Northwestern University is a private research university based in Evanston, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida. C.. Along with its undergraduate programs, Northwestern is known for its Kellogg School of Management, Pritzker School of Law, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bienen School of Music, Medill School of Journalism, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program, attracting over $700 million in sponsored research each year. Northwestern has the ninth-largest university endowment in the United States, valued at $11.014 billion as of August 2018. The University's former and present faculty and alumni include 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 38 Pulitzer Prize winners, six MacArthur Genius Fellows, 16 Rhodes Scholars, 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and two Supreme Court Justices. Northwestern's School of Communication is a leading producer of Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award–winning actors, playwrights and directors.
Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the city of Evanston is named, eight other lawyers and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Old Northwest Territory, an area that includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855 and women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago; the university's law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism and marketing programs. The University is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference; the Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference.
The foundation of Northwestern University can be traced to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders, attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had been known from 1787 to 1803 as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois; the school's nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting. Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they favored a non-sectarian admissions policy, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory by bettering the economy in Evanston. John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois.
The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855. To raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition. Another building, University Hall, was built in 1869 of the same Joliet limestone as the Chicago Water Tower built in 1869, one of the few buildings in the heart of Chicago to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, Frances Willard, who gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first female students in 1869, the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882 becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with existing schools of law and dentistry in Chicago. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago.
As the university increased in wealth and distinction, enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917. Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools. In 1933 a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago rejected. Northwestern became one of the first six universities in the United States to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s. Northwestern played host to the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, demolished and relocated farther north along with the Dearborn Observatory to make room for the Technological Institute. After the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern h
Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby was an American singer and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was a leader in record sales, radio ratings, motion picture grosses from 1931 to 1954, his early career coincided with recording innovations that allowed him to develop an intimate singing style that influenced many male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes, Dean Martin. Yank magazine said that he was "the person who had done the most for the morale of overseas servicemen" during World War II. In 1948, American polls declared him the "most admired man alive", ahead of Jackie Robinson and Pope Pius XII. In 1948, Music Digest estimated that his recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music. Crosby won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Father Chuck O'Malley in the 1944 motion picture Going My Way and was nominated for his reprise of the role in The Bells of St. Mary's opposite Ingrid Bergman the next year, becoming the first of six actors to be nominated twice for playing the same character.
In 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures and audio recording, he was known for his collaborations with longtime friend Bob Hope, starring in the Road to... films from 1940 to 1962. Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. After seeing a demonstration of a German broadcast quality reel-to-reel tape recorder brought to America by John T. Mullin, he invested $50,000 in a California electronics company called Ampex to build copies, he convinced ABC to allow him to tape his shows. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. Through the medium of recording, he constructed his radio programs with the same directorial tools and craftsmanship used in motion picture production, a practice that became an industry standard. In addition to his work with early audio tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, co-owned the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team.
Crosby was born on May 3, 1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in a house his father built at 1112 North J Street. In 1906, his family moved to Spokane and in 1913, his father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue; the house sits on the campus of Gonzaga University. It functions today as a museum housing over 200 artifacts from his life and career, including his Oscar, he was the fourth of seven children: brothers Laurence Earl, Everett Nathaniel, Edward John, George Robert. His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby, a bookkeeper, Catherine Helen "Kate", his mother was a second generation Irish-American. His father was of English descent. Through another line on his father's side, Crosby is descended from Mayflower passenger William Brewster. On November 8, 1937, after Lux Radio Theatre's adaptation of She Loves Me Not, Joan Blondell asked Crosby how he got his nickname: Crosby: "Well, I'll tell you, back in the knee-britches day, when I was a wee little tyke, a mere broth of a lad, as we say in Spokane, I used to totter around the streets, with a gun on each hip, my favorite after school pastime was a game known as "Cops and Robbers", I didn't care which side I was on, when a cop or robber came into view, I would haul out my trusty six-shooters, made of wood, loudly exclaim bing! bing!, as my luckless victim fell clutching his side, I would shout bing! bing!, I would let him have it again, as his friends came to his rescue, shooting as they came, I would shout bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing!"Blondell: "I'm surprised they didn't call you "Killer" Crosby!
Now tell me another story, Grandpa! Crosby: "No, so help me, it's the truth, ask Mister De Mille."De Mille: "I'll vouch for it, Bing."That story was pure whimsy for dramatic effect and the truth is that a neighbor - Valentine Hobart - named him "Bingo from Bingville" after a comic feature in the local paper called "The Bingville Bugle" which the young Harry liked. In time, Bingo got shortened to Bing. In 1917, Crosby took a summer job as property boy at Spokane's "Auditorium," where he witnessed some of the finest acts of the day, including Al Jolson, who held him spellbound with ad libbing and parodies of Hawaiian songs, he described Jolson's delivery as "electric."Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. He did not earn a degree; as a freshman, he played on the university's baseball team. The university granted him an honorary doctorate in 1937. Today, Gonzaga University houses a large collection of photographs and other material related to Crosby.
In 1923, Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of high school students a few years younger than himself. Al Rinker, Miles Rinker, James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, who performed at dances both for high school students and club-goers; the group disbanded after two years. Crosby and Al Rinker obtained work at the Clemmer Theatre in Spokane. Crosby was a member of a vocal trio called'The Three Harmo
Dame Julie Andrews, is an English actress and author. Andrews, a child actress and singer, appeared in the West End in 1948 and made her Broadway debut in The Boy Friend. Billed as “Britain’s youngest prima donna”, she rose to prominence starring in Broadway musicals such as My Fair Lady playing Eliza Doolittle, Camelot playing Queen Guinevere. In 1957, Andrews starred in the premiere of Rodgers and Hammerstein's written-for-television musical Cinderella, a live, network broadcast seen by over 100 million viewers. Andrews made her feature film debut in Mary Poppins, won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the title role, she starred in The Sound of Music, playing Maria von Trapp, won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical. Between 1964 and 1986, she starred in The Americanization of Emily, Torn Curtain, Thoroughly Modern Millie, Star!, The Tamarind Seed, 10, Victor/Victoria, That's Life! and Duet for One. In 2000, Andrews was made a Dame by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the performing arts.
In 2002, she was ranked #59 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. In 2003, she revisited her first Broadway success, this time as a stage director, with a revival of The Boy Friend. From 2001 to 2004, Andrews starred in The Princess Diaries and The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement. From 2004 to 2010, she lent her voice to the Shrek animated films and Despicable Me. Andrews has won an Academy Award, a BAFTA, five Golden Globes, three Grammys, two Emmys, the Screen Actors Guild Lifetime Achievement Award, the Kennedy Center Honors Award, the Disney Legends Award. Apart from her musical career, she is an author of children's books and has published an autobiography, Home: A Memoir of My Early Years. Julia Elizabeth Wells was born on 1 October 1935 in Walton-on-Thames, England, her mother, Barbara Ward Wells was born in Chertsey and married Edward Charles "Ted" Wells, a teacher of metalwork and woodwork in 1932. However, Andrews was conceived as a result of an affair. Andrews discovered her true parentage from her mother in 1950, although it was not publicly disclosed until her 2008 autobiography.
With the outbreak of World War II, Barbara and Ted Wells went their separate ways and were soon divorced. Each remarried: Barbara to Ted Andrews, in 1943, Ted Wells in 1944, to Winifred Maud Birkhead, a war widow and former hairstylist working a lathe at a war work factory that employed them both in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. Ted Wells assisted with evacuating children to Surrey during the Blitz, while Barbara joined Ted Andrews in entertaining the troops through the Entertainments National Service Association. Andrews lived with Ted Wells and her brother John in Surrey. In 1940, Ted Wells sent young Julia to live with her mother and stepfather, who the elder Wells thought would be better able to provide for his talented daughter's artistic training. According to her 2008 autobiography Home, while Julie had been used to calling Ted Andrews "Uncle Ted", her mother suggested it would be more appropriate to refer to her stepfather as "Pop", while her father remained "Dad" or "Daddy" to her. Julie disliked this change.
The Andrews family was "very poor and we lived in a bad slum area of London," Andrews recalled, adding, "That was a black period in my life." According to Andrews, her stepfather was violent and an alcoholic. Ted Andrews twice, while drunk, tried to get into bed with his stepdaughter, resulting in Andrews fitting a lock on her door; as the stage career of Ted and Barbara Andrews improved, they were able to afford to move to better surroundings, first to Beckenham and as the war ended, back to the Andrews' hometown of Hersham. The Andrews family took up residence at the Old Meuse, in West Grove, Hersham, a house where Andrews' maternal grandmother had served as a maid. Andrews' stepfather sponsored lessons for her, first at the Cone-Ripman School, an independent arts educational school in London with concert soprano and voice instructor Madame Lilian Stiles-Allen. "She had an enormous influence on me", Andrews said of Stiles-Allen, adding, "She was my third mother – I've got more mothers and fathers than anyone in the world."
In her memoir Julie Andrews – My Star Pupil, Stiles-Allen records, "The range and tone of Julie's voice amazed me... she had possessed the rare gift of absolute pitch", though Andrews herself refutes this in her 2008 autobiography Home. According to Andrews, "Madame was sure that I could do Mozart and Rossini, but, to be honest, I never was". Of her own voice, she says, "I had a pure, thin voice, a four-octave range – dogs would come from miles around." After Cone-Ripman School, Andrews continued her academic education at the nearby Woodbrook School, a local state school in Beckenham. Beginning in 1945, for the next two years, Julie Andrews performed spontaneously and unbilled on stage with her parents. "Then came the day when I was told I must go to bed in the afternoon because I was going to be allowed to sing with Mummy and Pop in the evening," Andrews explained. She would stand on a beer crate to sing into the microphone, sometimes a solo or as a duet with her stepfather, while her mother played piano.
"It must have been ghastly, but it seemed to go down all right."Julie Andrews gained her big break when her stepfather introduced her to Val Parnell, whose Moss Empires controlled prominent venues in London. Andrews made her professional solo debut at the London Hippodrome singing the difficult aria "J
The George Foster Peabody Awards program, named for the American businessman and philanthropist George Peabody, honor the most powerful and invigorating stories in television and online media. Programs are recognized in seven categories: news, documentaries, children's programming, interactive programming, public service. Peabody Award winners include radio and television stations, online media, producing organizations, individuals from around the world. Established in 1940 by a committee of the National Association of Broadcasters, the Peabody Award was created to honor excellence in radio broadcasting, it is the oldest major electronic media award in the United States and some say the most prestigious, sometimes competing for recognition with the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award. Final Peabody Award winners are selected unanimously by the program's Board of Jurors. Reflecting excellence in quality storytelling, rather than popularity or commercial success, Peabody Awards are distributed annually to 30 out of 60 finalists culled from more than 1,000 entries.
Because submissions are accepted from a wide variety of sources and styles, deliberations seek "Excellence On Its Own Terms". Each entry is evaluated on the achievement of standards established within its own context. Entries, for which a US$350 fee is required, are self-selected by those making submissions. In 1938, the National Association of Broadcasters formed a committee to recognize outstanding achievement in radio broadcasting. Committee member Lambdin Kay, public-service director for WSB radio in Atlanta, Georgia, at the time, is credited for creating the award, named for businessman and philanthropist George Foster Peabody, who donated the funds that made the awards possible. Fellow WSB employee Lessie Smithgall introduced Lambdin to John E. Drewry, of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, who endorsed the idea; the Peabody Award was established in 1940 with the Grady College of Journalism as its permanent home. The Peabody Awards were issued only for radio programming, but television awards were introduced in 1948.
In the late 1990s additional categories for material distributed via the World Wide Web were added. Materials created for theatrical motion picture release are not eligible; the Peabody Awards judging process is unusually rigorous. Each year, more than 1,000 entries are evaluated by some 30 committees composed of a number of faculty and students from the University of Georgia and other higher education institutions across the country; each committee is charged with screening or listening to a small number of entries and delivering written recommendations to the Peabody Board of Jurors, a ~17-member panel of scholars and media-industry professionals. Board members discuss recommended entries as well as their own selections at intensive preliminary meetings in California and Texas; the Board convenes at the University of Georgia in early April for final screenings and deliberations. Each entrant is judged on its own merit, only unanimously selected programs receive a Peabody Award. For many years, there was no set number of awards issued.
However, in 2016 the program instituted the Peabody 30, representing the best programs out of a field of 60 nominees. Prior to this, the all-time record for Peabody Award recipients in a single year was 46 in 2013. George Foster Peabody, namesake of the awards, was a successful investment banker who devoted much of his fortune to education and social enterprise. Lambdin Kay was the awards chairman for The National Association of Broadcasters when he was asked to create a prize to honor the nation's premier radio programs and performances. John E. Drewry was the first dean of the University of Georgia's Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, he accepted the position of dean when it was created in 1940. That same year he helped Lambdin Kay, general manager of Atlanta's WSB Radio, create the Peabody Awards recognizing excellence in broadcasting. Dr. Worth McDougald served as Director of the Peabody Awards program from 1963 until his retirement in 1991. Barry Sherman was the Director of the George Foster Peabody Awards program at the University of Georgia from 1991 until his death in 2000.
Horace Newcomb held the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia from 2001 to 2013. Jeffrey P. Jones succeeded Horace Newcomb in July 2013 as the Lambdin Kay Chair for the Peabodys in the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia; each spring, the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors announce award recipients for work released during the previous year. Traditionally, the winners' announcements have been made via a simple press release and/or a press conference. In recent years, organizers have taken to television to reveal some Peabody Award recipients in an effort to expand public awareness of the awards. An April 2014 segment of CBS This Morning included an announcement of 2013 Peabody winners. In April 2015, the 2014 Peabodys were revealed over an 8-day period, with the entertainment-based recipients revealed on ABC's Good Morning America. Formal presentation of the Peabody Awards are traditionally held in early June.
For many years, the awards were given during a luncheon in New York City. The ceremony moved to a red carpet evening event for the first time on May 31, 2015, with Fred Armisen serving as host. Several famous names have served as Peabody Awards ceremony hosts over the years, among them Walter Cronkite, Lesley Stahl, Jackie Gleason, Jon Stewart, Morley Safer, Cr
David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians for his innovative work during the 1970s, his career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, with his music and stagecraft having a significant impact on popular music. During his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million albums worldwide, made him one of the world's best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded ten platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, released eleven number-one albums. In the US, he received nine gold certifications, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. "Space Oddity" became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969.
After a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust. The character was spearheaded by the success of his single "Starman" and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, which won him widespread popularity. In 1975, Bowie's style shifted radically towards a sound he characterised as "plastic soul" alienating many of his UK devotees but garnering him his first major US crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the album Young Americans. In 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth, directed by Nicolas Roeg, released Station to Station; the following year, he further confounded musical expectations with the electronic-inflected album Low, the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno that came to be known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Heroes" and Lodger followed. After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes", its parent album Scary Monsters, "Under Pressure", a 1981 collaboration with Queen.
He reached his commercial peak in 1983 with Let's Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle, he continued acting. He stopped touring after 2004 and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006. In 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with The Next Day, he remained musically active until he died of liver cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. Bowie was born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 in London, his mother, Margaret Mary "Peggy", was born at Shorncliffe Army Camp near Kent. Her paternal grandparents were Irish immigrants, she worked as a waitress at a cinema in Royal Tunbridge Wells. His father, Haywood Stenton "John" Jones, was from Doncaster, worked as a promotions officer for the children's charity Barnardo's; the family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, on the boundary between Brixton and Stockwell in the south London borough of Lambeth. Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler.
In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to Bromley. Two years he started attending Burnt Ash Junior School, his voice was considered "adequate" by the school choir, he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. At the age of nine, his dancing during the newly-introduced music and movement classes was strikingly imaginative: teachers called his interpretations "vividly artistic" and his poise "astonishing" for a child; the same year, his interest in music was further stimulated when his father brought home a collection of American 45s by artists including the Teenagers, the Platters, Fats Domino, Elvis Presley, Little Richard. Upon listening to Little Richard's song "Tutti Frutti", Bowie would say that he had "heard God". Bowie was first impressed with Presley when he saw his cousin dance to "Hound Dog". By the end of the following year, he had taken up the ukulele and tea-chest bass, begun to participate in skiffle sessions with friends, had started to play the piano. Like someone from another planet".
After taking his eleven-plus exam at the conclusion of his Burnt Ash Junior education, Bowie went to Bromley Technical High School. It was an unusual technical school, as biographer Christopher Sandford wrote: Despite its status it was, by the time David arrived in 1958, as rich in arcane ritual as any public school. There were houses named after eighteenth-century statesmen like Wilberforce. There was a uniform, an elaborate system of rewards and punishments. There was an accent on languages and design, where a collegiate atmosphere flourished under the tutorship of Owen Frampton. In David's account, Frampton led through force of persona
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Shirley MacLaine is an American film and theater actress, dancer and author. An Academy Award winner, MacLaine received the 40th AFI Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute in 2012, received the Kennedy Center Honors for her lifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts in 2013, she is known for her New Age beliefs, has an interest in spirituality and reincarnation. She has written a series of autobiographical works that describe these beliefs, document her world travels, describe her Hollywood career, her first film was Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble With Harry in 1955. A six-time Academy Award nominee, MacLaine received a nomination for Best Documentary Feature for The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir, Best Actress nominations for Some Came Running, The Apartment, Irma la Douce, The Turning Point, before winning Best Actress for Terms of Endearment, she twice won the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress, for Ask Any Girl, The Apartment. She has won five competitive Golden Globe Awards, received the Golden Globe Cecil B.
DeMille Award at the 1998 ceremony. Named after actress Shirley Temple, Shirley MacLean Beaty was born on April 24, 1934, in Richmond, Virginia, her father, Ira Owens Beaty, was a professor of psychology, public school administrator, real estate agent, her mother, Kathlyn Corinne, was a drama teacher from Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. MacLaine's younger brother is the actor and director Warren Beatty, their parents raised them as Baptists. Her uncle was a Communist member of the Ontario legislature in the 1940s. While MacLaine was still a child, Ira Beaty moved his family from Richmond to Norfolk, to Arlington and Waverly back to Arlington taking a position at Arlington's Thomas Jefferson Junior High School in 1945. MacLaine played baseball on an all-boys team, holding the record for most home runs, which earned her the nickname "Powerhouse". During the 1950s, the family resided in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington; as a toddler, she had weak ankles and would fall over with the slightest misstep, so her mother decided to enroll her in ballet class at the Washington School of Ballet at the age of three.
This was the beginning of her interest in performing. Motivated by ballet, she never missed a class. In classical romantic pieces like Romeo and Juliet and The Sleeping Beauty, she always played the boys' roles due to being the tallest in the group and the absence of males in the class, she had a substantial female role as the fairy godmother in Cinderella. She decided against making a career of professional ballet because she had grown too tall and was unable to acquire perfect technique, she explained that she didn't have the ideal body type, lacking the requisite "beautifully constructed feet" of high arches, high insteps and a flexible ankle. Realizing ballet's propensity to be too all-consuming, limiting, she moved on to other forms of dancing and musical theater, she attended Washington-Lee High School, where she was on the cheerleading squad and acted in school theatrical productions. The summer before her senior year of high school, MacLaine went to New York City to try acting on Broadway, having minor success in the chorus of Oklahoma!
After she graduated, she returned and was in the dancing ensemble of the Broadway production of Me and Juliet. Afterwards became an understudy to actress Carol Haney in The Pajama Game. A few months after, with Haney still injured, film producer Hal B. Wallis saw MacLaine's performance, signed her to work for Paramount Pictures. MacLaine made her film debut in Alfred Hitchcock's The Trouble with Harry, for which she won the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress; this was followed by her role in the Martin and Lewis film Artists and Models. Soon afterwards, she had a role in Around the World in 80 Days; this was followed by a leading role in Some Came Running. Her second Oscar nomination came two years for The Apartment, starring with Jack Lemmon; the film won five Oscars, including Best Director for Billy Wilder. She said, "I thought I would win for The Apartment, but Elizabeth Taylor had a tracheotomy." She starred in The Children's Hour starring Audrey Hepburn and James Garner, based on the play by Lillian Hellman, directed by William Wyler.
She was again nominated, this time for Irma la Douce, which reunited her with Lemmon. Don Siegel, her director on Two Mules for Sister Sara, said of her: "It's hard to feel any great warmth to her. She's too unfeminine, has too much balls. She's very hard." At the peak of her success, she replaced Marilyn Monroe in Irma la Douce and What a Way to Go!. Other films from this period include Gambit, with Michael Caine, the film version of the musical Sweet Charity, based on the script for Fellini's Nights of Cabiria released a decade earli