Hilary Erhard Duff is an American actress, songwriter, designer and author. Duff began her acting career at a young age and became labeled a teen idol as the title character of the hit television series Lizzie McGuire and in the theatrical film based on the series, The Lizzie McGuire Movie. Thereafter, Duff appeared in numerous films, with leading roles in Agent Cody Banks, Cheaper by the Dozen, A Cinderella Story, Cheaper by the Dozen 2. After experiencing commercial and critical failure in Material Girls, Duff began appearing in independent films such as War, Inc. According to Greta, The Haunting of Sharon Tate, she was an executive producer on the latter two films. Since 2015, she has starred as Kelsey Peters on the TV Land comedy-drama series Younger, for which she has received nominations for People's Choice Awards in 2016 and 2017. Duff first came to prominence in music after releasing her Christmas-themed debut studio album Santa Claus Lane through Walt Disney Records, she enjoyed significant commercial success and platinum and gold certifications with her subsequent studio albums released through Hollywood Records, including Metamorphosis, Hilary Duff, Most Wanted, Dignity.
Following a hiatus from music, Duff signed with RCA Records for her fifth studio album Breathe In. Breathe Out. Which debuted in the top 5 positions in North America. In addition to music and acting, Duff has co-authored a trilogy of novels, beginning with Elixir, which became a New York Times best seller, followed by the sequels Devoted and True, her success in the entertainment industry led her to venture into business with fashion lines of her own such as Stuff by Duff, Femme for DKNY and most the "Muse x Hilary Duff" collection, a collaborative effort with GlassesUSA. She has invested in a number of businesses ranging from cosmetics to children products, she has been the subject of media attention throughout her career, with interest focusing on her romantic relationships and public image her relationships with Aaron Carter and Joel Madden when she was a teenager. Duff was married to former professional hockey player Mike Comrie from 2010 to 2016, with whom she shares a son. Duff has been described as an inspiration by subsequent Disney teen stars such as Miley Cyrus, Demi Lovato, Bridgit Mendler, Selena Gomez, has sold an estimated 15 million records since her debut in 2002.
Duff was born on September 1987, in Houston, Texas. Her parents are Robert Erhard Duff, a partner in a chain of convenience stores, Susan Colleen, a homemaker turned film and music producer. Duff has one older sister named Haylie, she was raised between the locations of her father's convenience stores. Encouraged by their mother, both Hilary and her sister enrolled in acting and ballet classes; the siblings earned roles in local theater productions, participated in a touring BalletMet production of The Nutcracker in San Antonio. Interested in the pursuit of show business, the Duff sisters and their mother moved to California in 1993, while their father stayed in Houston to take care of his business; the sisters were cast in many television commercials. Due to her acting career, Duff was home-schooled from the age of eight; the pair modeled for various clothing brands. Duff stated, "My sister and I showed an interest in and dedication, was like,'How can I tell my kids no?' It's the same as kids. Parents support them and push them."During her initial acting years, Duff played minor roles, such as her uncredited part in the Hallmark Entertainment western miniseries True Women and as an uncredited extra in the ensemble comedy-drama Playing by Heart.
The same year, Duff landed her first major role as Wendy in Casper Meets Wendy, based on the Harvey Comics characters. After appearing in the supporting role of Ellie in the television film The Soul Collector, Duff received a Young Artist Award for Best Performance in a TV Movie or Pilot. In March 2000, Duff appeared as a sick child in the CBS medical drama series Chicago Hope, she was next cast as one of the children in the pilot episode of the NBC comedy series Daddio. Her Daddio co-star Michael Chiklis stated, "After working with her the first day, I remember saying to my wife,'This young girl is gonna be a movie star.' She was at ease with herself and comfortable in her own skin." However, producers dropped Duff from the cast prior to the airing of the show. A week after being dropped from Daddio, Duff landed the title role of a newly developed Disney Channel series, Lizzie McGuire. Lizzie McGuire premiered on January 12, 2001 and became a ratings hit, with an estimated 2.3 million viewers per episode.
Duff became labeled as a teen idol and household name within the show's pre-teen adolescent target demographic. Disney began marketing the series through soundtracks, dolls and video games based on Duff's character. Duff made her feature film debut in Human Nature, in which she portrayed the younger version of Patricia Arquette's character. Duff starred in the 2002 Disney Channel television film Cadet Kelly, which became the network's most watched program in its 19-year history. Duff began making appearances on various soundtracks for the Disney channel, recording a cover of the Brooke McClymont song "I Can't Wait" for the soundtrack to Lizzie McGu
Desperate Housewives is an American mystery comedy-drama television series created by Marc Cherry and produced by ABC Studios and Cherry Productions. It aired for eight seasons on ABC from October 3, 2004 until May 13, 2012. Executive producer Cherry served as showrunner. Other executive producers since the fourth season included Bob Daily, George W. Perkins, John Pardee, Joey Murphy, David Grossman, Larry Shaw. Set on Wisteria Lane, a street in the fictional town of Fairview in the fictional Eagle State, Desperate Housewives follows the lives of a group of women as seen through the eyes of their late friend and neighbor who committed suicide in the pilot episode; the storyline covers thirteen years of the women's lives over eight seasons, set between the years 2004–2008, 2013–2017. They work through domestic struggles and family life, while facing the secrets and mysteries hidden behind the doors of their—on the surface—beautiful and perfect suburban neighborhood; the series features an ensemble cast, headed by Teri Hatcher as Susan Mayer, Felicity Huffman as Lynette Scavo, Marcia Cross as Bree Van de Kamp, Eva Longoria as Gabrielle Solis.
Brenda Strong narrates the series as the late Mary Alice Young, appearing sporadically in flashbacks or dream sequences. Desperate Housewives was well received by critics alike, it won multiple Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild Awards. From the 2004–05 through the 2008–09 television seasons, its first five seasons were rated amongst the top ten most-watched series. In 2007, it was reported to be the most popular show in its demographic worldwide, with an audience of 120 million and was reported as the third most watched television series in a study of ratings in twenty countries. In 2012, it remained the most-watched comedy series internationally based on data from Eurodata TV Worldwide, which measured ratings across five continents. Moreover, it was the third highest revenue earning series for 2010, with $2.74 million per half an hour. The show was ranked at number fifty-six on Entertainment Weekly's "New TV Classics" list. In 2011, it was confirmed. By the end of the series, it had surpassed Charmed as the longest running hour-long television series featuring all female leads by two episodes.
The first season premiered on October 3, 2004, introduces the four central characters of the show: Susan Mayer, Lynette Scavo, Bree Van de Kamp and Gabrielle Solis, as well as their families and neighbors on Wisteria Lane. The main mystery of the season is the unexpected suicide of Mary Alice Young, the involvement of her husband Paul Young and their son Zach in the events leading up to it. Susan fights Edie Britt for the affection of new neighbor Mike Delfino, Lynette struggles to cope with her demanding children, Bree fights to save her marriage to Rex Van de Kamp, Gabrielle tries to prevent her husband Carlos Solis from discovering that she is having an affair with their gardener, John Rowland; the second season premiered on September 25, 2005, its central mystery is that of new neighbor Betty Applewhite, who moved onto Wisteria Lane in the middle of the night. She keeps some prisoner in her basement. Throughout the season, Bree tries to cope with being a widow, unknowingly begins dating the man who poisoned her husband, fights alcoholism, is unable to prevent the gap between her and her son Andrew Van de Kamp from growing to extremes.
She deals with her daughter Danielle's new romance with Matthew Applewhite. Susan's love life becomes more complicated as her ex-husband Karl Mayer is engaged to Edie and has started to lean towards Susan. Lynette goes back to her career in advertising while her husband Tom Scavo becomes a stay-at-home father, Gabrielle decides to be faithful to Carlos, begins preparations to have a child. Paul is framed and sent to jail not for the murder he committed in the previous season, but for a fake one; the third season premiered on September 24, 2006. In the third season, Bree marries Orson Hodge, whose past and involvement with a discovered dead body becomes the main mystery of the season. Meanwhile, Lynette has to adjust to the arrival of Tom's unknown daughter and her mother to the family; the Scavos experience tension as Tom wants to start a pizzeria. Gabrielle goes through a rough divorce, but finds new love in Fairview's new mayor. After being run over by Orson in the previous season finale, Mike falls into a coma and suffers from amnesia when he wakes up.
Edie sees her chance to make her move on Mike, her family relations are explored throughout the season. Susan loses hope that Mike's memory will return and in the process moves on to a handsome Englishman whose wife is in a coma, while her daughter Julie Mayer starts dating Edie's nephew. Elderly neighbor Karen McCluskey hides something in her freezer. A shooting at the local grocery store leaves two characters dead and changes everyone's lives forever; the fourth season premiered on September 30, 2007, its main mystery revolves around new neighbor Katherine Mayfair and her family, who return to Wisteria Lane after twelve years away. Lynette battles cancer.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter. The original television series aired from September 1993 to May 19, 2002 on Fox; the program spanned nine seasons, with 202 episodes. A short tenth season consisting of six episodes premiered on January 24, 2016, concluded on February 22, 2016. Following the ratings success of this revival, Fox announced in April 2017 that The X-Files would be returning for an eleventh season of ten episodes; the season premiered on January 3, 2018, concluding on March 21, 2018. In addition to the television series, two feature films have been released: The 1998 film The X-Files, which took place as part of the TV series continuity, the stand-alone film The X-Files: I Want to Believe, released in 2008, six years after the original television run had ended; the series revolves around Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder, Dana Scully who investigate X-Files: marginalized, unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena.
Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Scully, a medical doctor and a skeptic, is assigned to make scientific analyses of Mulder's discoveries to debunk his work and thus return him to mainstream cases. Early in the series, both agents become pawns in a larger conflict and come to trust only each other and a few select people; the agents discover an agenda of the government to keep the existence of extraterrestrial life a secret. They develop a close relationship which begins as a platonic friendship, but becomes a romance by the end of the series. In addition to the series-spanning story arc, "monster of the week" episodes form two-thirds of all episodes; the X-Files was inspired by earlier television series which featured elements of suspense and speculative fiction, including The Twilight Zone, Night Gallery, Tales from the Darkside, Twin Peaks, Kolchak: The Night Stalker. When creating the main characters, Carter sought to reverse gender stereotypes by making Mulder a believer and Scully a skeptic.
The first seven seasons featured Anderson equally. In the eighth and ninth seasons, Anderson took precedence. New main characters were introduced: FBI agents John Doggett and Monica Reyes. Mulder and Scully's boss, Assistant Director Walter Skinner became a main character; the first five seasons of The X-Files were filmed and produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, before moving to Los Angeles to accommodate Duchovny. The series returned to Vancouver to film The X-Files: I Want to Believe as well as the tenth and eleventh seasons of the series; the X-Files was a hit for the Fox network and received positive reviews, although its long-term story arc was criticized near the conclusion. Considered a cult series, it turned into a pop culture touchstone that tapped into public mistrust of governments and large institutions and embraced conspiracy theories and spirituality. Both the series itself and lead actors Duchovny and Anderson received multiple awards and nominations, by its conclusion the show was the longest-running science fiction series in U.
S. television history. The series spawned a franchise which includes Millennium and The Lone Gunmen spin-offs, two theatrical films and accompanying merchandise; the X-Files follows personal lives of FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Mulder is a talented profiler and strong believer in the supernatural, he is adamant about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life and its presence on Earth. This set of beliefs earns him the nickname "Spooky Mulder" and an assignment to a little-known department that deals with unsolved cases, known as the X-Files, his belief in the paranormal springs from the claimed abduction of his sister Samantha Mulder by extraterrestrials when Mulder was 12. Her abduction drives Mulder throughout most of the series; because of this, as well as more nebulous desires for vindication and the revelation of truths kept hidden by human authorities, Mulder struggles to maintain objectivity in his investigations. Agent Scully is a foil for Mulder in this regard.
As a medical doctor and natural skeptic, Scully approaches cases with complete detachment when Mulder, despite his considerable training, loses his objectivity. She is partnered with Mulder so that she can debunk Mulder's nonconforming theories supplying logical, scientific explanations for the cases' unexplainable phenomena. Although she is able to offer scientific alternatives to Mulder's deductions, she is able to refute them completely. Over the course of the series, she becomes dissatisfied with her own ability to approach the cases scientifically. After Mulder's abduction at the hands of aliens in the seventh season finale "Requiem", Scully becomes a "reluctant believer" who manages to explain the paranormal with science. Various episodes deal with the relationship between Mulder and Scully platonic, but that develops romantically. Mulder and Scully are joined by John Doggett and Monica Reyes late in the series, after Mulder is abducted. Doggett replaces him as Scully's partner and helps her search for him involving Reyes, of whom Doggett had professional knowledge.
The initial run of The X-Files ends when Mulder is secretly subjected to a military tribunal for breaking into a top secret military facility and viewing plans for alien invasion and colonization of Earth. He is found guilty, but he escapes punishment with the help of the other agents and he and Scully become fugitives; as the show progress
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Parker Lewis Can't Lose
Parker Lewis Can't Lose is an American teen sitcom that aired on FOX from September 1990 to June 1993. During the last season, the series sported the simpler title Parker Lewis; the series was produced by Columbia Pictures Television and depicts the tribulations of the title character Parker Lewis, a Santo Domingo High School student, for whom nothing is impossible. It was influenced by the feature film Ferris Bueller's Day Off. In competition, NBC debuted the film's TV spinoff Ferris Bueller, but it only lasted 13 episodes though it aired during the same month as Parker Lewis; the title character Parker Lewis narrates in shows. Just like his best friends Jerry Steiner and Mikey Randall and Parker's girlfriend Annie Sloan, his prime concern is achieving and maintaining coolness. However, their efforts are thwarted by Parker's little sister Shelly and principal Grace Musso. Apart from various aspects of teenage life, embedded in a surreal, living-cartoon-like quality and the clever camera angles and filming techniques, an episode contains more or less subtle references to movies and celebrities.
The surrealism was toned down in the series' final season, with Parker acknowledging this fact by breaking the 4th wall and'canceling' a dissolving pixel scene. The 3,100 students at Santo Domingo High School are called Flamingos, after their school mascot, the school motto is "E Pluribus Flamingus" mimicking the famous USA's motto E Pluribus Unum. Parker Lloyd Lewis – A smart guy with a penchant for garish shirts and cutting classes, Parker has a plan up his sleeve, in turn it involves outsmarting someone else. Plans put into effect begin with the command: "Synchronize Swatches." Parker is famous for his catch phrase, "Not a problem," which he says when faced with trouble. He and his two "buds" have their high-tech headquarters hidden above the gym. In the final season, Parker settles down with one girl and appears more mature and less reliant on his "Not a problem" attitude. Michael Patrick "Mikey" Randall – A rock and roll rebel without a cause and by far the most driven of the trio, he quotes or paraphrases famous songs.
Mikey at one point considered dropping out of school at Santo Domingo HS when a prank by Shelly causes Mikey to unknowingly play a love song he composed for a girl for whom he had feelings to be broadcast before the entire school, resulting in embarrassment for him. Jerry Steiner – A stereotypical nerd, in the first two seasons, he wears a trench coat from which he produces any object imaginable fixed inside with Velcro, he addresses everyone formally by last name, e.g. "Mr. Lewis", "Mr. Randall", "Mr. Kubiac", or collectively as "sirs". At the end of the credits of the pilot episode, Jerry hid in the locker next to Parker's, talking endlessly to Parker through the door, not knowing that he had left, causing him to plaintively call out: "Mr. Lewis? Mr. Randall? Mr. Phillips? Hello?" Jerry is known to sometimes utter eek! Like a mouse when in danger. One notable episode dealt with Parker and Mikey confiscating Jerry's trench coat for him to stop hiding and get to know a female nerd as a potential girlfriend.
Grace Musso – Principal of Santo Domingo High, she is Parker's arch-nemesis. She wants to get Parker expelled, she breaks the glass on her office door when she makes her distinctive "thumb swoosh" gesture. She has a racy side, sometimes exposed, she was portrayed as a spinster at first, but seemed to have a skill in men, one time having dated an officer of each of the armed forces. She has many secrets which she would rather be kept quiet, such as living in a $600,000 house on a $38,000 a year salary, which Parker uses as the necessity arises. However, Parker's blackmail ideas have sometimes backfired on him; when a tougher principal is brought in to replace her, Parker cannot handle it going "from bad to worse", works to get Musso reinstated. Shelly Ann Lewis – Parker's other nemesis, she is his little sister, who attends the same school as a freshman, she tries to get Parker into trouble. Shelly teams up with Musso if she sees a chance to ruin Parker. Most of the time, she is on friendly terms with Jerry and the two seem to end up in a constant relationship at the end of the series.
Her favorite saying is: "My brother is a dead man!" Whenever she finds an opportunity to bring Parker into an embarrassing situation. She has a tendency to call out "Mom!" when Parker gets one over on her, as seen at the start or end of various programs. Martin Lloyd "Marty" Lewis – Parker's father, he owns a video rental store called Mondo Video with his wife, is helped by Parker and Shelly on weekends, he tries hard to keep some of the coolness that he had in his own school days when he was a self-described "young hoodlum". It is shown that he graduated from Santo Domingo High School, as well, had two friends who were similar to Jerry and Mikey. Martin had played mean pranks on Grace Musso, a classmate of h