monopoly and saw extended family on both sides. She played piano, learning from her great-aunt, a piano teacher; the Robinsons attended services at nearby South Shore United Methodist Church. They used to vacation in a rustic cabin in Michigan, she and her 21-month older brother, skipped the second grade. Her father suffered from multiple sclerosis, which had a profound emotional effect on her as she was growing up.
She was determined to stay out of trouble and be a good student, what her father wanted for her. By sixth grade, Michelle joined a gifted class at Bryn Mawr Elementary School, she attended Whitney Young High School, Chicago's first magnet high school, established as a selective enrollment school, where she was a classmate of Jesse Jackson's daughter Santita. The round-trip commute from the Robinsons' South Side home to the Near West Side, where the school was located, took three hours. Michelle recalled being fearful of how others would perceive her, but disregarded any negativity around her and used it "to fuel me, to keep me going", she recalled facing gender discrimination growing up, for example, that rather than asking her for her opinion on a given subject, people tended to ask what her older brother thought. She was on the honor roll for four years, took advanced placement classes, was a member of the National Honor Society, served as student council treasurer, she graduated in 1981 as the salutatorian of her class.
She was inspired to follow her brother to Prince
Democracy Now! is an hour-long American TV, radio and internet news program hosted by journalists Amy Goodman, who acts as the show's executive producer, Juan González. The show, which airs live each weekday at 08:00 ET, is broadcast on the internet and by over 1,400 radio and television stations worldwide; the program combines news reporting, investigative journalism and political commentary. It documents social movements, struggles for justice, the effects of American foreign policy; the show is described as progressive by fans as well as critics, but Goodman rejects that label, calling the program a global newscast that has "people speaking for themselves." Democracy Now! Describes its staff as "includ some of this country's leading progressive journalists."Democracy Now Productions, the independent nonprofit organization which produces Democracy Now!, is funded through contributions from listeners and foundations such as the Ford Foundation, Lannan Foundation, J. M. Kaplan Fund, does not accept advertisers, corporate underwriting or government funding.
Democracy Now! was founded on February 19, 1996 at WBAI in New York City by journalists Amy Goodman, Juan Gonzalez, Larry Bensky, Salim Muwakkil, Julie Drizin. It aired on five Pacifica Radio stations. Goodman is the program's principal host, with Nermeen Shaikh as frequent co-hosts. Jeremy Scahill, an investigative reporter and co-founding editor for The Intercept, has been a frequent contributor since 1997. Democracy Now! began broadcasting on television every weekday shortly after September 11, 2001, is the only public media in the U. S. that airs on satellite and cable television and the internet. In June 2002, Democracy Now! Separated from Pacifica Radio and became an independent nonprofit organization. On February 19, 2016, Democracy Now! Marked 20 years on the air with an hourlong retrospective look back at "two decades of independent, unembedded news," with highlights chosen from over 5,000 episodes. Amy Goodman published a book entitled "Democracy Now!: 20 Years Covering the Movements Changing America," and launched a 100-city tour across the United States to mark the 20th anniversary of Democracy Now!, with scheduled broadcasts of the show recorded during her travels.
Democracy Now! began as a radio program broadcast from the studios of WBAI, a local Pacifica Radio station in New York City. In early September 2001, amid a months-long debate over the mission and management of Pacifica, Democracy Now! was forced out of the WBAI studios. Goodman took the program to the Downtown Community Television Center located in a converted firehouse building in New York City's Chinatown, where the program began to be televised. Only a few days on September 11, 2001 Democracy Now! was the closest national broadcast to Ground Zero. On that day Goodman and colleagues continued reporting beyond their scheduled hour-long time slot in what became an eight-hour marathon broadcast. Following 9/11, in addition to radio and television, Democracy Now! Expanded their multimedia reach to include cable, satellite radio and podcasts. In November 2009, Democracy Now! left their broadcast studio in the converted DCTV firehouse, where they had broadcast for eight years. The studio subsequently moved to a repurposed graphic arts building in the Chelsea District of Manhattan.
In 2010, the new 8,500-square-foot Democracy Now! studio became the first radio or television studio in the nation to receive LEED Platinum certification, the highest rating awarded by the U. S. Green Building Council. Democracy Now! is the flagship program of the Pacifica Radio network. It airs on several NPR member stations; the television simulcast airs on several PBS stations. Democracy Now! is available on the Internet as downloadable and streaming audio and video. In total, nearly 1,400 television and radio stations broadcast Democracy Now! worldwide. Democracy Now! and its staff have received several journalism awards, including the Gracie Award from American Women in Radio & Television. On October 1, 2008, Goodman was named as a recipient of the 2008 Right Livelihood Award, in connection with her years of work establishing Democracy Now! and in 2009, like her frequent guest Glenn Greenwald, was awarded the first annual Izzy Award for "special achievement in independent media." Her co-host Juan Gonzalez was inducted into the New York chapter of the Society of Professional Journalists' Hall of Fame on November 19, 2015.
Three journalists with Democracy Now!—including principal host Amy Goodman, news producers Nicole Salazar and Sharif Abdel Kouddous—were detained by police during their reporting on the 2008 Republican National Convention protests. Salazar was filming; as she yelled "Press!" she was knocked down and told to put her face in the ground while another officer dragged her backward by her leg across the pavement. The video footage of the incident was posted on the Internet, leading to a large public outcry against her arrest; when a second producer, approached, he too was arrested, charged with a felony. According to a press release by Democracy Now!, Goodman herself
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
John Forbes Kerry is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1985 until 2013, he was the Democratic nominee in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush. Kerry was born in Aurora and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, he graduated from Yale University in 1966 with a major in political science. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, between 1968 and 1969, he served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization, in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War.
He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he described United States war policy in Vietnam as the cause of war crimes. After receiving a Juris Doctor from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked as an Assistant District Attorney in Massachusetts, he served as Lieutenant Governor under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was reelected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. On October 11, 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein," but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war. In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War, he and his running mate, U. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney.
Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and confirmed by the U. S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013. Kerry retained the position until the end of Obama's second term on January 20, 2017. John Forbes Kerry was born on December 11, 1943, at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center in Aurora, Colorado, he is the second of four children born to Richard John Kerry, a Foreign Service officer and lawyer, Rosemary Isabel Forbes, a nurse and social activist. His father was raised Catholic and his mother was Episcopalian, he was raised with an elder sister named Margaret, a younger sister named Diana, a younger brother named Cameron. The children were raised in their father's Catholic faith, John served as an altar boy. Kerry grew up a military brat until his father was discharged from the Army Air Corps, causing the family to settle in Washington, D.
C. in 1949. While in Washington, Richard took a spot in the Department of the Navy's Office of General Counsel and soon became a diplomat in the State Department's Bureau of United Nations Affairs, his maternal extended family enjoyed great wealth as members of the Forbes and Dudley–Winthrop families. Kerry's parents themselves were upper-middle class, a wealthy great-aunt paid for him to attend elite boarding schools such as Institut Montana Zugerberg in Switzerland. In 1957, his father was stationed at the U. S. Embassy in Oslo and Kerry was sent back to the United States to attend boarding school, he first attended the Fessenden School in Newton, St. Paul's, New Hampshire, where he learned skills in public speaking and began developing an interest in politics. Kerry founded the John Winant Society at St. Paul's to debate the issues of the day. In 1962, Kerry entered Yale University, majoring in political science and residing in Jonathan Edwards College. While at Yale, Kerry dated Janet Auchincloss, the younger half-sister of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy.
Through Auchincloss, Kerry was invited to a day of sailing with then-President John F. Kennedy and his family. Kerry played on the varsity Yale Bulldogs Men's soccer team, earning his only letter in his senior year, he played freshman and JV hockey and, in his senior year, JV lacrosse. In addition, he took flying lessons. In his sophomore year, Kerry became the Chairman of the Liberal Party of the Yale Political Union, a year he served as President of the Union. Amongst his influential teachers in this period was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, himself a former President of the Political Union, his involvement with the Political Union gave him an opportunity to be involved with important issues of the day, such as the civil rights movement and the New Frontier program. He became a member of Skull and Bones Society, traveled to Switzerland through AIESEC Yale. Under the guidance of the speaking coach and history professor Rollin G. Osterweis, Kerry won many debates against other college students from across the nation.
In March 1965, as the Vietnam War escalated, he won the Ten Eyck prize as the best orator in the junior class for a speech, critical of U. S. foreign policy. In the speech he said, "It is the spectre of Western imperialism that causes more fear among Africans and Asians than communism and t
The PBS NewsHour is an American daily evening television news program, broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service, airing seven nights a week on more than 350 of the public broadcaster's member stations. As the nation's first hour-long nightly news broadcast, the program is known for its in-depth coverage of issues and current events. Anchored by Judy Woodruff, the program's weekday broadcasts run one hour in length and are produced by Washington, D. C. PBS station WETA-TV. From August 2013 to October 2016, Woodruff and then-co-anchor Gwen Ifill were the first and only all-female anchor team of a national nightly news program on broadcast television. On Saturdays and Sundays, PBS distributes a 30-minute edition of the program titled PBS NewsHour Weekend, anchored by Hari Sreenivasan and produced from New York City by WNET; the PBS NewsHour originates from WETA's studio facilities in Arlington County and the Tisch/WNET Studios at Lincoln Center in Manhattan. The program is a collaboration between WETA-TV, WNET, fellow PBS member stations KQED in San Francisco, KETC in St. Louis and WTTW in Chicago.
In 1973, Robert MacNeil and Jim Lehrer teamed up to cover the United States Senate's Watergate hearings for PBS. The two earned an Emmy Award for their unprecedented gavel-to-gavel coverage; this recognition led to the 1975 creation of The Robert MacNeil Report, a half-hour local news program for WNET, which debuted on October 20 of that year. Less than 1 1⁄2 months on December 1, 1975, the program began to air on PBS stations nationwide; the program was renamed The MacNeil/Lehrer Report on September 6, 1976. Most editions employed a two-anchor, two-city format, with MacNeil based in New York City and Lehrer based at WETA's studios in Arlington, Virginia. Charlayne Hunter-Gault joined the series in 1978 as correspondent, serving as substitute host for MacNeil and Lehrer whenever either of them had the night off, she became the series’ national correspondent in 1983. In September 1981, production of the program was taken over by MacNeil/Lehrer Productions, a partnership between MacNeil and the Gannett Company.
Liberty Media bought a 67% controlling equity stake in MacNeil/Lehrer Productions in 1994, but MacNeil and Lehrer retained editorial control. Having decided to start competing with the nightly news programs on ABC, CBS and NBC instead of complementing them, the program expanded to one hour on September 5, 1983, incorporating other changes such as the introduction of "documentary reportage from the field". Robert MacNeil retired from the program on October 1995, leaving Jim Lehrer as the sole anchor. Accordingly, the program was renamed The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer three days on October 23; the NewsHour won a Peabody Award in 2003 for the feature report Jobless Recovery: Non-Working Numbers. On May 17, 2006, the program underwent its first major change in presentation in years, adopting a new graphics package and a reorchestrated version of the show's theme music. On December 17, 2007, the NewsHour became the second nightly broadcast network newscast to begin broadcasting in high definition, with broadcasts presented in a letterboxed format for viewers with standard-definition television sets watching either through cable or satellite television.
The program introduced a new set and upconverted its existing graphics package to HD. On May 11, 2009, PBS announced that the program would be revamped on December 7 of that year under a revised title as the PBS NewsHour. In addition to an increased integration between the NewsHour website and nightly broadcast, the updated production would return to a two-anchor format; the overhaul was described by Jim Lehrer as the first phase in his gradual move toward retirement. On September 27, 2010, PBS NewsHour was presented with the Chairman's Award at the 31st News & Documentary Emmy Awards, with Robert MacNeil, Jim Lehrer, longtime executive producer Les Crystal, former executive producer Linda Winslow receiving the award on the show's behalf. Lehrer formally ended his tenure as a regular anchor of the program in June 2011, he continued to anchor on Fridays afterward, when he led the political analysis segment with Mark Shields and David Brooks. On August 6, 2013, Gwen Ifill and Judy Woodruff were named as co-anchors and co-managing editors of the NewsHour broadcast.
The two shared anchor duties on the Monday through Thursday editions, with Woodruff solo anchoring on Fridays due to Ifill's duties as host of the political discussion program Washington Week. For much of its history, the PBS NewsHour aired only on Monday through Friday evenings. Although the weekend broadcasts are branded PBS NewsHour Weekend, those editions instead air for a half-hour. Plans for a weekend edition of PBS NewsHour had been considered as early as March 2013. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions announced in a letter to the show's staffers on October 8, 2013, that it had offere